Abstract

A cross-beam saturated absorption spectroscopy technique, utilizing a single pulsed dye laser, has been developed for local concentration measurements in flames. With a differential detection of the probe and the reference laser beam intensities, a significant improvement of the technique has been achieved. In this work the basic theory of the method is discussed. Its use in combustion studies is demonstrated by presenting OH concentration profiles in two premixed laminar methane-air flames.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Spatially Resolved Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” Opt. Lett. 6, 525 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. S. Letokhov, “Saturation Spectroscopy” in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).
  3. W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
  4. K. Knapp, R. K. Hanson, “Spatially Resolved Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Measurements of CO Using Optical Stark Shifting,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1980 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. L. Farrow, L. A. Rahn, “Spatially Resolved Infrared Absorption Measurements: Application of an Optical Stark Effect,” Opt. Lett. 6, 108 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. E. M. Goldsmith, R. L. Farrow, “Spatially Resolved Optical Stark-Modulation Spectroscopy in Flames,” Opt. Lett. 7, 215 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. L. Farrow, “Spatially Resolved IR Absorption Spectroscopy by Optical Stark Modulation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4183 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. E. Walters, G. L. Long, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms and Ions in an ICP: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 69 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. E. Walters, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms in a Flame: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 125 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Saturated Interference Spectroscopy in Flames,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3319 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Polarization in Flames with a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3242 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Stepowski, A. Garo, “Local Absolute OH Concentration Measurement in a Diffusion Flame by Laser Induced Fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2478 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of Imaging Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in Highly Absorbing Flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Kychakoff, R. D. Howe, R. K. Hanson, “Spatially Resolved Combustion Measurements Using Cross-Beam Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1303 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. H. Piepmeier, “Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy with Laser Primary Sources,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979), Chap. 3.
  16. L. De Galan, W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, “Comparison of Line and Continuous Sources in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 436 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman & Hall, London, 1974).
  18. K. C. Luck, F. J. Muller, “Simultaneous Determination of Temperature and OH-Concentration in Flames Using High-Resolution Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 403 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. J. Cattolica, “OH Radical Nonequilibrium in Methane-Air Flat Flame,” Combust. Flame 44, 43 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. EG&G Princeton Applied Research model 165 gated integrator, Operating and Service Manual (1980).
    [PubMed]
  21. J. W. Daily, “Saturation of Fluorescence in Flames with a Gaussian Laser Beam,” Appl. Opt. 17, 225 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. L. Bowen, A. P. Thorne, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence and Population Measurements in Laser-Pumped Barium Vapour,” J. Phys. B 18, 35 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Th. J. Alkemade, “Anomalous Saturation Curves in Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 40, 1331 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Kohse-Hoinghaus, W. Perc, T. Just, “Laser Induced Saturated Fluorescence as a Method for Determination of Radical Concentrations in Flames,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. T. Salmon, N. M. Laurendeau, “Calibration of Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements Using Rayleigh Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 24, 65 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. T. Salmon, N. M. Laurendeau, “Analysis of Probe Volume Effects Associated with Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1313 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. J. Cottereau, “Single-Shot Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements: a New Method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 744 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of Imaging Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in Highly Absorbing Flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

1984

G. Kychakoff, R. D. Howe, R. K. Hanson, “Spatially Resolved Combustion Measurements Using Cross-Beam Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1303 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Walters, G. L. Long, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms and Ions in an ICP: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Walters, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms in a Flame: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. Kohse-Hoinghaus, W. Perc, T. Just, “Laser Induced Saturated Fluorescence as a Method for Determination of Radical Concentrations in Flames,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. Knapp, R. K. Hanson, “Spatially Resolved Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Measurements of CO Using Optical Stark Shifting,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1980 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

1981

1980

EG&G Princeton Applied Research model 165 gated integrator, Operating and Service Manual (1980).
[PubMed]

1978

1977

K. C. Luck, F. J. Muller, “Simultaneous Determination of Temperature and OH-Concentration in Flames Using High-Resolution Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1967

L. De Galan, W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, “Comparison of Line and Continuous Sources in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 436 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of Imaging Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in Highly Absorbing Flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, C. Th. J.

C. Th. J. Alkemade, “Anomalous Saturation Curves in Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 40, 1331 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, J. L.

J. L. Bowen, A. P. Thorne, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence and Population Measurements in Laser-Pumped Barium Vapour,” J. Phys. B 18, 35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cattolica, R. J.

R. J. Cattolica, “OH Radical Nonequilibrium in Methane-Air Flat Flame,” Combust. Flame 44, 43 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cottereau, M. J.

Daily, J. W.

De Galan, L.

L. De Galan, W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, “Comparison of Line and Continuous Sources in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 436 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Demtroder, W.

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

Farrow, R. L.

Garo, A.

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Hanson, R. K.

Hertz, H. M.

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of Imaging Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in Highly Absorbing Flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. D.

Just, T.

K. Kohse-Hoinghaus, W. Perc, T. Just, “Laser Induced Saturated Fluorescence as a Method for Determination of Radical Concentrations in Flames,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, K.

Kohse-Hoinghaus, K.

K. Kohse-Hoinghaus, W. Perc, T. Just, “Laser Induced Saturated Fluorescence as a Method for Determination of Radical Concentrations in Flames,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kychakoff, G.

Lanauze, J.

G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Polarization in Flames with a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3242 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Saturated Interference Spectroscopy in Flames,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3319 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Walters, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms in a Flame: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Laurendeau, N. M.

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, “Saturation Spectroscopy” in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

Long, G. L.

P. E. Walters, G. L. Long, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms and Ions in an ICP: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Luck, K. C.

K. C. Luck, F. J. Muller, “Simultaneous Determination of Temperature and OH-Concentration in Flames Using High-Resolution Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McGee, W. W.

L. De Galan, W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, “Comparison of Line and Continuous Sources in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 436 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Muller, F. J.

K. C. Luck, F. J. Muller, “Simultaneous Determination of Temperature and OH-Concentration in Flames Using High-Resolution Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Perc, W.

K. Kohse-Hoinghaus, W. Perc, T. Just, “Laser Induced Saturated Fluorescence as a Method for Determination of Radical Concentrations in Flames,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Piepmeier, E. H.

E. H. Piepmeier, “Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy with Laser Primary Sources,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979), Chap. 3.

Rahn, L. A.

Salmon, J. T.

Stepowski, D.

Thorne, A. P.

J. L. Bowen, A. P. Thorne, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence and Population Measurements in Laser-Pumped Barium Vapour,” J. Phys. B 18, 35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman & Hall, London, 1974).

Walters, P. E.

P. E. Walters, G. L. Long, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms and Ions in an ICP: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Walters, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms in a Flame: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Polarization in Flames with a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3242 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Saturated Interference Spectroscopy in Flames,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3319 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Walters, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms in a Flame: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Walters, G. L. Long, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms and Ions in an ICP: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. De Galan, W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, “Comparison of Line and Continuous Sources in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 436 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Zizak, G.

Anal. Chim. Acta

L. De Galan, W. W. McGee, J. D. Winefordner, “Comparison of Line and Continuous Sources in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 37, 436 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. W. Daily, “Saturation of Fluorescence in Flames with a Gaussian Laser Beam,” Appl. Opt. 17, 225 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, “Spatially Resolved IR Absorption Spectroscopy by Optical Stark Modulation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4183 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Knapp, R. K. Hanson, “Spatially Resolved Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Measurements of CO Using Optical Stark Shifting,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1980 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Salmon, N. M. Laurendeau, “Calibration of Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements Using Rayleigh Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 24, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Salmon, N. M. Laurendeau, “Analysis of Probe Volume Effects Associated with Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1313 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cottereau, “Single-Shot Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements: a New Method,” Appl. Opt. 25, 744 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Polarization in Flames with a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3242 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kychakoff, R. D. Howe, R. K. Hanson, “Spatially Resolved Combustion Measurements Using Cross-Beam Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1303 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stepowski, A. Garo, “Local Absolute OH Concentration Measurement in a Diffusion Flame by Laser Induced Fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2478 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Cross-Beam Saturated Interference Spectroscopy in Flames,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3319 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of Imaging Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in Highly Absorbing Flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.

K. Kohse-Hoinghaus, W. Perc, T. Just, “Laser Induced Saturated Fluorescence as a Method for Determination of Radical Concentrations in Flames,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame

R. J. Cattolica, “OH Radical Nonequilibrium in Methane-Air Flat Flame,” Combust. Flame 44, 43 (1982).
[CrossRef]

EG&G Princeton Applied Research model 165 gated integrator, Operating and Service Manual

EG&G Princeton Applied Research model 165 gated integrator, Operating and Service Manual (1980).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. B

J. L. Bowen, A. P. Thorne, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence and Population Measurements in Laser-Pumped Barium Vapour,” J. Phys. B 18, 35 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

K. C. Luck, F. J. Muller, “Simultaneous Determination of Temperature and OH-Concentration in Flames Using High-Resolution Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Spectrochim. Acta Part B

P. E. Walters, G. L. Long, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms and Ions in an ICP: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Walters, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “Spatially Resolved Concentration Studies of Ground State Atoms in a Flame: Saturated Absorption Spectroscopic Method,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 39, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Th. J. Alkemade, “Anomalous Saturation Curves in Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 40, 1331 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. S. Letokhov, “Saturation Spectroscopy” in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

E. H. Piepmeier, “Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy with Laser Primary Sources,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979), Chap. 3.

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman & Hall, London, 1974).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the probe and saturating beam intersection geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Laser intensity incident, I°, and transmitted through the flame, I′. (b) XBSAS signal due to the saturation of the probe volume.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radial profile of OH in the stoichiometric CH4-air flame.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial profile of OH in the rich CH4-air flame.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K 1 = k ̅ 1 L 1 = 0 L 1 k λ ( x ) d 1 ,
K 2 = k ̅ 2 L 2 = L 1 + Δ 1 L 1 + Δ 1 + L 2 k λ ( x ) d 1 ,
Δ K = k ̅ λ Δ 1 = L 1 L 1 + Δ 1 k λ ( x ) d 1 ,
Δ K = k ̅ λ Δ 1 = L 1 L 1 + Δ 1 k λ * ( x ) d 1 ,
I ( λ ) = I o ( λ ) exp ( K 1 Δ K K 2 ) ,
I ( λ ) = I o ( λ ) exp ( K 1 Δ K K 2 ) ;
I L = 0 + I ( λ ) d λ ,
I L = 0 + I ( λ ) d λ .
ln ( I L / I L ) = k ̅ Δ λ Δ 1 ,
Δ I L I L = I L I L I L = k ̅ Δ λ Δ 1 .
k λ d λ = π e 2 λ o 2 f N m c 2 ,
k λ = k o δ ( a , υ ) ,
k o = 4 π ln 2 e 2 λ o 2 f N m c 2 Δ λ D 2 ,
δ ( a , υ ) = a π + exp ( y 2 ) d y a 2 + ( υ y ) 2 .
N n b = Δ I L I L π 4 ln 2 c h Δ λ D Δ 1 λ o δ ( a , υ ̅ ) B 12 ,
I L I L = 0 + I o ( λ ) Δ K [ 1 ( K 1 + K 2 + Δ K 2 ) ] d λ ,
I L I L 0 + I ( λ ) Δ K d λ .
I L I L I ( λ 0 ) 0 + Δ K d λ ,
I L I L I L Δ 1 Δ λ laser 0 + k ̅ λ d λ .
N b b = Δ I L I L c h Δ λ laser Δ 1 λ o B 12 ,
R = 4 ln 2 π Δ λ laser δ ( a , υ ̅ ) Δ λ D .

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