Abstract

A simplified method for making dichromated gelatin (DCG) holographic optical elements (HOE) has been discovered. The method is much less tedious and it requires a period of processing time comparable with that for processing a silver halide hologram. HOE characteristics including diffraction efficiency (DE), linearity, and spectral sensitivity have been quantitatively investigated. The quality of the holographic grating is very high. Ninety percent or higher diffraction efficiency has been achieved in simple plane gratings made by this process.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. H. Lin, “Hologram Formation in Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 8, 963 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, 110 (1972).
  4. T. A. Shankoff, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Grating,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  6. C. D. Leonard, B. D. Guenther, “A Cook-Book for Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” TR T-79-17, U.S. Army Missile Command, Huntsville, AL (1979).
  7. Y.-Z. Liang, D. Zhao, H.-K. Liu, “Multifocus Dichromated Gelatin Hololens,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3451 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

1972 (1)

D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, 110 (1972).

1969 (2)

L. H. Lin, “Hologram Formation in Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 8, 963 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Grating,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1968 (1)

Chang, B. J.

Guenther, B. D.

C. D. Leonard, B. D. Guenther, “A Cook-Book for Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” TR T-79-17, U.S. Army Missile Command, Huntsville, AL (1979).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Grating,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Leonard, C. D.

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Leonard, B. D. Guenther, “A Cook-Book for Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” TR T-79-17, U.S. Army Missile Command, Huntsville, AL (1979).

Liang, Y.-Z.

Lin, L. H.

Liu, H.-K.

Meyerhofer, D.

D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, 110 (1972).

Shankoff, T. A.

Zhao, D.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Grating,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

RCA Rev. (1)

D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, 110 (1972).

Other (1)

C. D. Leonard, B. D. Guenther, “A Cook-Book for Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” TR T-79-17, U.S. Army Missile Command, Huntsville, AL (1979).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency of plane gratings of 1000 lines/mm as a function of exposure for dichromated gelatin holographic gratings in air processed by the simplified method with K = 0.25.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency of plane gratings of 1000 lines/mm as a function of exposure for dichromated gelatin holographic gratings in air processed by the simplified method with K = 0.5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency of plane gratings of 1000 lines/mm as a function of exposure for dichromated gelatin holographic gratings in air processed by the simplified method with K = 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of diffraction efficiency obtained by Chang and Leonard (solid curve line) with that obtained by the simplified procedure (dashed curve). In both cases, K = 1 and grating frequency = 1000 lines/mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency vs exposure energy characteristics of dichromated gelatin holographic gratings with K = 0.25, 0.5, and 1 processed by the simplified method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction efficiency vs beam ratio of DCG holographic gratings with three exposure values processed by the simplified method.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiency vs exposure of a DCG holographic grating of various spatial frequencies.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral variation of DE over three discrete wavelengths. The holographic grating was fabricated at an exposure E0 of 90 mJ/cm2 and λ = 488 nm. The circles represent data with K = 1, the triangles are for K = 0.5, and the squares are for K = 0.25.

Tables (3)

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Table I Preprocessing of Dichromated Gelatin Plates with Kodak 649 Plates1

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Table II Fabrication Procedures of DCG HOEs with Kodak 649F Plates: Simplified Procedure

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Table III Comparison Between the Previous Process and the Simplified Process

Equations (6)

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k p = ( W - W 0 ) / W 0 % ,
Δ n w = k p · k w D · Δ h ,
Δ n = k f · Δ n w ,
DE = sin 2 m ,
m = π λ cos θ Δ n · d
d = λ 2 sin θ .

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