Abstract

Data reporting correlated changes, due to learning, in the amplitudes and chronometry of several event-related potentials (ERPs) are compared to neural explanations and predictions of the adaptive resonance theory. The ERP components processing negativity (PN), early positive wave (P120), N200, and P300 covary with model processes of attentional priming and top-down expectancy learning, matching of bottom-up input patterns with learned top-down expectations, mismatch-mediated activation of the orienting subsystem, reset by the orienting subsystem of recognition codes in short-term memory, and direct activation of recognition codes via a bottom-up adaptive filter. These model mechanisms enable a recognition code to be learned in a self-stabilizing fashion in response to an input environment of arbitrary complexity. Thus spatiotemporal correlations among several ERPs during learning provide important evidence in support of postulated neural mechanisms for self-stabilizing self-organization of cognitive recognition codes.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

1986

S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Attention Switching and Temporal Order Information in Short Term Memory,” Mem. Cognit. 14, 451 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Word Recognition and Recall: Attentional Priming, Learning, and Resonance,” Psychol. Rev. 93, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Johnson, “Triarchic Model of P300 Amplitude,” Psychophysiology 23, 367 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Alho, M. Sams, P. Paavilainen, R. Naatanen, “Small Pitch Separation and the Selective-Attention Effect on the ERP,” Psychophysiology 23, 189 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kramer, W. Schneider, A. Fisk, E. Donchin, “The Effects of Practice and Task Structure on Components of the Event-Related Brain Potential,” Psychophysiology 23, 33 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Speech and Language Coding: Developmental Programs, Perceptual Grouping, and Competition for Short Term Memory,” Hum. Neurobiol. 5, 1 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985

S. Grossberg, E. Mingolla, “Neural Dynamics of Perceptual Grouping: Textures, Boundaries, and Emergent Segmentations,” Percept. Psychophys. 38, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

D. Karis, M. Fabiani, E. Donchin, “P300 and Memory: Individual Differences in the von Restorff Effect,” Cognitive Psychol. 16, 177 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Munson, D. S. Ruchkin, W. Ritter, S. Sutton, N. K. Squires, “The Relation of P3b to Prior Events and Future Behavior,” Biol. Psychol. 19, 1 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

Y. C. Okada, L. Kaufman, S. J. Williamson, “The Hippocampal Formation as a Source of the Slow Endogenous Potentials,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 55, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Desmedt, N. Tran Huy, M. Bourguet, “The Cognitive P40, N60, and P100 Components of Somato-Sensory Evoked Potentials and the Earliest Electrical Signs of Sensory Processing in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 56, 272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

R. Johnson, E. Donchin, “Sequential Expectancies and Decision Making in a Changing Environment: an Electrophysiological Approach,” Psychophysiology 19, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, “Processing of Expected and Unexpected Events During Conditioning and Attention: a Psychophysiological Theory,” Psychol. Rev. 89, 529 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, R. Munson, S. Sutton, “P300 and Slow Wave in a Message Consisting of Two Events,” Psychophysiology 19, 629 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, M. Macht, “Manipulation of Event-Related Potentials Manifestation of Information Processing Stages,” Science 218, 909 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Naatanen, “Processing Negativity: an Evoked-Potential Reflection of Selective Attention,” Psychol. Bull. 92, 605 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Naatanen, M. Simpson, N. E. Loveless, “Stimulus Deviance and Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychiatry 14, 53 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

E. Donchin, “Surprise!…Surprise?,” Psychophysiology 18, 493 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rosier, D. Manzey, “Principal Components and Varimax-Rotated Components in Event-Related Potentials Research: Some Remarks on Their Interpretation,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 3 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pritchard, “Psychophysiology of P300,” Psychol. Bull. 89, 506 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Banquet, B. Renault, N. Lesevre, “Effect of Task and Stimulus Probability on Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

J. C. Hansen, S. A. Hillyard, “Endogenous Brain Potentials Associated with Selective Auditory Attention,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 277 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. L. Kietzman, K. Silver, “Slow Wave and P300 in Signal Detection,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 50, 35 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. Stega, “Emitted P300 and Slow Wave Event-Related Potentials in Guessing and Detection Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, “How Does a Brain Build a Cognitive Code?,” Psychol. Rev. 87, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

W. Ritter, R. Simson, G. Herbert, H. G. Vaughan, D. Friedman, “A Brain Event Related to Making a Sensory Discrimination,” Science 203, 1358 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

S. Grossberg, “A Theory of Human Memory: Self-Organization and Performance of Sensory-Motor Codes, Maps, and Plans,” Prog. Theor. Biol. 5, 233 (1978).

E. Courchesne, “Changes in P3 Waves with Event Repetition: Long-Term Effects of Scalp Distribution and Amplitude,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 45, 754 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Naatanen, A. W. Gaillard, S. Mantysalo, “Early Selective Attention Effect on Evoked Potential Reinterpreted,” Acta Psychol. 42, 313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Goodin, K. C. Squires, B. H. Henderson, A. Starr, “An Early Event-Related Cortical Potential,” Psychophysiology 15, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, W. Ritter, “Scalp Topography of Potentials in Auditory and Visual Discrimination Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 42, 528 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Duncan-Johnson, E. Donchin, “On Quantifying Surprise: the Variation in Event-Related Potentials with Subjective Probability,” Psychophysiology 14, 456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

E. Snyder, S. A. Hillyard, “Long-Latency Evoked Potentials to Irrelevant, Deviant Stimuli,” Behav. Biol. 16, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Squires, C. Wickens, N. K. Squires, E. Donchin, “The Effect of Stimulus Sequence on the Waveform of the Cortical Event-Related Potentials,” Science 193, 1142 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, “Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recoding I: Parallel Development and Coding of Neural Feature Detectors,” Biol. Cybern. 23, 121 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, “Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recoding II: Feedback, Expectation, Olfaction, and Illusions,” Biol. Cybern. 23, 187 (1976).
[PubMed]

1975

S. Grossberg, “A Neural Model of Attention, Reinforcement, and Discrimination Learning,” Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 18, 263 (1975).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Squires, K. C. Squires, S. A. Hillyard, “Two Varieties of Long-Latency Positive Waves Evoked by Unpredictable Auditory Stimuli in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 38, 387 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Courchesne, S. A. Hillyard, R. Galambos, “Stimulus Novelty, Task Relevance, and the Visual Evoked Potential in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 131 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

S. A. Hillyard, R. F. Hink, V. L. Schwent, T. W. Picton, “Electrical Signs of Selective Attention in the Human Brain,” Science 182, 177 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Roth, “Auditory Evoked Responses to Unpredictable Stimuli,” Psychophysiology 10, 125 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Roth, B. S. Kopell, “P300—An Orienting Reaction in the Human Auditory Evoked Response,” Percept. Mot. Skills 36, 219 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

P. Tueting, S. Sutton, J. Zubin, “Quantitative Evoked Potential Correlates of the Probability of Events,” Psychophysiology 7, 385 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Ritter, H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, “Orienting and Habituation to Auditory Stimuli: A Study of Short Term Changes in Average Evoked Responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 550 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

S. Sternberg, “High Speed Scanning in Human Memory,” Science 153, 652 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

S. Sutton, M. Braren, J. Zubin, E. R. John, “Evoked Potential Correlates of Uncertainty,” Science 150, 1187 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alho, K.

K. Alho, M. Sams, P. Paavilainen, R. Naatanen, “Small Pitch Separation and the Selective-Attention Effect on the ERP,” Psychophysiology 23, 189 (1986).
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Babb, T. L.

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
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J.-P. Banquet, B. Renault, N. Lesevre, “Effect of Task and Stimulus Probability on Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, M. Smith, “Probability Processing in Depressed Patients,” In Current Trends in Event-Related Potential Research, R. Johnson, R. Parasuraman, J. W. Rohrbaugh, Eds. Current Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl.40, (1987), in press.

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, M. Smith, “Probability Mapping, Task Performance and Learning: an ERP Model,” (1987), submitted for publication.

J.-P. Banquet, N. Lesevre, “Event-Related Potentials in Altered States of Consciousness,” in Motivation, Motor, and Sensory Processes of the Brain: Progress in Brain Research, H. H. Kornhuber, L. Deecke, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 447–453.
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Banquet, J. Baribeau-Braun, N. Lesevre, “Learning of “Single Trial” and “Contextual” Information Processing in an Odd-Ball Paradigm,” in Brain and Information: Event Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984), pp. 162–165.

J.-P. Banquet, F. El Massioui, J. L. Godet, “ERP-RT Chronometry and Learning in Normal and Depressed Subjects,” in Cerebral Psychophysiology: Studies in Event-Related Potentials, W. C. McCallum, R. Zappoli, F. Denoth, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986).

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, “Intuitive Statistics and Related Memory Models,” in Cognitiva 85, Cesta-Afcet, Ed. (publisher, Paris, 1985), pp. 49–56.

Baribeau-Braun, J.

J.-P. Banquet, J. Baribeau-Braun, N. Lesevre, “Learning of “Single Trial” and “Contextual” Information Processing in an Odd-Ball Paradigm,” in Brain and Information: Event Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984), pp. 162–165.

Bourguet, M.

J. E. Desmedt, N. Tran Huy, M. Bourguet, “The Cognitive P40, N60, and P100 Components of Somato-Sensory Evoked Potentials and the Earliest Electrical Signs of Sensory Processing in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 56, 272 (1983).
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S. Sutton, M. Braren, J. Zubin, E. R. John, “Evoked Potential Correlates of Uncertainty,” Science 150, 1187 (1965).
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D. E. Broadbent, “Stimulus Set and Response Set: Two Kinds of Selective Attention,” in Attention: Contemporary Theory and Analysis, D. Mostofsky, Ed. (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1970), pp. 51–60.

Carpenter, G. A.

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “ART 2: Self-Organization of Stable Category Recognition Codes for Analog Input Patterns,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4919 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “A Massively Parallel Architecture for a Self-Organizing Neural Pattern Recognition Machine,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 37, 54 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Category Learning and Recognition: Attention, Memory Consolidation, and Amnesia,” in Brain Structure, Learning, and Memory, J. Davis, R. Newburgh, E. Wegman, Eds. (AAAS Symposium Series, 1987), in press.

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Category Learning and Recognition: Structural Invariants, Reinforcement, and Evoked Potential,” in Pattern Recognition and Concepts in Animals, People, and Machines, M. L. Commons, S. M. Kosslyn, R. J. Herrnstein, Eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1987).

Cohen, M. A.

M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Masking Fields: a Massively Parallel Neural Architecture for Learning, Recognizing, and Predicting Multiple Groupings of Patterned Data,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1866 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Speech and Language Coding: Developmental Programs, Perceptual Grouping, and Competition for Short Term Memory,” Hum. Neurobiol. 5, 1 (1986).
[PubMed]

M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Unitized Recognition Codes for Parts and Wholes: the Unique Cue in Configural Discriminations,” in Pattern Recognition and Concepts in Animals, People, and Machines, M. L. Commons, S. M. Kosslyn, R. J. Herrnstein, Eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1987).

Cooper, R.

S. H. Curry, R. Cooper, W. C. McCallum, P. V. Popock, D. Papakostopoulos, S. Skidmore, P. Newton, “The Principal Components of Auditory Target Detection,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 79–117.
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W. Ritter, H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, “Orienting and Habituation to Auditory Stimuli: A Study of Short Term Changes in Average Evoked Responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 550 (1968).
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E. Courchesne, “Changes in P3 Waves with Event Repetition: Long-Term Effects of Scalp Distribution and Amplitude,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 45, 754 (1978).
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E. Courchesne, S. A. Hillyard, R. Galambos, “Stimulus Novelty, Task Relevance, and the Visual Evoked Potential in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 131 (1975).
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Crandall, P.

N. K. Squires, E. Halgren, C. Wilson, P. Crandall, “Human Endogenous Limbic Potentials: Cross-Modality and Depth-Surface Comparison in Epileptic Subjects,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 217–232.
[CrossRef]

Crandall, P. H.

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
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Curry, S. H.

S. H. Curry, R. Cooper, W. C. McCallum, P. V. Popock, D. Papakostopoulos, S. Skidmore, P. Newton, “The Principal Components of Auditory Target Detection,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 79–117.
[CrossRef]

Desmedt, J. E.

J. E. Desmedt, N. Tran Huy, M. Bourguet, “The Cognitive P40, N60, and P100 Components of Somato-Sensory Evoked Potentials and the Earliest Electrical Signs of Sensory Processing in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 56, 272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Kramer, W. Schneider, A. Fisk, E. Donchin, “The Effects of Practice and Task Structure on Components of the Event-Related Brain Potential,” Psychophysiology 23, 33 (1986).
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D. Karis, M. Fabiani, E. Donchin, “P300 and Memory: Individual Differences in the von Restorff Effect,” Cognitive Psychol. 16, 177 (1984).
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R. Johnson, E. Donchin, “Sequential Expectancies and Decision Making in a Changing Environment: an Electrophysiological Approach,” Psychophysiology 19, 183 (1982).
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E. Donchin, “Surprise!…Surprise?,” Psychophysiology 18, 493 (1981).
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C. C. Duncan-Johnson, E. Donchin, “On Quantifying Surprise: the Variation in Event-Related Potentials with Subjective Probability,” Psychophysiology 14, 456 (1977).
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K. C. Squires, C. Wickens, N. K. Squires, E. Donchin, “The Effect of Stimulus Sequence on the Waveform of the Cortical Event-Related Potentials,” Science 193, 1142 (1976).
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E. Donchin, W. Ritter, W. C. McCallum, “Cognitive Psychophysiology: the Endogenous Components of the ERP,” in Brain Event-Related Potentials in Man, E. Callaway, P. Tueting, S. Koslov, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 349–441.

E. Donchin et al., “The Orienting Reflex and P300,” in Brain and Information: Event-Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

E. Donchin, E. Heffley, “Multivariate Analysis of Event-Related Potential Data: A Tutorial Review,” in Multidisciplinary Perspectives in Event-Related Potential Research, D. A. Otto, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978), pp. 552–572.

E. Donchin, J. B. Isreal, “Event Related Brain Potentials and Psychological Theory,” in Motivation, Motor, and Sensory Processes of the Brain: Progress in Brain Research, H. H. Kornhuber, L. Deecke, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 697–715.
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Duncan-Johnson, C. C.

C. C. Duncan-Johnson, E. Donchin, “On Quantifying Surprise: the Variation in Event-Related Potentials with Subjective Probability,” Psychophysiology 14, 456 (1977).
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El Massioui, F.

J.-P. Banquet, F. El Massioui, J. L. Godet, “ERP-RT Chronometry and Learning in Normal and Depressed Subjects,” in Cerebral Psychophysiology: Studies in Event-Related Potentials, W. C. McCallum, R. Zappoli, F. Denoth, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986).

Fabiani, M.

D. Karis, M. Fabiani, E. Donchin, “P300 and Memory: Individual Differences in the von Restorff Effect,” Cognitive Psychol. 16, 177 (1984).
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Fisk, A.

A. Kramer, W. Schneider, A. Fisk, E. Donchin, “The Effects of Practice and Task Structure on Components of the Event-Related Brain Potential,” Psychophysiology 23, 33 (1986).
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Friedman, D.

W. Ritter, R. Simson, G. Herbert, H. G. Vaughan, D. Friedman, “A Brain Event Related to Making a Sensory Discrimination,” Science 203, 1358 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaillard, A. W.

R. Naatanen, A. W. Gaillard, S. Mantysalo, “Early Selective Attention Effect on Evoked Potential Reinterpreted,” Acta Psychol. 42, 313 (1978).
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R. Naatanen, A. W. Gaillard, “The Orienting Reflex and the N2 Deflection of the ERPs,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 119–142.

Galambos, R.

E. Courchesne, S. A. Hillyard, R. Galambos, “Stimulus Novelty, Task Relevance, and the Visual Evoked Potential in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 131 (1975).
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Godet, J. L.

J.-P. Banquet, F. El Massioui, J. L. Godet, “ERP-RT Chronometry and Learning in Normal and Depressed Subjects,” in Cerebral Psychophysiology: Studies in Event-Related Potentials, W. C. McCallum, R. Zappoli, F. Denoth, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986).

Goodin, D. S.

D. S. Goodin, K. C. Squires, B. H. Henderson, A. Starr, “An Early Event-Related Cortical Potential,” Psychophysiology 15, 360 (1978).
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Grossberg, S.

S. Grossberg, D. S. Levine, “Neural Dynamics of Attentionally Modulated Pavlovian Conditioning: Blocking, Interstimu-lus Interval, and Secondary Reinforcement,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5015 (1987).
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M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Masking Fields: a Massively Parallel Neural Architecture for Learning, Recognizing, and Predicting Multiple Groupings of Patterned Data,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1866 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, “Cortical Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Form, Color, and Brightness Perception: I. Monocular Theory,” Percept. Psychophys. 41, 87 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “ART 2: Self-Organization of Stable Category Recognition Codes for Analog Input Patterns,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4919 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “A Massively Parallel Architecture for a Self-Organizing Neural Pattern Recognition Machine,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 37, 54 (1987).
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S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Word Recognition and Recall: Attentional Priming, Learning, and Resonance,” Psychol. Rev. 93, 46 (1986).
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M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Speech and Language Coding: Developmental Programs, Perceptual Grouping, and Competition for Short Term Memory,” Hum. Neurobiol. 5, 1 (1986).
[PubMed]

S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Attention Switching and Temporal Order Information in Short Term Memory,” Mem. Cognit. 14, 451 (1986).
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S. Grossberg, E. Mingolla, “Neural Dynamics of Perceptual Grouping: Textures, Boundaries, and Emergent Segmentations,” Percept. Psychophys. 38, 141 (1985).
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S. Grossberg, “Processing of Expected and Unexpected Events During Conditioning and Attention: a Psychophysiological Theory,” Psychol. Rev. 89, 529 (1982).
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S. Grossberg, “How Does a Brain Build a Cognitive Code?,” Psychol. Rev. 87, 1 (1980).
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S. Grossberg, “A Theory of Human Memory: Self-Organization and Performance of Sensory-Motor Codes, Maps, and Plans,” Prog. Theor. Biol. 5, 233 (1978).

S. Grossberg, “Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recoding II: Feedback, Expectation, Olfaction, and Illusions,” Biol. Cybern. 23, 187 (1976).
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S. Grossberg, “Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recoding I: Parallel Development and Coding of Neural Feature Detectors,” Biol. Cybern. 23, 121 (1976).
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S. Grossberg, “A Neural Model of Attention, Reinforcement, and Discrimination Learning,” Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 18, 263 (1975).
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S. Grossberg, N. Schmajuk, “Neural Dynamics of Attentionally-Modulated Pavlovian Conditioning: Conditioned Reinforcement, Inhibition, and Opponent Processing,” Psychobiology (1987), in press.

S. Grossberg, “Some Psychophysiological and Pharmacological Correlates of a Developmental, Cognitive, and Motivational Theory,” in Brain and Information: Event Related Potentials, R. Karrer, P. Cohen, J. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

S. Grossberg, Studies of Mind and Brain: Neural Principles of Learning, Perception, Development, Cognition, and Motor Control (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1982).

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Category Learning and Recognition: Structural Invariants, Reinforcement, and Evoked Potential,” in Pattern Recognition and Concepts in Animals, People, and Machines, M. L. Commons, S. M. Kosslyn, R. J. Herrnstein, Eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1987).

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Category Learning and Recognition: Attention, Memory Consolidation, and Amnesia,” in Brain Structure, Learning, and Memory, J. Davis, R. Newburgh, E. Wegman, Eds. (AAAS Symposium Series, 1987), in press.

S. Grossberg, “The Adaptive Self-Organization of Serial Order in Behavior: Speech, Language, and Motor Control,” in Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines, Vol. 1, Speech Perception, E. C. Schwab, H. C. Nusbaum, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1986), pp. 187–294.

M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Unitized Recognition Codes for Parts and Wholes: the Unique Cue in Configural Discriminations,” in Pattern Recognition and Concepts in Animals, People, and Machines, M. L. Commons, S. M. Kosslyn, R. J. Herrnstein, Eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1987).

S. Grossberg, W. Gutowski, “Neural Dynamics of Decision Making Under Risk: Affective Balance and Cognitive-Emotional Interactions,” Psychol. Rev.94, 300 (1987), in press.
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Guenther, W.

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, “Intuitive Statistics and Related Memory Models,” in Cognitiva 85, Cesta-Afcet, Ed. (publisher, Paris, 1985), pp. 49–56.

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, M. Smith, “Probability Mapping, Task Performance and Learning: an ERP Model,” (1987), submitted for publication.

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, M. Smith, “Probability Processing in Depressed Patients,” In Current Trends in Event-Related Potential Research, R. Johnson, R. Parasuraman, J. W. Rohrbaugh, Eds. Current Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl.40, (1987), in press.

Gutowski, W.

S. Grossberg, W. Gutowski, “Neural Dynamics of Decision Making Under Risk: Affective Balance and Cognitive-Emotional Interactions,” Psychol. Rev.94, 300 (1987), in press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halgren, E.

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Squires, E. Halgren, C. Wilson, P. Crandall, “Human Endogenous Limbic Potentials: Cross-Modality and Depth-Surface Comparison in Epileptic Subjects,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 217–232.
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Hansen, J. C.

J. C. Hansen, S. A. Hillyard, “Endogenous Brain Potentials Associated with Selective Auditory Attention,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 277 (1980).
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Heffley, E.

E. Donchin, E. Heffley, “Multivariate Analysis of Event-Related Potential Data: A Tutorial Review,” in Multidisciplinary Perspectives in Event-Related Potential Research, D. A. Otto, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978), pp. 552–572.

Henderson, B. H.

D. S. Goodin, K. C. Squires, B. H. Henderson, A. Starr, “An Early Event-Related Cortical Potential,” Psychophysiology 15, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbert, G.

W. Ritter, R. Simson, G. Herbert, H. G. Vaughan, D. Friedman, “A Brain Event Related to Making a Sensory Discrimination,” Science 203, 1358 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillyard, S. A.

J. C. Hansen, S. A. Hillyard, “Endogenous Brain Potentials Associated with Selective Auditory Attention,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 277 (1980).
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E. Snyder, S. A. Hillyard, “Long-Latency Evoked Potentials to Irrelevant, Deviant Stimuli,” Behav. Biol. 16, 319 (1976).
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N. K. Squires, K. C. Squires, S. A. Hillyard, “Two Varieties of Long-Latency Positive Waves Evoked by Unpredictable Auditory Stimuli in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 38, 387 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Courchesne, S. A. Hillyard, R. Galambos, “Stimulus Novelty, Task Relevance, and the Visual Evoked Potential in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 131 (1975).
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S. A. Hillyard, R. F. Hink, V. L. Schwent, T. W. Picton, “Electrical Signs of Selective Attention in the Human Brain,” Science 182, 177 (1973).
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Hink, R. F.

S. A. Hillyard, R. F. Hink, V. L. Schwent, T. W. Picton, “Electrical Signs of Selective Attention in the Human Brain,” Science 182, 177 (1973).
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Isreal, J. B.

E. Donchin, J. B. Isreal, “Event Related Brain Potentials and Psychological Theory,” in Motivation, Motor, and Sensory Processes of the Brain: Progress in Brain Research, H. H. Kornhuber, L. Deecke, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 697–715.
[CrossRef]

John, E. R.

S. Sutton, M. Braren, J. Zubin, E. R. John, “Evoked Potential Correlates of Uncertainty,” Science 150, 1187 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, R.

R. Johnson, “Triarchic Model of P300 Amplitude,” Psychophysiology 23, 367 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Johnson, E. Donchin, “Sequential Expectancies and Decision Making in a Changing Environment: an Electrophysiological Approach,” Psychophysiology 19, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karis, D.

D. Karis, M. Fabiani, E. Donchin, “P300 and Memory: Individual Differences in the von Restorff Effect,” Cognitive Psychol. 16, 177 (1984).
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Kaufman, L.

Y. C. Okada, L. Kaufman, S. J. Williamson, “The Hippocampal Formation as a Source of the Slow Endogenous Potentials,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 55, 417 (1983).
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Kietzman, M. L.

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. L. Kietzman, K. Silver, “Slow Wave and P300 in Signal Detection,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 50, 35 (1980).
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Kopell, B. S.

W. T. Roth, B. S. Kopell, “P300—An Orienting Reaction in the Human Auditory Evoked Response,” Percept. Mot. Skills 36, 219 (1973).
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Kramer, A.

A. Kramer, W. Schneider, A. Fisk, E. Donchin, “The Effects of Practice and Task Structure on Components of the Event-Related Brain Potential,” Psychophysiology 23, 33 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesevre, N.

J.-P. Banquet, B. Renault, N. Lesevre, “Effect of Task and Stimulus Probability on Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Banquet, J. Baribeau-Braun, N. Lesevre, “Learning of “Single Trial” and “Contextual” Information Processing in an Odd-Ball Paradigm,” in Brain and Information: Event Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984), pp. 162–165.

J.-P. Banquet, N. Lesevre, “Event-Related Potentials in Altered States of Consciousness,” in Motivation, Motor, and Sensory Processes of the Brain: Progress in Brain Research, H. H. Kornhuber, L. Deecke, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 447–453.
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B. Renault, N. Lesevre, “Topographical Study of the Emitted Potential Obtained After the Omission of an Expected Visual Stimulus,” in Multidisciplinary Perspectives in Event-Related Brain Potential Research, D. Otto, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987), pp. 202–208.

Levine, D. S.

Loveless, N. E.

R. Naatanen, M. Simpson, N. E. Loveless, “Stimulus Deviance and Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychiatry 14, 53 (1982).
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Macht, M.

W. Ritter, R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, M. Macht, “Manipulation of Event-Related Potentials Manifestation of Information Processing Stages,” Science 218, 909 (1982).
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Mantysalo, S.

R. Naatanen, A. W. Gaillard, S. Mantysalo, “Early Selective Attention Effect on Evoked Potential Reinterpreted,” Acta Psychol. 42, 313 (1978).
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Manzey, D.

F. Rosier, D. Manzey, “Principal Components and Varimax-Rotated Components in Event-Related Potentials Research: Some Remarks on Their Interpretation,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 3 (1981).
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McCallum, W. C.

S. H. Curry, R. Cooper, W. C. McCallum, P. V. Popock, D. Papakostopoulos, S. Skidmore, P. Newton, “The Principal Components of Auditory Target Detection,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 79–117.
[CrossRef]

E. Donchin, W. Ritter, W. C. McCallum, “Cognitive Psychophysiology: the Endogenous Components of the ERP,” in Brain Event-Related Potentials in Man, E. Callaway, P. Tueting, S. Koslov, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 349–441.

M. Wood, G. McCarthy, N. K. Squires, H. G. Vaughan, D. L. Woods, W. C. McCallum, “Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Event-Related Potentials,” in Brain and Information: Event-Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

McCarthy, G.

M. Wood, G. McCarthy, N. K. Squires, H. G. Vaughan, D. L. Woods, W. C. McCallum, “Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Event-Related Potentials,” in Brain and Information: Event-Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

Mingolla, E.

S. Grossberg, E. Mingolla, “Neural Dynamics of Perceptual Grouping: Textures, Boundaries, and Emergent Segmentations,” Percept. Psychophys. 38, 141 (1985).
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Munson, R.

R. Munson, D. S. Ruchkin, W. Ritter, S. Sutton, N. K. Squires, “The Relation of P3b to Prior Events and Future Behavior,” Biol. Psychol. 19, 1 (1984).
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D. S. Ruchkin, R. Munson, S. Sutton, “P300 and Slow Wave in a Message Consisting of Two Events,” Psychophysiology 19, 629 (1982).
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Naatanen, R.

K. Alho, M. Sams, P. Paavilainen, R. Naatanen, “Small Pitch Separation and the Selective-Attention Effect on the ERP,” Psychophysiology 23, 189 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Naatanen, M. Simpson, N. E. Loveless, “Stimulus Deviance and Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychiatry 14, 53 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Naatanen, “Processing Negativity: an Evoked-Potential Reflection of Selective Attention,” Psychol. Bull. 92, 605 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Naatanen, A. W. Gaillard, S. Mantysalo, “Early Selective Attention Effect on Evoked Potential Reinterpreted,” Acta Psychol. 42, 313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Naatanen, T. W. Picton, “N2 and Automatic Versus Controlled Processes,” in Cerebral Psychophysiology: Studies in Event-Related Potentials, W. C. McCallum, R. Zappoli, F. Denoth, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986).

R. Naatanen, A. W. Gaillard, “The Orienting Reflex and the N2 Deflection of the ERPs,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 119–142.

Newton, P.

S. H. Curry, R. Cooper, W. C. McCallum, P. V. Popock, D. Papakostopoulos, S. Skidmore, P. Newton, “The Principal Components of Auditory Target Detection,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 79–117.
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y. C.

Y. C. Okada, L. Kaufman, S. J. Williamson, “The Hippocampal Formation as a Source of the Slow Endogenous Potentials,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 55, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paavilainen, P.

K. Alho, M. Sams, P. Paavilainen, R. Naatanen, “Small Pitch Separation and the Selective-Attention Effect on the ERP,” Psychophysiology 23, 189 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papakostopoulos, D.

S. H. Curry, R. Cooper, W. C. McCallum, P. V. Popock, D. Papakostopoulos, S. Skidmore, P. Newton, “The Principal Components of Auditory Target Detection,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 79–117.
[CrossRef]

Picton, T. W.

S. A. Hillyard, R. F. Hink, V. L. Schwent, T. W. Picton, “Electrical Signs of Selective Attention in the Human Brain,” Science 182, 177 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Naatanen, T. W. Picton, “N2 and Automatic Versus Controlled Processes,” in Cerebral Psychophysiology: Studies in Event-Related Potentials, W. C. McCallum, R. Zappoli, F. Denoth, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986).

Popock, P. V.

S. H. Curry, R. Cooper, W. C. McCallum, P. V. Popock, D. Papakostopoulos, S. Skidmore, P. Newton, “The Principal Components of Auditory Target Detection,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 79–117.
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, W. S.

W. S. Pritchard, “Psychophysiology of P300,” Psychol. Bull. 89, 506 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renault, B.

J.-P. Banquet, B. Renault, N. Lesevre, “Effect of Task and Stimulus Probability on Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Renault, N. Lesevre, “Topographical Study of the Emitted Potential Obtained After the Omission of an Expected Visual Stimulus,” in Multidisciplinary Perspectives in Event-Related Brain Potential Research, D. Otto, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987), pp. 202–208.

Ritter, W.

R. Munson, D. S. Ruchkin, W. Ritter, S. Sutton, N. K. Squires, “The Relation of P3b to Prior Events and Future Behavior,” Biol. Psychol. 19, 1 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, M. Macht, “Manipulation of Event-Related Potentials Manifestation of Information Processing Stages,” Science 218, 909 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, R. Simson, G. Herbert, H. G. Vaughan, D. Friedman, “A Brain Event Related to Making a Sensory Discrimination,” Science 203, 1358 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, W. Ritter, “Scalp Topography of Potentials in Auditory and Visual Discrimination Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 42, 528 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, “Orienting and Habituation to Auditory Stimuli: A Study of Short Term Changes in Average Evoked Responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 550 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Donchin, W. Ritter, W. C. McCallum, “Cognitive Psychophysiology: the Endogenous Components of the ERP,” in Brain Event-Related Potentials in Man, E. Callaway, P. Tueting, S. Koslov, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 349–441.

Rohrbaugh, J. W.

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosier, F.

F. Rosier, D. Manzey, “Principal Components and Varimax-Rotated Components in Event-Related Potentials Research: Some Remarks on Their Interpretation,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 3 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roth, W. T.

W. T. Roth, “Auditory Evoked Responses to Unpredictable Stimuli,” Psychophysiology 10, 125 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Roth, B. S. Kopell, “P300—An Orienting Reaction in the Human Auditory Evoked Response,” Percept. Mot. Skills 36, 219 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruchkin, D. S.

R. Munson, D. S. Ruchkin, W. Ritter, S. Sutton, N. K. Squires, “The Relation of P3b to Prior Events and Future Behavior,” Biol. Psychol. 19, 1 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, R. Munson, S. Sutton, “P300 and Slow Wave in a Message Consisting of Two Events,” Psychophysiology 19, 629 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. Stega, “Emitted P300 and Slow Wave Event-Related Potentials in Guessing and Detection Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. L. Kietzman, K. Silver, “Slow Wave and P300 in Signal Detection,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 50, 35 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, “Positive Slow Wave and P300: Association and Dissociation,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 233–250.
[CrossRef]

Sams, M.

K. Alho, M. Sams, P. Paavilainen, R. Naatanen, “Small Pitch Separation and the Selective-Attention Effect on the ERP,” Psychophysiology 23, 189 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmajuk, N.

S. Grossberg, N. Schmajuk, “Neural Dynamics of Attentionally-Modulated Pavlovian Conditioning: Conditioned Reinforcement, Inhibition, and Opponent Processing,” Psychobiology (1987), in press.

Schneider, W.

A. Kramer, W. Schneider, A. Fisk, E. Donchin, “The Effects of Practice and Task Structure on Components of the Event-Related Brain Potential,” Psychophysiology 23, 33 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwent, V. L.

S. A. Hillyard, R. F. Hink, V. L. Schwent, T. W. Picton, “Electrical Signs of Selective Attention in the Human Brain,” Science 182, 177 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silver, K.

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. L. Kietzman, K. Silver, “Slow Wave and P300 in Signal Detection,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 50, 35 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, M.

R. Naatanen, M. Simpson, N. E. Loveless, “Stimulus Deviance and Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychiatry 14, 53 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Simson, R.

W. Ritter, R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, M. Macht, “Manipulation of Event-Related Potentials Manifestation of Information Processing Stages,” Science 218, 909 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, R. Simson, G. Herbert, H. G. Vaughan, D. Friedman, “A Brain Event Related to Making a Sensory Discrimination,” Science 203, 1358 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, W. Ritter, “Scalp Topography of Potentials in Auditory and Visual Discrimination Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 42, 528 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skidmore, S.

S. H. Curry, R. Cooper, W. C. McCallum, P. V. Popock, D. Papakostopoulos, S. Skidmore, P. Newton, “The Principal Components of Auditory Target Detection,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 79–117.
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, M. Smith, “Probability Processing in Depressed Patients,” In Current Trends in Event-Related Potential Research, R. Johnson, R. Parasuraman, J. W. Rohrbaugh, Eds. Current Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Suppl.40, (1987), in press.

J.-P. Banquet, W. Guenther, M. Smith, “Probability Mapping, Task Performance and Learning: an ERP Model,” (1987), submitted for publication.

Snyder, E.

E. Snyder, S. A. Hillyard, “Long-Latency Evoked Potentials to Irrelevant, Deviant Stimuli,” Behav. Biol. 16, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squires, K. C.

D. S. Goodin, K. C. Squires, B. H. Henderson, A. Starr, “An Early Event-Related Cortical Potential,” Psychophysiology 15, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Squires, C. Wickens, N. K. Squires, E. Donchin, “The Effect of Stimulus Sequence on the Waveform of the Cortical Event-Related Potentials,” Science 193, 1142 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Squires, K. C. Squires, S. A. Hillyard, “Two Varieties of Long-Latency Positive Waves Evoked by Unpredictable Auditory Stimuli in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 38, 387 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squires, N. K.

R. Munson, D. S. Ruchkin, W. Ritter, S. Sutton, N. K. Squires, “The Relation of P3b to Prior Events and Future Behavior,” Biol. Psychol. 19, 1 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Squires, C. Wickens, N. K. Squires, E. Donchin, “The Effect of Stimulus Sequence on the Waveform of the Cortical Event-Related Potentials,” Science 193, 1142 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Squires, K. C. Squires, S. A. Hillyard, “Two Varieties of Long-Latency Positive Waves Evoked by Unpredictable Auditory Stimuli in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 38, 387 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Squires, E. Halgren, C. Wilson, P. Crandall, “Human Endogenous Limbic Potentials: Cross-Modality and Depth-Surface Comparison in Epileptic Subjects,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 217–232.
[CrossRef]

M. Wood, G. McCarthy, N. K. Squires, H. G. Vaughan, D. L. Woods, W. C. McCallum, “Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Event-Related Potentials,” in Brain and Information: Event-Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

Starr, A.

D. S. Goodin, K. C. Squires, B. H. Henderson, A. Starr, “An Early Event-Related Cortical Potential,” Psychophysiology 15, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stega, M.

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. Stega, “Emitted P300 and Slow Wave Event-Related Potentials in Guessing and Detection Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sternberg, S.

S. Sternberg, “High Speed Scanning in Human Memory,” Science 153, 652 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, G. O.

S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Word Recognition and Recall: Attentional Priming, Learning, and Resonance,” Psychol. Rev. 93, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Attention Switching and Temporal Order Information in Short Term Memory,” Mem. Cognit. 14, 451 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, S.

R. Munson, D. S. Ruchkin, W. Ritter, S. Sutton, N. K. Squires, “The Relation of P3b to Prior Events and Future Behavior,” Biol. Psychol. 19, 1 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, R. Munson, S. Sutton, “P300 and Slow Wave in a Message Consisting of Two Events,” Psychophysiology 19, 629 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. Stega, “Emitted P300 and Slow Wave Event-Related Potentials in Guessing and Detection Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. L. Kietzman, K. Silver, “Slow Wave and P300 in Signal Detection,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 50, 35 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tueting, S. Sutton, J. Zubin, “Quantitative Evoked Potential Correlates of the Probability of Events,” Psychophysiology 7, 385 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Sutton, M. Braren, J. Zubin, E. R. John, “Evoked Potential Correlates of Uncertainty,” Science 150, 1187 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, “Positive Slow Wave and P300: Association and Dissociation,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 233–250.
[CrossRef]

Tran Huy, N.

J. E. Desmedt, N. Tran Huy, M. Bourguet, “The Cognitive P40, N60, and P100 Components of Somato-Sensory Evoked Potentials and the Earliest Electrical Signs of Sensory Processing in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 56, 272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tueting, P.

P. Tueting, S. Sutton, J. Zubin, “Quantitative Evoked Potential Correlates of the Probability of Events,” Psychophysiology 7, 385 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, H. G.

W. Ritter, R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, M. Macht, “Manipulation of Event-Related Potentials Manifestation of Information Processing Stages,” Science 218, 909 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, R. Simson, G. Herbert, H. G. Vaughan, D. Friedman, “A Brain Event Related to Making a Sensory Discrimination,” Science 203, 1358 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, W. Ritter, “Scalp Topography of Potentials in Auditory and Visual Discrimination Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 42, 528 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, “Orienting and Habituation to Auditory Stimuli: A Study of Short Term Changes in Average Evoked Responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 550 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wood, G. McCarthy, N. K. Squires, H. G. Vaughan, D. L. Woods, W. C. McCallum, “Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Event-Related Potentials,” in Brain and Information: Event-Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

Wickens, C.

K. C. Squires, C. Wickens, N. K. Squires, E. Donchin, “The Effect of Stimulus Sequence on the Waveform of the Cortical Event-Related Potentials,” Science 193, 1142 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, S. J.

Y. C. Okada, L. Kaufman, S. J. Williamson, “The Hippocampal Formation as a Source of the Slow Endogenous Potentials,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 55, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, C.

N. K. Squires, E. Halgren, C. Wilson, P. Crandall, “Human Endogenous Limbic Potentials: Cross-Modality and Depth-Surface Comparison in Epileptic Subjects,” in Tutorials in Event-Related Potential Research: Endogenous Components, A. W. K. Gaillard, W. Ritter, Eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 217–232.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, C. L.

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, M.

M. Wood, G. McCarthy, N. K. Squires, H. G. Vaughan, D. L. Woods, W. C. McCallum, “Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Event-Related Potentials,” in Brain and Information: Event-Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

Woods, D. L.

M. Wood, G. McCarthy, N. K. Squires, H. G. Vaughan, D. L. Woods, W. C. McCallum, “Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Event-Related Potentials,” in Brain and Information: Event-Related Potentials, R. Karrer, J. Cohen, P. Tueting, Eds. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1984).

Zubin, J.

P. Tueting, S. Sutton, J. Zubin, “Quantitative Evoked Potential Correlates of the Probability of Events,” Psychophysiology 7, 385 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Sutton, M. Braren, J. Zubin, E. R. John, “Evoked Potential Correlates of Uncertainty,” Science 150, 1187 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Psychol.

R. Naatanen, A. W. Gaillard, S. Mantysalo, “Early Selective Attention Effect on Evoked Potential Reinterpreted,” Acta Psychol. 42, 313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Behav. Biol.

E. Snyder, S. A. Hillyard, “Long-Latency Evoked Potentials to Irrelevant, Deviant Stimuli,” Behav. Biol. 16, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biol. Cybern.

S. Grossberg, “Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recoding I: Parallel Development and Coding of Neural Feature Detectors,” Biol. Cybern. 23, 121 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, “Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recoding II: Feedback, Expectation, Olfaction, and Illusions,” Biol. Cybern. 23, 187 (1976).
[PubMed]

Biol. Psychiatry

R. Naatanen, M. Simpson, N. E. Loveless, “Stimulus Deviance and Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychiatry 14, 53 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Psychol.

R. Munson, D. S. Ruchkin, W. Ritter, S. Sutton, N. K. Squires, “The Relation of P3b to Prior Events and Future Behavior,” Biol. Psychol. 19, 1 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rosier, D. Manzey, “Principal Components and Varimax-Rotated Components in Event-Related Potentials Research: Some Remarks on Their Interpretation,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 3 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Banquet, B. Renault, N. Lesevre, “Effect of Task and Stimulus Probability on Evoked Potentials,” Biol. Psychol. 13, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognitive Psychol.

D. Karis, M. Fabiani, E. Donchin, “P300 and Memory: Individual Differences in the von Restorff Effect,” Cognitive Psychol. 16, 177 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process.

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “A Massively Parallel Architecture for a Self-Organizing Neural Pattern Recognition Machine,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 37, 54 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.

J. C. Hansen, S. A. Hillyard, “Endogenous Brain Potentials Associated with Selective Auditory Attention,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 277 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Desmedt, N. Tran Huy, M. Bourguet, “The Cognitive P40, N60, and P100 Components of Somato-Sensory Evoked Potentials and the Earliest Electrical Signs of Sensory Processing in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 56, 272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. L. Kietzman, K. Silver, “Slow Wave and P300 in Signal Detection,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 50, 35 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, S. Sutton, M. Stega, “Emitted P300 and Slow Wave Event-Related Potentials in Guessing and Detection Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 49, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Okada, L. Kaufman, S. J. Williamson, “The Hippocampal Formation as a Source of the Slow Endogenous Potentials,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 55, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Simson, H. G. Vaughan, W. Ritter, “Scalp Topography of Potentials in Auditory and Visual Discrimination Tasks,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 42, 528 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Squires, K. C. Squires, S. A. Hillyard, “Two Varieties of Long-Latency Positive Waves Evoked by Unpredictable Auditory Stimuli in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 38, 387 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Courchesne, S. A. Hillyard, R. Galambos, “Stimulus Novelty, Task Relevance, and the Visual Evoked Potential in Man,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 39, 131 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Courchesne, “Changes in P3 Waves with Event Repetition: Long-Term Effects of Scalp Distribution and Amplitude,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 45, 754 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ritter, H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, “Orienting and Habituation to Auditory Stimuli: A Study of Short Term Changes in Average Evoked Responses,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25, 550 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Neurobiol.

M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Neural Dynamics of Speech and Language Coding: Developmental Programs, Perceptual Grouping, and Competition for Short Term Memory,” Hum. Neurobiol. 5, 1 (1986).
[PubMed]

Int. Rev. Neurobiol.

S. Grossberg, “A Neural Model of Attention, Reinforcement, and Discrimination Learning,” Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 18, 263 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mem. Cognit.

S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Attention Switching and Temporal Order Information in Short Term Memory,” Mem. Cognit. 14, 451 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Mot. Skills

W. T. Roth, B. S. Kopell, “P300—An Orienting Reaction in the Human Auditory Evoked Response,” Percept. Mot. Skills 36, 219 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys.

S. Grossberg, “Cortical Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Form, Color, and Brightness Perception: I. Monocular Theory,” Percept. Psychophys. 41, 87 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, E. Mingolla, “Neural Dynamics of Perceptual Grouping: Textures, Boundaries, and Emergent Segmentations,” Percept. Psychophys. 38, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Theor. Biol.

S. Grossberg, “A Theory of Human Memory: Self-Organization and Performance of Sensory-Motor Codes, Maps, and Plans,” Prog. Theor. Biol. 5, 233 (1978).

Psychol. Bull.

R. Naatanen, “Processing Negativity: an Evoked-Potential Reflection of Selective Attention,” Psychol. Bull. 92, 605 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pritchard, “Psychophysiology of P300,” Psychol. Bull. 89, 506 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev.

S. Grossberg, “Processing of Expected and Unexpected Events During Conditioning and Attention: a Psychophysiological Theory,” Psychol. Rev. 89, 529 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, “How Does a Brain Build a Cognitive Code?,” Psychol. Rev. 87, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg, G. O. Stone, “Neural Dynamics of Word Recognition and Recall: Attentional Priming, Learning, and Resonance,” Psychol. Rev. 93, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychophysiology

W. T. Roth, “Auditory Evoked Responses to Unpredictable Stimuli,” Psychophysiology 10, 125 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Johnson, “Triarchic Model of P300 Amplitude,” Psychophysiology 23, 367 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Duncan-Johnson, E. Donchin, “On Quantifying Surprise: the Variation in Event-Related Potentials with Subjective Probability,” Psychophysiology 14, 456 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tueting, S. Sutton, J. Zubin, “Quantitative Evoked Potential Correlates of the Probability of Events,” Psychophysiology 7, 385 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Donchin, “Surprise!…Surprise?,” Psychophysiology 18, 493 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Alho, M. Sams, P. Paavilainen, R. Naatanen, “Small Pitch Separation and the Selective-Attention Effect on the ERP,” Psychophysiology 23, 189 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Ruchkin, R. Munson, S. Sutton, “P300 and Slow Wave in a Message Consisting of Two Events,” Psychophysiology 19, 629 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Goodin, K. C. Squires, B. H. Henderson, A. Starr, “An Early Event-Related Cortical Potential,” Psychophysiology 15, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Johnson, E. Donchin, “Sequential Expectancies and Decision Making in a Changing Environment: an Electrophysiological Approach,” Psychophysiology 19, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kramer, W. Schneider, A. Fisk, E. Donchin, “The Effects of Practice and Task Structure on Components of the Event-Related Brain Potential,” Psychophysiology 23, 33 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

K. C. Squires, C. Wickens, N. K. Squires, E. Donchin, “The Effect of Stimulus Sequence on the Waveform of the Cortical Event-Related Potentials,” Science 193, 1142 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sternberg, “High Speed Scanning in Human Memory,” Science 153, 652 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Halgren, N. K. Squires, C. L. Wilson, J. W. Rohrbaugh, T. L. Babb, P. H. Crandall, “Endogenous Potentials Generated in the Human Hippocampal Formation and Amygdala by Infrequent Events,” Science 210, 803 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sutton, M. Braren, J. Zubin, E. R. John, “Evoked Potential Correlates of Uncertainty,” Science 150, 1187 (1965).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Anatomy of the attentional-orienting system: Two successive stages, F1 and F2, of the attentional subsystem encode patterns of activation in short-term memory (STM). Bottom-up and top-down pathways between F1 and F2 contain adaptive long-term memory (LTM) traces which multiply the signals in these pathways. The remainder of the circuit modulates these STM and LTM processes. Modulation by gain control enables F1 to distinguish between bottom-up input patterns and top-down priming, or template, patterns, as well as to match these bottom-up and top-down patterns. Gain control signals also enable F2 to react supraliminally to signals from F1 while an input pattern is on. The orienting subsystem generates a reset wave to F2 when sufficiently large mismatches between bottom-up and top-down patterns occur at F1. This reset wave selectively and enduringly inhibits active F2 cells until the input is shut off. (Reprinted with permission from Carpenter and Grossberg.18)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stages of bottom-up activation: The input pattern I generates a pattern of STM activation X = (x1, x2, …, xm) across the nodes νi of F1. Sufficiently active F1 nodes emit bottom-up signals h(xi) to F2. This signal pattern, which is denoted by S in Fig. 3, is multiplied, or gated, by long-term memory (LTM) traces zij within the F1F2 pathways. The LTM gated signals are summed before activating their target nodes in F2. This LTM gated and summed signal pattern, which is denoted by T in Fig. 3, generates a pattern of activation Y = (xM+1, xM+2, …, xN) across the nodes νj of F2. (Reprinted with permission from Carpenter and Grossberg.18)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Search for a correct F2 code: (a) The input pattern I generates the specific STM activity pattern X at F1 as it nonspecifically activates A. Pattern X both inhibits A and generates the output signal pattern S. Signal pattern S is transformed into the input pattern T, which activates the STM pattern Y across F2. (b) Pattern Y generates the top-down signal pattern U which is transformed into the template pattern V. If V mismatches I at F1, a new STM activity pattern X* is generated at F1. The reduction in total STM activity which occurs when X is transformed into X* causes a decrease in the total inhibition from F1 to A. (c) Then the input-driven activation of A can release a nonspecific arousal wave to F2, which resets the STM pattern Y at F2. (d) After Y is inhibited, its top-down template is eliminated, and X can be reinstated at F1. Now X once again generates input pattern T to F2, but since Y remains inhibited, T can activate a different STM pattern Y* at F2. If the top-down template due to Y* also mismatches I at F1, the rapid search for an appropriate F2 code continues. (Reprinted with permission from Carpenter and Grossberg.18)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Matching by 2/3 Rule: (a) A top-down template from F2 inhibits the attentional gain control source as it subliminally primes target F1 cells. (b) A bottom-up input activates both the (nonspecific) attentional gain control channel and certain F1 cells. Only. F1 cells that receive bottom-up inputs and gain control signals can become supraliminally active. (c) When a bottom-up input pattern and a top-down template are simultaneously active, only those F1 cells that receive inputs from both sources can become supraliminally active, since the gain control source is inhibited. (d) Intermodal competition can shut off the attentional gain control source and thereby prevent a bottom-up input from supraliminally activating F1 when attention is directed to a different modality.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Grand average chronograms of the ERPs recorded at Pz, obtained after subtraction of the auditory evoked potentials for each subject in a passive situation (no task) from the No Go condition of the task situation. The ERP amplitudes (in microvolts) are displayed as a function of time (a unit scale, 100 ms), stimulus probability (squares, high probability; circles, low probability), and runs (dotted lines, first two runs; full lines, last two runs). Cases Fe and Re (dotted lines with squares and circles, respectively) and cases Fl and Rl (full lines with squares and circles, respectively) are superimposed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean amplitudes of the ERP components over all subjects displayed with the same code as in Fig. 5. The peaks were measured on interpolated maps at their maximum amplitude value, in different locations. Therefore the diagram does not represent a unique electrode site. Cases He, Le, Hl, and Ll are superimposed as in the previous figure. The main advantage of this representation is to suppress the smoothing of the peaks due to intersubject latency jitter for the different components.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative amplitudes of the N200 and P3b components are plotted as a function of stimulus probability and practice. (a) First runs, no practice; last runs, end of the session. (b) Relative amplitude of the N200 and P3b components are plotted as a function of stimulus probability and the relative ordering of the probability condition blocks. The transition from unequal to equal probability is accurately reflected by the P3b amplitude. The response of N200 to equal probability continues to reflect the previous unequal probability condition.

Tables (1)

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Table I Interpretation of ERPs in Terms of ART Mechanisms

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