Abstract

A high-speed spectroradiometer designed for spectral reflectance measurement in remote sensing is described. This instrument uses a monochromatic grating and a photomultiplier system for light detection and sweeps over the 400–850-nm wavelength spectral range with the spectral resolution of 2 nm within 1 s. The instrument has the inherent advantage of portability and speed of operation which make it particularly suitable for field work in the area of fast moving surfaces, e.g., water with wave motion. Some applications of its use in laboratory and field experiments also have been presented. The instrument would seem to be an appropriate instrument for ground data collection in remote sensing.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, R. A. Koehler, “A Four Channel Scanning Photometer for Remote Sensing,” Can. Aeronaut. Space J. 18, 325 (1972).
  2. A. H. Burr, M. J. Duncan, “Portble Spectroradiometer for Underwater Environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 466 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. J. Rouse, J. M. Coleman, “Circulation Observations in the Louisiana Bight using LANDSAT Imagery,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 55 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. D. Doda, A. E. S. Green, “Spectral Sunphotometry using a Compact Spectrometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 97 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Viollier, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Lecomte, “Airborne Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content under Cloudy Sky as Applied to the Tropical Waters in the Gulf of Guinea,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 235 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Booth, P. Dustan, “Diver-Operable Multiwavelength Radiometer,,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 33 (1979).
  7. E. J. Milton, “A Portable Multiband Radiometer for Ground Data Collection in Remote Sensing,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).
  8. H. K. Myrabø, O. Lillesæter, T. Høimyr, “Portable Field Spectrometer for Reflectance Measurements 340-2500 nm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2855 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Adams, J. G. Ewen, R. V. Birnie, “A Portable Two-Band Radiometer,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 96 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Grum, G. W. Luckey, “Optical Sphere Paint and a Working Standard of Reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2289 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. J. Adams, J. G. Ewen, R. V. Birnie, “A Portable Two-Band Radiometer,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 96 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

E. J. Milton, “A Portable Multiband Radiometer for Ground Data Collection in Remote Sensing,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).

1979 (1)

C. R. Booth, P. Dustan, “Diver-Operable Multiwavelength Radiometer,,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 33 (1979).

1978 (2)

D. D. Doda, A. E. S. Green, “Spectral Sunphotometry using a Compact Spectrometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 97 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Viollier, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Lecomte, “Airborne Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content under Cloudy Sky as Applied to the Tropical Waters in the Gulf of Guinea,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

L. J. Rouse, J. M. Coleman, “Circulation Observations in the Louisiana Bight using LANDSAT Imagery,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 55 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, R. A. Koehler, “A Four Channel Scanning Photometer for Remote Sensing,” Can. Aeronaut. Space J. 18, 325 (1972).

A. H. Burr, M. J. Duncan, “Portble Spectroradiometer for Underwater Environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 466 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Adams, M. J.

M. J. Adams, J. G. Ewen, R. V. Birnie, “A Portable Two-Band Radiometer,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 96 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Birnie, R. V.

M. J. Adams, J. G. Ewen, R. V. Birnie, “A Portable Two-Band Radiometer,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 96 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Booth, C. R.

C. R. Booth, P. Dustan, “Diver-Operable Multiwavelength Radiometer,,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 33 (1979).

Burr, A. H.

A. H. Burr, M. J. Duncan, “Portble Spectroradiometer for Underwater Environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 466 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. M.

L. J. Rouse, J. M. Coleman, “Circulation Observations in the Louisiana Bight using LANDSAT Imagery,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 55 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

M. Viollier, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Lecomte, “Airborne Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content under Cloudy Sky as Applied to the Tropical Waters in the Gulf of Guinea,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Doda, D. D.

D. D. Doda, A. E. S. Green, “Spectral Sunphotometry using a Compact Spectrometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 97 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, M. J.

A. H. Burr, M. J. Duncan, “Portble Spectroradiometer for Underwater Environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 466 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dustan, P.

C. R. Booth, P. Dustan, “Diver-Operable Multiwavelength Radiometer,,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 33 (1979).

Ewen, J. G.

M. J. Adams, J. G. Ewen, R. V. Birnie, “A Portable Two-Band Radiometer,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 96 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. E. S.

D. D. Doda, A. E. S. Green, “Spectral Sunphotometry using a Compact Spectrometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 97 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grum, F.

Høimyr, T.

Koehler, R. A.

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, R. A. Koehler, “A Four Channel Scanning Photometer for Remote Sensing,” Can. Aeronaut. Space J. 18, 325 (1972).

Lecomte, P.

M. Viollier, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Lecomte, “Airborne Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content under Cloudy Sky as Applied to the Tropical Waters in the Gulf of Guinea,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lillesæter, O.

Luckey, G. W.

Miller, J. R.

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, R. A. Koehler, “A Four Channel Scanning Photometer for Remote Sensing,” Can. Aeronaut. Space J. 18, 325 (1972).

Milton, E. J.

E. J. Milton, “A Portable Multiband Radiometer for Ground Data Collection in Remote Sensing,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).

Myrabø, H. K.

Rouse, L. J.

L. J. Rouse, J. M. Coleman, “Circulation Observations in the Louisiana Bight using LANDSAT Imagery,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 55 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, R. A. Koehler, “A Four Channel Scanning Photometer for Remote Sensing,” Can. Aeronaut. Space J. 18, 325 (1972).

Viollier, M.

M. Viollier, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Lecomte, “Airborne Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content under Cloudy Sky as Applied to the Tropical Waters in the Gulf of Guinea,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Can. Aeronaut. Space J. (1)

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, R. A. Koehler, “A Four Channel Scanning Photometer for Remote Sensing,” Can. Aeronaut. Space J. 18, 325 (1972).

Int. J. Remote Sensing (2)

M. J. Adams, J. G. Ewen, R. V. Birnie, “A Portable Two-Band Radiometer,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 96 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Milton, “A Portable Multiband Radiometer for Ground Data Collection in Remote Sensing,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

A. H. Burr, M. J. Duncan, “Portble Spectroradiometer for Underwater Environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 466 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

C. R. Booth, P. Dustan, “Diver-Operable Multiwavelength Radiometer,,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 33 (1979).

Remote Sensing Environ. (3)

L. J. Rouse, J. M. Coleman, “Circulation Observations in the Louisiana Bight using LANDSAT Imagery,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 55 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Doda, A. E. S. Green, “Spectral Sunphotometry using a Compact Spectrometer,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 97 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Viollier, P. Y. Deschamps, P. Lecomte, “Airborne Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content under Cloudy Sky as Applied to the Tropical Waters in the Gulf of Guinea,” Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

High-speed spectroradiometer: (A) sensor unit; (B) control unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the high-speed spectroradiometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical arrangement of light collecting system: (A) radiance measurement; (B) irradiance measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Directional efficiency of the sensor. Solid line, sensor head (A) in Fig. 3; dashed line, sensor head (B) in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measuring system for radiance of water sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral characteristics of water with different concentration of suspended solids: 1, 52.8 mg/liter; 2, 26.4 mg/liter; 3, 13.2 mg/liter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral characteristics of water with different concentration of chlorophyll a: 1, 23.5 μg/liter; 2, 15.4 μg/liter; 3, 7.69 μg/liter; 4, 3.85 μg/liter; 5, 1.92 μg/liter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral characteristics of underwater irradiance of pure sea water in microcosm: 1, at water surface; 2, 0 cm underwater; 3, 10 cm; 4, 20 cm; 5, 40 cm; 6, 60 cm; 7, 80 cm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral characteristics of underwater irradiance of seawater contaminated by H. Akashiwo of 137,544 cells/mliter in microcosm: 1, at water surface; 2, 0 cm underwater; 3, 10 cm; 4,20 cm; 5; 40 cm; 6, 60 cm; 7, 80 cm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral characteristics of underwater irradiance with a different concentration of H. Akashiwo measured at the depth of 10 cm from the water surface; 1, 32,822 cells/mliter; 2, 63,518 cells/mliter; 3, 137,544 cells/mliter; 4, 272,832 cell/mliter.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral signature of water surface of Lake Kasumigaura.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectral signatures of underwater radiance of Lake Kasumigaura: 1, 10 cm underwater; 2, 20 cm; 3, 40 cm; 5, 60 cm; 5, 80 cm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Upwelling radiance of white reflector due to total solar radiation at ground level.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Parameters and Specifications of the Sensor Unit

Tables Icon

Table II Parameters and Specifications of the Control Unit

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