Abstract

We show that a parametric downconversion crystal emitting angle resolved coincident photon pairs can be used to measure the absolute quantum efficiency of a photon counting detection system. We have measured the quantum efficiency of a silicon avalanche photodiode, operated in Geiger mode, as a function of operating voltage and compare this to results obtained using a conventional method.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  2. M. E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N. A. Mullani, M. M. TerPogossian, “Application of Annihilation Coincidence Detection to Transaxial Reconstruction Tomography,” J. Nucl. Med. 16, 210 (1975) and references therein.
    [PubMed]
  3. H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).
  4. D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of Time Delays in the Parametric Production of Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. G. Walker, E. Jakeman, “Photon-Antibunching by use of a Photoelectron-Event-Triggered Optical Shutter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1303 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian Light in Parametric Downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. N. Klyshko, “Utilization of Vacuum Fluctuations as an Optical Brightness Standard,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatio-temporal Grouping of Photons in Spontaneous Parametric Scattering of Light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227 (1985).
  10. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967, 1975), Chaps. 16 and 17.
  11. R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 1: Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Corrleation Measurements. 2: Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. RCA Solid State Detectors C30902E/S, C30921E/S Data Sheet, RCA, New Products Division, Lancaster, PA (1984).
  14. E. Jakeman, J. G. Rarity, “The Use of Pair Production Processes to Reduce Quantum Noise in Transmission Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 59, 219 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, J. S. Satchell, in preparation.

1987 (2)

1986 (2)

E. Jakeman, J. G. Rarity, “The Use of Pair Production Processes to Reduce Quantum Noise in Transmission Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 59, 219 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 1: Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatio-temporal Grouping of Photons in Spontaneous Parametric Scattering of Light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227 (1985).

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of Time Delays in the Parametric Production of Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Walker, E. Jakeman, “Photon-Antibunching by use of a Photoelectron-Event-Triggered Optical Shutter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1303 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. N. Klyshko, “Utilization of Vacuum Fluctuations as an Optical Brightness Standard,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N. A. Mullani, M. M. TerPogossian, “Application of Annihilation Coincidence Detection to Transaxial Reconstruction Tomography,” J. Nucl. Med. 16, 210 (1975) and references therein.
[PubMed]

1970 (1)

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. G. W.

Burnham, D. C.

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cummins, H. Z.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Friberg, S.

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of Time Delays in the Parametric Production of Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E. J.

M. E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N. A. Mullani, M. M. TerPogossian, “Application of Annihilation Coincidence Detection to Transaxial Reconstruction Tomography,” J. Nucl. Med. 16, 210 (1975) and references therein.
[PubMed]

Hong, C. K.

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of Time Delays in the Parametric Production of Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakeman, E.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian Light in Parametric Downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, J. G. Rarity, “The Use of Pair Production Processes to Reduce Quantum Noise in Transmission Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 59, 219 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Walker, E. Jakeman, “Photon-Antibunching by use of a Photoelectron-Event-Triggered Optical Shutter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1303 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Klyshko, D. N.

D. N. Klyshko, “Utilization of Vacuum Fluctuations as an Optical Brightness Standard,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, G. F.

G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Malygin, A. A.

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatio-temporal Grouping of Photons in Spontaneous Parametric Scattering of Light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227 (1985).

Mandel, L.

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of Time Delays in the Parametric Production of Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullani, N. A.

M. E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N. A. Mullani, M. M. TerPogossian, “Application of Annihilation Coincidence Detection to Transaxial Reconstruction Tomography,” J. Nucl. Med. 16, 210 (1975) and references therein.
[PubMed]

Penin, A. N.

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatio-temporal Grouping of Photons in Spontaneous Parametric Scattering of Light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227 (1985).

Phelps, M. E.

M. E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N. A. Mullani, M. M. TerPogossian, “Application of Annihilation Coincidence Detection to Transaxial Reconstruction Tomography,” J. Nucl. Med. 16, 210 (1975) and references therein.
[PubMed]

Pike, E. R.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Rarity, J. G.

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Corrleation Measurements. 2: Active Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian Light in Parametric Downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, J. G. Rarity, “The Use of Pair Production Processes to Reduce Quantum Noise in Transmission Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 59, 219 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. 1: Passive Quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, J. S. Satchell, in preparation.

Ridley, K. D.

Satchell, J. S.

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, J. S. Satchell, in preparation.

Sergienko, A. V.

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatio-temporal Grouping of Photons in Spontaneous Parametric Scattering of Light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227 (1985).

Tapster, P. R.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian Light in Parametric Downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, J. S. Satchell, in preparation.

TerPogossian, M. M.

M. E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N. A. Mullani, M. M. TerPogossian, “Application of Annihilation Coincidence Detection to Transaxial Reconstruction Tomography,” J. Nucl. Med. 16, 210 (1975) and references therein.
[PubMed]

Walker, J. G.

J. G. Walker, E. Jakeman, “Photon-Antibunching by use of a Photoelectron-Event-Triggered Optical Shutter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1303 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, D. L.

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967, 1975), Chaps. 16 and 17.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Nucl. Med. (1)

M. E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N. A. Mullani, M. M. TerPogossian, “Application of Annihilation Coincidence Detection to Transaxial Reconstruction Tomography,” J. Nucl. Med. 16, 210 (1975) and references therein.
[PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. G. Walker, E. Jakeman, “Photon-Antibunching by use of a Photoelectron-Event-Triggered Optical Shutter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1303 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, “Observation of sub-Poissonian Light in Parametric Downconversion,” Opt. Commun. 62, 201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, J. G. Rarity, “The Use of Pair Production Processes to Reduce Quantum Noise in Transmission Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 59, 219 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. C. Burnham, D. L. Weinberg, “Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. Friberg, C. K. Hong, L. Mandel, “Measurement of Time Delays in the Parametric Production of Photon Pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2011 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. N. Klyshko, “Utilization of Vacuum Fluctuations as an Optical Brightness Standard,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, A. V. Sergienko, “Spatio-temporal Grouping of Photons in Spontaneous Parametric Scattering of Light,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 227 (1985).

Other (5)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967, 1975), Chaps. 16 and 17.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, J. S. Satchell, in preparation.

RCA Solid State Detectors C30902E/S, C30921E/S Data Sheet, RCA, New Products Division, Lancaster, PA (1984).

G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (Wiley, New York, 1979).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of nondegenerate parametric downconversion (type I phase matching). The downcon verted photons are in the same plane which can be arbitrarily rotated about the input photon direction. The angles θ2 and θ3 are thus cone angles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Apparatus used for absolute quantum efficiency measurements. The crystal axis projects out of the paper at an angle around 60°. Filter F1 is of colored glass blocking light of a wavelength below 520 nm. Filter F2 is a 650-nm (10-nm FWHM) interference filter. The aperture A1 subtends a larger angle at the crystal than A2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Avalanche photodiode quantum efficiency measured as a function of voltage beyond breakdown (|VVBR|): ⊡ determined using the coincidence method described here; (⊙), determined using calibrated neutral density filters and a source of known brightness. × estimated from manufacturers data sheet.13

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 λ 1 = 1 λ 2 + 1 λ 3
n 2 sin θ 2 λ 2 = n 3 sin θ 3 λ 3 ,
n 1 λ 1 = n 2 cos θ 2 λ 2 + n 3 cos θ 3 λ 3
n ¯ 1 = η 1 r ¯ , n ¯ 2 = η 2 r ¯ ,
c ¯ = η 1 η 2 r ¯ ,
η 1 = c ¯ n ¯ 2 , η 2 = c ¯ n ¯ 1 .
b ¯ = n ¯ 1 n ¯ 2 t .
σ R = [ 1 N c ( 1 η ) ] 1 / 2 ,

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