Abstract

We have measured the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of potassium bromide as a photocathode applied directly to the surface of a microchannel plate over the 250–1600Å wavelength range. The contributions of the photocathode material in the channels and on the interchannel web to the QDE have been determined. Two broad peaks in the QDE centered at ∼450 and ∼1050 Å are apparent, the former with ∼50% peak QDE and the latter with ∼40% peak QDE. The photoelectric threshold is observed at ∼1600 Å, and there is a narrow QDE minimum at ∼750 Å which correlates with 2× the band gap energy for KBr. The angular variation of the QDE from 0 to 40° to the channel axis has also been examined. The stability of KBr with time is shown to be good with no significant degradation of QDE at wavelengths below 1216 Å over a 15-day period in air.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).
  5. S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 953 (1965).
  6. P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. 7, 1554 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  9. O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).
  12. G. R. Carruthers, “Apollo 16 Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph: Instrument and Operations,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2501 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 1705 (1964).
  16. M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali-Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  20. F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of MicroChannel Plate Detectors: The Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging MicroChannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).
  23. G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of MicroChannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  26. E. B. Saloman, J. S. Pearlman, B. L. Henke, “Evaluation of High Efficiency CsI and CuI Photocathodes for Soft X-Ray Diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 749 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

1985 (2)

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging MicroChannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

1984 (3)

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984).
[Crossref]

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of MicroChannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of MicroChannel Plate Detectors: The Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979).
[Crossref]

1973 (3)

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. 7, 1554 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. R. Carruthers, “Apollo 16 Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph: Instrument and Operations,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2501 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
[Crossref]

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali-Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863 (1968).
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 953 (1965).

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 1705 (1964).

1963 (1)

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[Crossref]

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[Crossref]

Antinori, M.

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

Baldini, G.

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali-Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863 (1968).
[Crossref]

Balzarotti, A.

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

Barstow, M. A.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging MicroChannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bastawros, A. M.

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bixler, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Bosacchi, B.

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali-Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bowyer, S.

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, F. C.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[Crossref]

Carrera, N.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

Carruthers, G. R.

Coburn, K.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cruddace, R. G.

DiStefano, T. H.

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. 7, 1554 (1973).
[Crossref]

Duckett, S. W.

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 953 (1965).

Ehrenreich, H.

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[Crossref]

Everman, E.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Fraser, G. W.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging MicroChannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of MicroChannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fritz, G. G.

Fujita, H.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

Gahwiller, C.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

Garwin, E. L.

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[Crossref]

Grais, K. I.

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[Crossref]

Haensel, R.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[Crossref]

Henke, B. L.

E. B. Saloman, J. S. Pearlman, B. L. Henke, “Evaluation of High Efficiency CsI and CuI Photocathodes for Soft X-Ray Diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 749 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979).
[Crossref]

Hettrick, M. C.

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of MicroChannel Plate Detectors: The Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jelinsky, P.

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kowalski, M. P.

Kunz, A. B.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

Labov, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Lampton, M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[Crossref]

Lewis, M.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[Crossref]

Liesegang, J.

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979).
[Crossref]

Llacer, J.

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[Crossref]

Lynch, D. W.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[Crossref]

Malina, R. F.

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of MicroChannel Plate Detectors: The Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[Crossref]

Martin, C.

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[Crossref]

Metzger, P.

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
[Crossref]

Metzger, P. H.

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 953 (1965).

Milward, S. R.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging MicroChannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

Pearlman, J. S.

Pearson, J. F.

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[Crossref]

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[Crossref]

Phillips, J. C.

J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 1705 (1964).

Piacentini, M.

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

Rubloff, G. W.

G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
[Crossref]

Saloman, E. B.

Scheifly, W.

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. D.

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979).
[Crossref]

Sonntag, B.

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[Crossref]

Spicer, W. E.

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. 7, 1554 (1973).
[Crossref]

Swanson, N.

Taylor, R. C.

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of MicroChannel Plate Detectors: The Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[Crossref]

Unzicker, A. E.

Vallerga, J. V.

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Werthiemer, D.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[Crossref]

Whiteley, M. J.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[Crossref]

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969).
[Crossref]

K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (3)

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of MicroChannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (3)

T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. 7, 1554 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali-Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863 (1968).
[Crossref]

H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 1705 (1964).

S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 953 (1965).

Phys. Rev. B (5)

B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972).
[Crossref]

F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970).
[Crossref]

M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of MicroChannel Plate Detectors: The Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[Crossref]

Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging MicroChannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the photocathode test configuration showing the photocathode layer, photoelectron repelling grid, and top microchannel plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for a 15,000-Å thick KBr opaque photocathode at a 15° graze angle to the channel axis using a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for a 15,000-Å thick KBr opaque photocathode at a 40° graze angle to the channel axis using a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for a 15,000-Å thick CsI opaque photocathode at a 15° graze angle to the channel axis using a 100-V mm−1 repelling field. Errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characteristic attenuation distance dc for incident radiation in KBr as a function of wavelength. The short-wavelength data are from Ref. 20, the data from 500 to 950 Å are from Ref. 16, and the data above 950 Å are from Ref. 19.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Quantum efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for a 15,000-Å thick opaque KBr photocathode using 256-Å radiation with a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Relative errors are shown; absolute errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quantum efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for a 15,000-Å thick opaque KBr photocathode using 461-Å radiation with a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Relative errors are shown; absolute errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Quantum efficiency vs graze angle to the channel axis for a 15,000-Å thick opaque KBr photocathode using 740-Å radiation with a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Relative errors are shown; absolute errors are as described in the text.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stability of KBr quantum efficiency vs wavelength to air exposure for a 15,000-Å thick opaque photocathode at a 15° graze angle to the channel axis and using a 120-V mm−1 repelling field. Errors are as described in the text.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P t = exp ( μ d ) ,
x = d sin θ ,
d P t / d x = μ / sin θ exp ( μ x / sin θ ) .
P e = P o exp ( x / L s ) ,
P a e = P o μ ( μ + sin θ / L s ) 1
d c = μ 1 ,
P a e = P o L s ( L s + d c sin θ ) 1 .
QDE = P c P a e ( 1 R n ) ,

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