Abstract

Grazing incidence Wolter type I mirrors for higher-energy x rays have been replicated from two superpolished mandrels by electroforming. Single mirrors and a nested pair were tested with 1.5- and 6.4-keV x rays, and their subminute of arc resolution and reflectivity close to the theoretical values are confirmed. We present the design of the mandrels, mirror mounting scheme, and results of the x-ray test. The microroughnesses of the mirrors measured using an optical profilometer were compared with the x-ray test results.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, E. A. Laughlin, M. P. Kowalski, “Electroform Replication Used for Multiple X-Ray Mirror Production,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4233 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF)—Performance Requirements and Design Considerations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 50 (1979).
  4. M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroform Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” in Proceedings, Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission June 1985, Lyngby, Denmark (ESA SP-239) (1985), p. 195.
  5. D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., in press).
  6. R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).
  7. O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).
  8. M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).
  9. A. C. Williams, J. C. Reily, “Experimental Results for the Scattering of X-Rays from Smooth Surface,” Opt. Eng. 23, 177 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1986).
  11. L. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1986).

1986 (5)

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).

D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1986).

L. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1986).

1984 (2)

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, E. A. Laughlin, M. P. Kowalski, “Electroform Replication Used for Multiple X-Ray Mirror Production,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4233 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Williams, J. C. Reily, “Experimental Results for the Scattering of X-Rays from Smooth Surface,” Opt. Eng. 23, 177 (1984).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF)—Performance Requirements and Design Considerations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 50 (1979).

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
[Crossref]

Bedford, D. K.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., in press).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroform Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” in Proceedings, Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission June 1985, Lyngby, Denmark (ESA SP-239) (1985), p. 195.

Citterio, O.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Conti, G.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
[Crossref]

Hudec, R.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

Kowalski, M. P.

Laughlin, E. A.

Matsui, Y.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., in press).

Mattaini, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Purcell, W. R.

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, E. A. Laughlin, M. P. Kowalski, “Electroform Replication Used for Multiple X-Ray Mirror Production,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4233 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroform Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” in Proceedings, Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission June 1985, Lyngby, Denmark (ESA SP-239) (1985), p. 195.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., in press).

Reily, J. C.

A. C. Williams, J. C. Reily, “Experimental Results for the Scattering of X-Rays from Smooth Surface,” Opt. Eng. 23, 177 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sacco, B.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Santambrogio, E.

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

Schwartz, D. A.

D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1986).

Simnett, G. M.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., in press).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroform Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” in Proceedings, Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission June 1985, Lyngby, Denmark (ESA SP-239) (1985), p. 195.

Ulmer, M. P.

M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, E. A. Laughlin, M. P. Kowalski, “Electroform Replication Used for Multiple X-Ray Mirror Production,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4233 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroform Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” in Proceedings, Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission June 1985, Lyngby, Denmark (ESA SP-239) (1985), p. 195.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., in press).

Valnicek, B.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

Van Speybroeck, L.

L. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1986).

Williams, A. C.

A. C. Williams, J. C. Reily, “Experimental Results for the Scattering of X-Rays from Smooth Surface,” Opt. Eng. 23, 177 (1984).
[Crossref]

Zombeck, M. V.

M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF)—Performance Requirements and Design Considerations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 50 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO-2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. C. Williams, J. C. Reily, “Experimental Results for the Scattering of X-Rays from Smooth Surface,” Opt. Eng. 23, 177 (1984).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (6)

D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1986).

L. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1986).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Czechoslovak Replica X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 111 (1986).

O. Citterio, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, B. Sacco, E. Santambrogio, “Optics for X-Ray Concentrators on Board the Astronomy Satellite SAX,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 102 (1986).

M. P. Ulmer, “Replication of Grazing Incidence Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 149 (1986).

M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF)—Performance Requirements and Design Considerations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 50 (1979).

Other (2)

M. P. Ulmer, W. R. Purcell, D. K. Bedford, G. M. Simnett, “Electroform Replication of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics,” in Proceedings, Workshop on a Cosmic X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission June 1985, Lyngby, Denmark (ESA SP-239) (1985), p. 195.

D. K. Bedford, W. R. Purcell, G. M. Simnett, M. P. Ulmer, Y. Matsui, “Replicated X-Ray Mirrors for a Multi-Mirror Array,” in Proceedings, Workshop on X-Ray Optics, June 1986 (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, U.K., in press).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the mandrel. The relation between angles A and B is B = 3A, where A = 25 min of arc for the larger mirror (the outermost mirror of the module).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the mounting scheme for nested mirrors. The mirrors in the upper portion of the figure are drawn on contact points to show the support system. The mirrors in the lower portion are drawn to show the opening portion of mirror apertures used to focus x rays. The units of the dimension are in millimeters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Encircled effective area as a function of diameter: (a) for 1.5-keV x rays derived from MCP data; (b) for 6.4-keV x rays derived from pinhole scan data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TV display of an MCP image focused by the mirror A001. The exposure time is 300 s. The length between the grids corresponds to 2.7 min of arc.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contour map of an MCP image focused by the nested pair. Contours are 10, 20, 40, and 80% of the peak surface brightness. The units of the coordinates are in minutes of arc.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

One-dimensional pinhole scan through the core of a 6.4-keV image formed by the nested pair. The dashed line is a best fit taking into account the pinhole size.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of X-ray Reflectivity Measurements at 1.5 keV

Tables Icon

Table II Summary of X-ray Reflectivity Measurements at 6.4 keV

Tables Icon

Table III Summary of Optical Profilometer Measurements

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