Abstract

Measurements of spectral reflectance of terrestrial surface materials at CO2 laser wavelengths are reported. Implications on measurement accuracy of long-path airborne differential absorption lidar for atmospheric gas concentration monitoring are discussed. It is also shown that reflectance spectra of most of the terrestrial surface materials are distinguishable enough to enable material identification by remote reflectance measurements at several selected laser wavelengths. This possibility introduces new prospects for active geological (and possibly agricultural) remote sensing.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds., Optical and Laser Remote Sensing (Springer, Berlin, 1983).
  2. W. B. Grant, R. T. Menzies, “A Survey of Laser and Selected Optical Systems for the Remote Measurements of Pollutant and Gas Concentrations,” J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 33, 187 (1983).
  3. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote Probing of the Atmosphere Using a CO2 DIAL System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
  4. W. B. Grant, “He–Ne and cw CO2 Laser Long-Path Systems for Gas Detection,” Appl. Opt. 25, 709 (1986).
  5. R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Remote Measurements of Ambient Air Pollutants with a Bistatic Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).
  6. R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distributions Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4039 (1978).
  7. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, “Laser Absorption Spectrometer: Remote Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).
  8. W. B. Grant, “Effect of Differential Spectral Reflectance on DIAL Measurements Using Topographic Targets,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2390 (1982).
  9. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, “Assessment of Relative Error Sources in IR DIAL Measurement Accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2690 (1983).
  10. M. S. Shumate, S. Lundqvist, U. Persson, S. T. Eng, “Differential Reflectance of Natural and Man-Made Materials at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2386 (1982).
  11. W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, “In-Flight Test of a Continuous Laser Remote Sensing System,” Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
  12. K. Asai, T. Igarashi, “Interference from Differential Reflectance of Moist Topographic Targets in CO2 DIAL Ozone Measurement,” Appl. Opt. 23, 734 (1984).
  13. W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, “Reliability of Airborne CO2 DIAL Measurements: Schemes for Testing Technical Performance and Reducing Interference from Differential Reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3481 (1985).
  14. W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, Ch. Werner, “Probing of the Earth's Surface and the Atmosphere with an Airborne Laser Spectrometer,” Infrared Phys. 25, 467 (1985).
  15. F. Lehmann, C. Werner, W. Wiesemann, “LIMES: An Optical Multisensor Combining Mid-IR Laserscanner and Multispectralscanner,” in Proceedings, EARSeL/ESA Symposium on European Remote Sensing Opportunities,Strasburg, ESA SP-233 (May 1985), p. 115.
  16. P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, I. Pippi, “Spectral Reflectance of Topographic Target Surface Materials: Implications on Wavelength-Scanning CO2 Laser-Based Lidars,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference,Aix-en-Provence (1984), p. 357.
  17. J. E. Eberhardt, J. G. Haub, A. W. Pryor, “Reflectivity of Natural and Powdered Minerals at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 24, 388 (1985).
  18. A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, B. D. Nash, “Active Airborne Infrared Laser System for Identification of Surface Rock and Minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149 (1984).
  19. D. Ignjatijevic, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, M. Sreckovic, I. Pippi, “A Simple Microcomputer-Controlled CO2 Laser Wavelength Tuning System,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 96 (1985).
  20. J. F. Snell, “Radiometry and Photometry,” inHandbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
  21. W. W. Wendlandt, H. G. Hecht, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Interscience, New York, 1966).
  22. J. T. Agnew, R. B. McQuistan, “Experiments Concerning Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Standards in the Range 0.8 to 20.0 Microns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 999 (1953).
  23. M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Haner, U. P. Oppenheim, P. H. Flamant, “Target Reflectance Measurements for Calibration of Lidar Atmospheric Backscatter Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2619 (1983).
  24. D. B. Nash, “Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectra (2.3–22μm) of Sulfur, Gold, KBr, and Halon,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2427 (1986).
  25. R. K. Vincent, “The Potential Role of Thermal Infrared Multi-spectral Scanners in Geological Remote Sensing,” Proc.IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
  26. P. Vujkovic Cvijin, N. Konjevic, “Molecular Air Pollution Monitoring by Pulsed CO2 Laser-Based Long-Path Technique,” Spectrosc. Lett. 13, 861 (1980).
  27. R. W. Stewart, J. L. Bufton, “Development of a Pulsed 9.5 Micrometer Lidar for Regional Scale Ozone Measurement,” Opt. Eng. 19, 503 (1980).
  28. K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone Using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
  29. E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements with an Infrared (10 μm) Differential-Absorption LIDAR System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
  30. P. W. Baker, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Differential Absorption Measurements on Vertical Paths with a CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2257 (1983).
  31. E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, “Remote Measurement of Ethylene Using a CO2 Differential-Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 17, 814 (1978).
  32. K. W. Rothe, “Monitoring of Various Atmospheric Constituents Using a CW Chemical Hydrogen/Deuterium Fluoride Laser and a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Radio Electron. Eng. 50, 567 (1980).
  33. B. Marthinsson, J. Hohansson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Computer-Controlled CO2-Laser Long-Path Absorption System,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).
  34. S. Lundqvist, C-O. Fait, U. Persson, B. Marthinsson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Q-Switched CO2-Laser Lidar Using Heterodyne Detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2534 (1981).
  35. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. DeFeo, “Laser Remote Sensing of Hydrazine, MMH, and UDMH Using a Differential-Absorption CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2275 (1982).

1986 (2)

1985 (4)

J. E. Eberhardt, J. G. Haub, A. W. Pryor, “Reflectivity of Natural and Powdered Minerals at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 24, 388 (1985).

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, “Reliability of Airborne CO2 DIAL Measurements: Schemes for Testing Technical Performance and Reducing Interference from Differential Reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3481 (1985).

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, Ch. Werner, “Probing of the Earth's Surface and the Atmosphere with an Airborne Laser Spectrometer,” Infrared Phys. 25, 467 (1985).

D. Ignjatijevic, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, M. Sreckovic, I. Pippi, “A Simple Microcomputer-Controlled CO2 Laser Wavelength Tuning System,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 96 (1985).

1984 (2)

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, B. D. Nash, “Active Airborne Infrared Laser System for Identification of Surface Rock and Minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149 (1984).

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, “Interference from Differential Reflectance of Moist Topographic Targets in CO2 DIAL Ozone Measurement,” Appl. Opt. 23, 734 (1984).

1983 (4)

1982 (3)

1981 (3)

1980 (4)

K. W. Rothe, “Monitoring of Various Atmospheric Constituents Using a CW Chemical Hydrogen/Deuterium Fluoride Laser and a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Radio Electron. Eng. 50, 567 (1980).

B. Marthinsson, J. Hohansson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Computer-Controlled CO2-Laser Long-Path Absorption System,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, N. Konjevic, “Molecular Air Pollution Monitoring by Pulsed CO2 Laser-Based Long-Path Technique,” Spectrosc. Lett. 13, 861 (1980).

R. W. Stewart, J. L. Bufton, “Development of a Pulsed 9.5 Micrometer Lidar for Regional Scale Ozone Measurement,” Opt. Eng. 19, 503 (1980).

1979 (1)

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone Using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).

1978 (3)

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, “In-Flight Test of a Continuous Laser Remote Sensing System,” Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distributions Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4039 (1978).

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, “Remote Measurement of Ethylene Using a CO2 Differential-Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 17, 814 (1978).

1976 (2)

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Remote Measurements of Ambient Air Pollutants with a Bistatic Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements with an Infrared (10 μm) Differential-Absorption LIDAR System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).

1975 (1)

R. K. Vincent, “The Potential Role of Thermal Infrared Multi-spectral Scanners in Geological Remote Sensing,” Proc.IEEE 63, 137 (1975).

1953 (1)

Agnew, J. T.

Asai, K.

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, “Interference from Differential Reflectance of Moist Topographic Targets in CO2 DIAL Ozone Measurement,” Appl. Opt. 23, 734 (1984).

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone Using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).

Baker, P. W.

Beck, R.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, “In-Flight Test of a Continuous Laser Remote Sensing System,” Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).

Bufton, J. L.

R. W. Stewart, J. L. Bufton, “Development of a Pulsed 9.5 Micrometer Lidar for Regional Scale Ozone Measurement,” Opt. Eng. 19, 503 (1980).

DeFeo, W. E.

Eberhardt, J. E.

Eng, S. T.

Englisch, W.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, “In-Flight Test of a Continuous Laser Remote Sensing System,” Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).

Fait, C-O.

Flamant, P. H.

Grant, W. B.

Gurs, K.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, “In-Flight Test of a Continuous Laser Remote Sensing System,” Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).

Hake, R. D.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements with an Infrared (10 μm) Differential-Absorption LIDAR System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).

Haner, D. A.

Haub, J. G.

Hawley, J. G.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements with an Infrared (10 μm) Differential-Absorption LIDAR System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).

Hecht, H. G.

W. W. Wendlandt, H. G. Hecht, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Interscience, New York, 1966).

Hohansson, J.

B. Marthinsson, J. Hohansson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Computer-Controlled CO2-Laser Long-Path Absorption System,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).

Igarashi, T.

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, “Interference from Differential Reflectance of Moist Topographic Targets in CO2 DIAL Ozone Measurement,” Appl. Opt. 23, 734 (1984).

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone Using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).

Ignjatijevic, D.

D. Ignjatijevic, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, M. Sreckovic, I. Pippi, “A Simple Microcomputer-Controlled CO2 Laser Wavelength Tuning System,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 96 (1985).

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, I. Pippi, “Spectral Reflectance of Topographic Target Surface Materials: Implications on Wavelength-Scanning CO2 Laser-Based Lidars,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference,Aix-en-Provence (1984), p. 357.

Itabe, T.

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone Using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).

Kahle, A. B.

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, B. D. Nash, “Active Airborne Infrared Laser System for Identification of Surface Rock and Minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149 (1984).

Kavaya, M. J.

Killinger, D. K.

Konjevic, N.

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, N. Konjevic, “Molecular Air Pollution Monitoring by Pulsed CO2 Laser-Based Long-Path Technique,” Spectrosc. Lett. 13, 861 (1980).

Lehmann, F.

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, Ch. Werner, “Probing of the Earth's Surface and the Atmosphere with an Airborne Laser Spectrometer,” Infrared Phys. 25, 467 (1985).

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, “Reliability of Airborne CO2 DIAL Measurements: Schemes for Testing Technical Performance and Reducing Interference from Differential Reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3481 (1985).

F. Lehmann, C. Werner, W. Wiesemann, “LIMES: An Optical Multisensor Combining Mid-IR Laserscanner and Multispectralscanner,” in Proceedings, EARSeL/ESA Symposium on European Remote Sensing Opportunities,Strasburg, ESA SP-233 (May 1985), p. 115.

Lundqvist, S.

Marthinsson, B.

S. Lundqvist, C-O. Fait, U. Persson, B. Marthinsson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Q-Switched CO2-Laser Lidar Using Heterodyne Detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2534 (1981).

B. Marthinsson, J. Hohansson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Computer-Controlled CO2-Laser Long-Path Absorption System,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).

McDougal, D. S.

McQuistan, R. B.

Menyuk, N.

Menzies, R. T.

W. B. Grant, R. T. Menzies, “A Survey of Laser and Selected Optical Systems for the Remote Measurements of Pollutant and Gas Concentrations,” J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 33, 187 (1983).

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Haner, U. P. Oppenheim, P. H. Flamant, “Target Reflectance Measurements for Calibration of Lidar Atmospheric Backscatter Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2619 (1983).

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, “Laser Absorption Spectrometer: Remote Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distributions Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4039 (1978).

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Remote Measurements of Ambient Air Pollutants with a Bistatic Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).

Murray, E. R.

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, “Remote Measurement of Ethylene Using a CO2 Differential-Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 17, 814 (1978).

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements with an Infrared (10 μm) Differential-Absorption LIDAR System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).

Nash, B. D.

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, B. D. Nash, “Active Airborne Infrared Laser System for Identification of Surface Rock and Minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149 (1984).

Nash, D. B.

Oppenheim, U. P.

Pantani, L.

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, I. Pippi, “Spectral Reflectance of Topographic Target Surface Materials: Implications on Wavelength-Scanning CO2 Laser-Based Lidars,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference,Aix-en-Provence (1984), p. 357.

Persson, U.

Pippi, I.

D. Ignjatijevic, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, M. Sreckovic, I. Pippi, “A Simple Microcomputer-Controlled CO2 Laser Wavelength Tuning System,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 96 (1985).

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, I. Pippi, “Spectral Reflectance of Topographic Target Surface Materials: Implications on Wavelength-Scanning CO2 Laser-Based Lidars,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference,Aix-en-Provence (1984), p. 357.

Pryor, A. W.

Rothe, K. W.

K. W. Rothe, “Monitoring of Various Atmospheric Constituents Using a CW Chemical Hydrogen/Deuterium Fluoride Laser and a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Radio Electron. Eng. 50, 567 (1980).

Shumate, M. S.

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, B. D. Nash, “Active Airborne Infrared Laser System for Identification of Surface Rock and Minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149 (1984).

M. S. Shumate, S. Lundqvist, U. Persson, S. T. Eng, “Differential Reflectance of Natural and Man-Made Materials at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2386 (1982).

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, “Laser Absorption Spectrometer: Remote Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distributions Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4039 (1978).

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Remote Measurements of Ambient Air Pollutants with a Bistatic Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).

Snell, J. F.

J. F. Snell, “Radiometry and Photometry,” inHandbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

Sreckovic, M.

D. Ignjatijevic, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, M. Sreckovic, I. Pippi, “A Simple Microcomputer-Controlled CO2 Laser Wavelength Tuning System,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 96 (1985).

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, I. Pippi, “Spectral Reflectance of Topographic Target Surface Materials: Implications on Wavelength-Scanning CO2 Laser-Based Lidars,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference,Aix-en-Provence (1984), p. 357.

Stewart, R. W.

R. W. Stewart, J. L. Bufton, “Development of a Pulsed 9.5 Micrometer Lidar for Regional Scale Ozone Measurement,” Opt. Eng. 19, 503 (1980).

van der Laan, J. E.

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, “Remote Measurement of Ethylene Using a CO2 Differential-Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 17, 814 (1978).

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements with an Infrared (10 μm) Differential-Absorption LIDAR System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).

Vincent, R. K.

R. K. Vincent, “The Potential Role of Thermal Infrared Multi-spectral Scanners in Geological Remote Sensing,” Proc.IEEE 63, 137 (1975).

Vujkovic Cvijin, P.

D. Ignjatijevic, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, M. Sreckovic, I. Pippi, “A Simple Microcomputer-Controlled CO2 Laser Wavelength Tuning System,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 96 (1985).

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, N. Konjevic, “Molecular Air Pollution Monitoring by Pulsed CO2 Laser-Based Long-Path Technique,” Spectrosc. Lett. 13, 861 (1980).

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, I. Pippi, “Spectral Reflectance of Topographic Target Surface Materials: Implications on Wavelength-Scanning CO2 Laser-Based Lidars,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference,Aix-en-Provence (1984), p. 357.

Wendlandt, W. W.

W. W. Wendlandt, H. G. Hecht, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Interscience, New York, 1966).

Werner, C.

F. Lehmann, C. Werner, W. Wiesemann, “LIMES: An Optical Multisensor Combining Mid-IR Laserscanner and Multispectralscanner,” in Proceedings, EARSeL/ESA Symposium on European Remote Sensing Opportunities,Strasburg, ESA SP-233 (May 1985), p. 115.

Werner, Ch.

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, Ch. Werner, “Probing of the Earth's Surface and the Atmosphere with an Airborne Laser Spectrometer,” Infrared Phys. 25, 467 (1985).

Wiesemann, W.

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, Ch. Werner, “Probing of the Earth's Surface and the Atmosphere with an Airborne Laser Spectrometer,” Infrared Phys. 25, 467 (1985).

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, “Reliability of Airborne CO2 DIAL Measurements: Schemes for Testing Technical Performance and Reducing Interference from Differential Reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3481 (1985).

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, “In-Flight Test of a Continuous Laser Remote Sensing System,” Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).

F. Lehmann, C. Werner, W. Wiesemann, “LIMES: An Optical Multisensor Combining Mid-IR Laserscanner and Multispectralscanner,” in Proceedings, EARSeL/ESA Symposium on European Remote Sensing Opportunities,Strasburg, ESA SP-233 (May 1985), p. 115.

Appl. Opt. (15)

W. B. Grant, “He–Ne and cw CO2 Laser Long-Path Systems for Gas Detection,” Appl. Opt. 25, 709 (1986).

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Remote Measurements of Ambient Air Pollutants with a Bistatic Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, “Laser Absorption Spectrometer: Remote Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone,” Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).

W. B. Grant, “Effect of Differential Spectral Reflectance on DIAL Measurements Using Topographic Targets,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2390 (1982).

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, “Assessment of Relative Error Sources in IR DIAL Measurement Accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2690 (1983).

M. S. Shumate, S. Lundqvist, U. Persson, S. T. Eng, “Differential Reflectance of Natural and Man-Made Materials at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2386 (1982).

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, “Interference from Differential Reflectance of Moist Topographic Targets in CO2 DIAL Ozone Measurement,” Appl. Opt. 23, 734 (1984).

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, “Reliability of Airborne CO2 DIAL Measurements: Schemes for Testing Technical Performance and Reducing Interference from Differential Reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3481 (1985).

J. E. Eberhardt, J. G. Haub, A. W. Pryor, “Reflectivity of Natural and Powdered Minerals at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 24, 388 (1985).

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Haner, U. P. Oppenheim, P. H. Flamant, “Target Reflectance Measurements for Calibration of Lidar Atmospheric Backscatter Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2619 (1983).

D. B. Nash, “Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectra (2.3–22μm) of Sulfur, Gold, KBr, and Halon,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2427 (1986).

P. W. Baker, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Differential Absorption Measurements on Vertical Paths with a CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2257 (1983).

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, “Remote Measurement of Ethylene Using a CO2 Differential-Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 17, 814 (1978).

S. Lundqvist, C-O. Fait, U. Persson, B. Marthinsson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Q-Switched CO2-Laser Lidar Using Heterodyne Detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2534 (1981).

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. DeFeo, “Laser Remote Sensing of Hydrazine, MMH, and UDMH Using a Differential-Absorption CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2275 (1982).

Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, “In-Flight Test of a Continuous Laser Remote Sensing System,” Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone Using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements with an Infrared (10 μm) Differential-Absorption LIDAR System,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. B. Kahle, M. S. Shumate, B. D. Nash, “Active Airborne Infrared Laser System for Identification of Surface Rock and Minerals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 1149 (1984).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote Probing of the Atmosphere Using a CO2 DIAL System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).

Infrared Phys. (1)

W. Wiesemann, F. Lehmann, Ch. Werner, “Probing of the Earth's Surface and the Atmosphere with an Airborne Laser Spectrometer,” Infrared Phys. 25, 467 (1985).

J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. (1)

W. B. Grant, R. T. Menzies, “A Survey of Laser and Selected Optical Systems for the Remote Measurements of Pollutant and Gas Concentrations,” J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 33, 187 (1983).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distributions Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4039 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. W. Stewart, J. L. Bufton, “Development of a Pulsed 9.5 Micrometer Lidar for Regional Scale Ozone Measurement,” Opt. Eng. 19, 503 (1980).

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

D. Ignjatijevic, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, M. Sreckovic, I. Pippi, “A Simple Microcomputer-Controlled CO2 Laser Wavelength Tuning System,” Opt. Laser Technol. 17, 96 (1985).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Marthinsson, J. Hohansson, S. T. Eng, “Air Pollution Monitoring with a Computer-Controlled CO2-Laser Long-Path Absorption System,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).

Proc.IEEE (1)

R. K. Vincent, “The Potential Role of Thermal Infrared Multi-spectral Scanners in Geological Remote Sensing,” Proc.IEEE 63, 137 (1975).

Radio Electron. Eng. (1)

K. W. Rothe, “Monitoring of Various Atmospheric Constituents Using a CW Chemical Hydrogen/Deuterium Fluoride Laser and a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Radio Electron. Eng. 50, 567 (1980).

Spectrosc. Lett. (1)

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, N. Konjevic, “Molecular Air Pollution Monitoring by Pulsed CO2 Laser-Based Long-Path Technique,” Spectrosc. Lett. 13, 861 (1980).

Other (5)

J. F. Snell, “Radiometry and Photometry,” inHandbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

W. W. Wendlandt, H. G. Hecht, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Interscience, New York, 1966).

F. Lehmann, C. Werner, W. Wiesemann, “LIMES: An Optical Multisensor Combining Mid-IR Laserscanner and Multispectralscanner,” in Proceedings, EARSeL/ESA Symposium on European Remote Sensing Opportunities,Strasburg, ESA SP-233 (May 1985), p. 115.

P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, I. Pippi, “Spectral Reflectance of Topographic Target Surface Materials: Implications on Wavelength-Scanning CO2 Laser-Based Lidars,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference,Aix-en-Provence (1984), p. 357.

D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds., Optical and Laser Remote Sensing (Springer, Berlin, 1983).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance spectra of potential reflectance standards.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectra of some silicate rocks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance spectra of sand, sandstone, and soil.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance spectra of pure kaolinite, kaolin clay, marl, and gypsum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance spectra of some carbonate rocks.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance spectra of man-made materials.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance spectra of leaves (deciduous trees).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reflectance spectra of leaves (coniferous trees).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reflectance spectra of meadow grass, wheat, and corn leaves.

Tables (2)

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Table I Long-Path DIAL Gas Concentration Measurement Errors (CR)θ (ppb · km) Due to Differential Reflectance

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Table II Identification of Terrestrial Surface Materials by Four-Wavelength Reflectance Measurements

Equations (1)

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C = 1 2 R ( α on α off ) [ ln ( P off / P on ) + ln ( ρ on / ρ off ) + ln ( η on / η off ) 2 R ( β on / β off ) ] ,

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