Abstract

The application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to the study of high pressure solid propellant flames is described. The distribution of the OH and CN radicals was determined in several solid propellant flames at pressures up to 3.5 MPa. The greatest difficulty in these measurements was the separation of the desired LIF signals from the large scattering at the laser wavelength from the very optically thick propellant flames. Raman experiments using 308-nm excitation were also attempted in the propellant flames but were unsuccessful due to LIF interferences from OH and NH.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  24. R. Engleman, “The Δυ = 0 and +1 Sequence Bands of the CN Violet System Observed During the Flash Photolysis of BrCN,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 49, 106 (1974).
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  25. W. Jevons, “The More Refrangible Band System of Cyanogen as Developed in Active Nitrogen,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 112, 407 (1926).
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  28. T. Parr, D. Hanson-Parr, “Species and Temperature Profiles in Ignition and Deflagration of HMX,” Western States Section/ Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-8 (Apr.1987).
  29. C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.
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    [CrossRef]
  32. A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. D. Williams, J. H. Jones, B. P. Curry, J. W. L. Lewis, “Raman Scattering Diagnostics Development Using an Excimer/Dual Dye Laser System I,” AEDC TR 83-15 (July1983).
  34. M. C. Branch, A. Alfarayedhi, M. Sadeqi, “Structure of Flames Associated with Nitramine Solid Propellants,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-20 (Apr.1987).
  35. E. Gutmark, T. P. Parr, D. M. Hanson-Parr, K. C. Schadow, “Azimuthal Structure of Circular Diffusion Flame,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40 (Apr.1987).
  36. J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Photochemical Effects in Two-Photon-Excited Fluorescence Detection of Atomic Oxygen in Flames,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MB4-1.
  37. J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “Multiple Species Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Flames,” presented at Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (1986).
  38. J. M. Lents, “An Evaluation of Molecular Constants and Transition Probabilities for the NH Free Radical,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 297 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  39. R. W. B. Pearse, A. G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra (Chapman & Hall, London, 1976).
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  40. T. L. Boggs, R. L. Derr, M. W. Beckstead, “Surface Structure of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellants,” AIAA J. 8, 370 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1979).
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    [CrossRef]
  43. J. A. Vanderhoff, W. R. Anderson, A. J. Kotlar, R. A. Beyer, “Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Methane-Nitrous Oxide Flame,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1299–1306.
  44. N. Kubota, “Physicochemical Processes of HMX Propellant Combustion,” in Nineteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1983), pp. 777–785.
  45. J. G. Sotter, “Chemical Kinetics of the Cordite Explosion Zone,” in Tenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1965), pp. 1405–1411.
    [CrossRef]
  46. P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN Concentration in Flames by Laser-Induced Saturated Fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  47. D. R. Crosley, Collisional Effects on Laser-Induced Fluorescence Flame Measurements,” Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  48. L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

1987

T. Parr, D. Hanson-Parr, “Species and Temperature Profiles in Ignition and Deflagration of HMX,” Western States Section/ Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-8 (Apr.1987).

M. C. Branch, A. Alfarayedhi, M. Sadeqi, “Structure of Flames Associated with Nitramine Solid Propellants,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-20 (Apr.1987).

E. Gutmark, T. P. Parr, D. M. Hanson-Parr, K. C. Schadow, “Azimuthal Structure of Circular Diffusion Flame,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40 (Apr.1987).

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CN in Solid Propellant Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI86-18 (Oct.1987).

1986

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. B. Peterson, A. J. Kotlar, “The Feasibility of Using CARS for the Study of Muzzle Flash,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 2, (Oct.1986), pp. 263–271.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence in High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” AIAA Paper 86–0295 (Jan.1986).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “CN Radical Distributions in Solid Propellant Flames,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ.457, Vol. 1, (Oct.1986), pp. 181–195.

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Methods for Measurement of Hydroxyl Concentration in Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-27 (Apr.1986).

L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Investigation of High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry Using Emission Spectroscopy,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, “High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Zone Structure from Analysis of Hydroxyl Radical Chemiluminescence,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 414 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.

1985

R. P. Lucht, D. W. Sweeney, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements of OH in Atmospheric Pressure CH4/O2/N2 Flames Under Sooting and Non-Sooting Conditions,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 259 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Hulsizer, D. H. Campbell, T. Edwards, “2-D Imaging of High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” Combust. Inst. Paper 85-5-6A (Apr.1985).

D. H. Campbell, “Self-Absorption Effects in Emission and Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 85-14 (Oct.1985).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “A High Pressure Combustor for the Spectroscopic Study of Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 56 (11), 2131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Haw, S. Darrah, L. E. Harris, “Single-Shot H2 CARS Spectrometry of Propellant Ignition and Combustion, Under Pressure,” in Twenty-second JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 432, Vol. 1 (Oct.1985), pp. 55–64.

1984

1983

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. A. Beyer, A. J. Kotlar, W. R. Anderson, “Kr+ and Ar+ Laser-Excited Fluorescence of CN in a Flame,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1976 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Wilmot, W. H. Barber, J. W. Fleming, A. P. Baronavski, “Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Solid Propellant Combustion Diagnostics,” in Twentieth JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 383, Vol. 2 (Oct.1983), pp. 1–4.

W. D. Williams, J. H. Jones, B. P. Curry, J. W. L. Lewis, “Raman Scattering Diagnostics Development Using an Excimer/Dual Dye Laser System I,” AEDC TR 83-15 (July1983).

1982

1981

D. R. Crosley, Collisional Effects on Laser-Induced Fluorescence Flame Measurements,” Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN Concentration in Flames by Laser-Induced Saturated Fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. M. Lents, “An Evaluation of Molecular Constants and Transition Probabilities for the NH Free Radical,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. Engleman, “The Δυ = 0 and +1 Sequence Bands of the CN Violet System Observed During the Flash Photolysis of BrCN,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 49, 106 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

W. H. Smith, H. S. Liszt, “Franck-Condon Factors and Absolute Oscillator Strengths for NH, SiH, S2, and SO,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 45 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

T. L. Boggs, R. L. Derr, M. W. Beckstead, “Surface Structure of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellants,” AIAA J. 8, 370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1926

W. Jevons, “The More Refrangible Band System of Cyanogen as Developed in Active Nitrogen,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 112, 407 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Alfarayedhi, A.

M. C. Branch, A. Alfarayedhi, M. Sadeqi, “Structure of Flames Associated with Nitramine Solid Propellants,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-20 (Apr.1987).

Allen, M. G.

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.

Anderson, W. R.

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. A. Beyer, A. J. Kotlar, W. R. Anderson, “Kr+ and Ar+ Laser-Excited Fluorescence of CN in a Flame,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1976 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Vanderhoff, W. R. Anderson, A. J. Kotlar, R. A. Beyer, “Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Methane-Nitrous Oxide Flame,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1299–1306.

Barber, W. H.

G. B. Wilmot, W. H. Barber, J. W. Fleming, A. P. Baronavski, “Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Solid Propellant Combustion Diagnostics,” in Twentieth JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 383, Vol. 2 (Oct.1983), pp. 1–4.

Baronavski, A. P.

G. B. Wilmot, W. H. Barber, J. W. Fleming, A. P. Baronavski, “Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Solid Propellant Combustion Diagnostics,” in Twentieth JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 383, Vol. 2 (Oct.1983), pp. 1–4.

Beckstead, M. W.

T. L. Boggs, R. L. Derr, M. W. Beckstead, “Surface Structure of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellants,” AIAA J. 8, 370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, R. A.

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. A. Beyer, A. J. Kotlar, W. R. Anderson, “Kr+ and Ar+ Laser-Excited Fluorescence of CN in a Flame,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1976 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Vanderhoff, W. R. Anderson, A. J. Kotlar, R. A. Beyer, “Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Methane-Nitrous Oxide Flame,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1299–1306.

Bilger, R. W.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bizot, A.

G. Lengelle, A. Bizot, J. Duterque, J. F. Trubert, “Steady-State Burning of Homogeneous Propellants,” Chap. 7, pp. 361– 408 in Ref. 1.

Boggs, T. L.

T. L. Boggs, R. L. Derr, M. W. Beckstead, “Surface Structure of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellants,” AIAA J. 8, 370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Boggs, “The Thermal Behavior of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX),” Chap 3, pp. 121–176 in Ref. 1.

Bonczyk, P. A.

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN Concentration in Flames by Laser-Induced Saturated Fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, C. T.

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.

Branch, M. C.

M. C. Branch, A. Alfarayedhi, M. Sadeqi, “Structure of Flames Associated with Nitramine Solid Propellants,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-20 (Apr.1987).

L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

Campbell, D. H.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CN in Solid Propellant Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI86-18 (Oct.1987).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence in High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” AIAA Paper 86–0295 (Jan.1986).

D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, “High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Zone Structure from Analysis of Hydroxyl Radical Chemiluminescence,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 414 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Investigation of High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry Using Emission Spectroscopy,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “CN Radical Distributions in Solid Propellant Flames,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ.457, Vol. 1, (Oct.1986), pp. 181–195.

D. H. Campbell, “Self-Absorption Effects in Emission and Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 85-14 (Oct.1985).

S. Hulsizer, D. H. Campbell, T. Edwards, “2-D Imaging of High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” Combust. Inst. Paper 85-5-6A (Apr.1985).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “A High Pressure Combustor for the Spectroscopic Study of Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 56 (11), 2131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Campbell, “Collisional Effects on Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Hydroxide Concentrations in a Combustion Environment. 1: Effects for υ′ = 0 Excitation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 689 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Campbell, “Collisional Effects on Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Hydroxide Concentrations in a Combustion Environment. 2: Effects for υ′ = 1 Excitation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1319 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Campbell, “Vibrational Level Relaxation Effects on Laser Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Hydroxide Number Density in a Methane-Air Flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2912 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cattolica, R. J.

R. J. Cattolica, S. R. Vosen, “Two-Dimensional Measurements of the [OH] in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,”in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1273–1282.

Chandler, D. W.

L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

Copeland, R. A.

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “Multiple Species Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Flames,” presented at Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (1986).

Crosley, D. R.

D. R. Crosley, Collisional Effects on Laser-Induced Fluorescence Flame Measurements,” Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “Multiple Species Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Flames,” presented at Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (1986).

Curry, B. P.

W. D. Williams, J. H. Jones, B. P. Curry, J. W. L. Lewis, “Raman Scattering Diagnostics Development Using an Excimer/Dual Dye Laser System I,” AEDC TR 83-15 (July1983).

Darrah, S.

T. E. Haw, S. Darrah, L. E. Harris, “Single-Shot H2 CARS Spectrometry of Propellant Ignition and Combustion, Under Pressure,” in Twenty-second JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 432, Vol. 1 (Oct.1985), pp. 55–64.

Derr, R. L.

T. L. Boggs, R. L. Derr, M. W. Beckstead, “Surface Structure of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellants,” AIAA J. 8, 370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Duterque, J.

G. Lengelle, A. Bizot, J. Duterque, J. F. Trubert, “Steady-State Burning of Homogeneous Propellants,” Chap. 7, pp. 361– 408 in Ref. 1.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CN in Solid Propellant Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI86-18 (Oct.1987).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence in High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” AIAA Paper 86–0295 (Jan.1986).

D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, “High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Zone Structure from Analysis of Hydroxyl Radical Chemiluminescence,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 414 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Investigation of High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry Using Emission Spectroscopy,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “CN Radical Distributions in Solid Propellant Flames,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ.457, Vol. 1, (Oct.1986), pp. 181–195.

S. Hulsizer, D. H. Campbell, T. Edwards, “2-D Imaging of High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” Combust. Inst. Paper 85-5-6A (Apr.1985).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “A High Pressure Combustor for the Spectroscopic Study of Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 56 (11), 2131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Engleman, R.

R. Engleman, “The Δυ = 0 and +1 Sequence Bands of the CN Violet System Observed During the Flash Photolysis of BrCN,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 49, 106 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fifer, R. A.

R. A. Fifer, “Chemistry of Nitrate Ester and Nitramine Propellants,” Chap. 4, pp. 177–238 in Ref. 1.

Fleming, J. W.

G. B. Wilmot, W. H. Barber, J. W. Fleming, A. P. Baronavski, “Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Solid Propellant Combustion Diagnostics,” in Twentieth JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 383, Vol. 2 (Oct.1983), pp. 1–4.

Frederick, F.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CN in Solid Propellant Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI86-18 (Oct.1987).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “CN Radical Distributions in Solid Propellant Flames,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ.457, Vol. 1, (Oct.1986), pp. 181–195.

Gaydon, A. G.

R. W. B. Pearse, A. G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra (Chapman & Hall, London, 1976).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (Chapman & Hall, London, 1974).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1979).

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Methods for Measurement of Hydroxyl Concentration in Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-27 (Apr.1986).

J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Photochemical Effects in Two-Photon-Excited Fluorescence Detection of Atomic Oxygen in Flames,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MB4-1.

Gutmark, E.

E. Gutmark, T. P. Parr, D. M. Hanson-Parr, K. C. Schadow, “Azimuthal Structure of Circular Diffusion Flame,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40 (Apr.1987).

Hanson, R. K.

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.

Hanson-Parr, D.

T. Parr, D. Hanson-Parr, “Species and Temperature Profiles in Ignition and Deflagration of HMX,” Western States Section/ Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-8 (Apr.1987).

Hanson-Parr, D. M.

E. Gutmark, T. P. Parr, D. M. Hanson-Parr, K. C. Schadow, “Azimuthal Structure of Circular Diffusion Flame,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40 (Apr.1987).

Harris, L. E.

T. E. Haw, S. Darrah, L. E. Harris, “Single-Shot H2 CARS Spectrometry of Propellant Ignition and Combustion, Under Pressure,” in Twenty-second JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 432, Vol. 1 (Oct.1985), pp. 55–64.

L. E. Harris, “CARS Spectroscopy of the Reaction Zone of Methane-Nitrous Oxide and RDX Propellant Flame,” Technical Report ARAED-TR-85007 (Jan.1986).

Haw, T. E.

T. E. Haw, S. Darrah, L. E. Harris, “Single-Shot H2 CARS Spectrometry of Propellant Ignition and Combustion, Under Pressure,” in Twenty-second JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 432, Vol. 1 (Oct.1985), pp. 55–64.

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1950).

Hulsizer, S.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence in High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” AIAA Paper 86–0295 (Jan.1986).

D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, “High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Zone Structure from Analysis of Hydroxyl Radical Chemiluminescence,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 414 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Investigation of High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry Using Emission Spectroscopy,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “A High Pressure Combustor for the Spectroscopic Study of Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 56 (11), 2131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Hulsizer, D. H. Campbell, T. Edwards, “2-D Imaging of High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” Combust. Inst. Paper 85-5-6A (Apr.1985).

Jeffries, J. B.

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “Multiple Species Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Flames,” presented at Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (1986).

Jevons, W.

W. Jevons, “The More Refrangible Band System of Cyanogen as Developed in Active Nitrogen,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 112, 407 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. H.

W. D. Williams, J. H. Jones, B. P. Curry, J. W. L. Lewis, “Raman Scattering Diagnostics Development Using an Excimer/Dual Dye Laser System I,” AEDC TR 83-15 (July1983).

Kee, R. J.

L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

Kotlar, A. J.

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. B. Peterson, A. J. Kotlar, “The Feasibility of Using CARS for the Study of Muzzle Flash,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 2, (Oct.1986), pp. 263–271.

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. A. Beyer, A. J. Kotlar, W. R. Anderson, “Kr+ and Ar+ Laser-Excited Fluorescence of CN in a Flame,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1976 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Vanderhoff, W. R. Anderson, A. J. Kotlar, R. A. Beyer, “Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Methane-Nitrous Oxide Flame,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1299–1306.

Kubota, N.

N. Kubota, “Physicochemical Processes of HMX Propellant Combustion,” in Nineteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1983), pp. 777–785.

N. Kubota, “Physicochemical Processes of HMX Propellant Combustion,” in Nineteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1983), pp. 777–785.

Kuo, K.

K. Kuo, M. Summerfield, Eds, Fundamentals of Solid Propellant Combustion, AIAA Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Series, Vol. 90 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Laurendeau, N. M.

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Methods for Measurement of Hydroxyl Concentration in Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-27 (Apr.1986).

R. P. Lucht, D. W. Sweeney, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements of OH in Atmospheric Pressure CH4/O2/N2 Flames Under Sooting and Non-Sooting Conditions,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 259 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lengelle, G.

G. Lengelle, A. Bizot, J. Duterque, J. F. Trubert, “Steady-State Burning of Homogeneous Propellants,” Chap. 7, pp. 361– 408 in Ref. 1.

Lents, J. M.

J. M. Lents, “An Evaluation of Molecular Constants and Transition Probabilities for the NH Free Radical,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. W. L.

W. D. Williams, J. H. Jones, B. P. Curry, J. W. L. Lewis, “Raman Scattering Diagnostics Development Using an Excimer/Dual Dye Laser System I,” AEDC TR 83-15 (July1983).

Liszt, H. S.

W. H. Smith, H. S. Liszt, “Franck-Condon Factors and Absolute Oscillator Strengths for NH, SiH, S2, and SO,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 45 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

R. P. Lucht, D. W. Sweeney, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements of OH in Atmospheric Pressure CH4/O2/N2 Flames Under Sooting and Non-Sooting Conditions,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 259 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Masri, A. R.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McManus, K. R.

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.

Miller, R. J.

L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

Parr, T.

T. Parr, D. Hanson-Parr, “Species and Temperature Profiles in Ignition and Deflagration of HMX,” Western States Section/ Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-8 (Apr.1987).

Parr, T. P.

E. Gutmark, T. P. Parr, D. M. Hanson-Parr, K. C. Schadow, “Azimuthal Structure of Circular Diffusion Flame,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40 (Apr.1987).

Pearse, R. W. B.

R. W. B. Pearse, A. G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra (Chapman & Hall, London, 1976).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. B.

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. B. Peterson, A. J. Kotlar, “The Feasibility of Using CARS for the Study of Muzzle Flash,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 2, (Oct.1986), pp. 263–271.

Sadeqi, M.

M. C. Branch, A. Alfarayedhi, M. Sadeqi, “Structure of Flames Associated with Nitramine Solid Propellants,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-20 (Apr.1987).

Schadow, K. C.

E. Gutmark, T. P. Parr, D. M. Hanson-Parr, K. C. Schadow, “Azimuthal Structure of Circular Diffusion Flame,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40 (Apr.1987).

Shirley, J. A.

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN Concentration in Flames by Laser-Induced Saturated Fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “Multiple Species Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Flames,” presented at Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (1986).

Smith, W. H.

W. H. Smith, H. S. Liszt, “Franck-Condon Factors and Absolute Oscillator Strengths for NH, SiH, S2, and SO,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 45 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sotter, J. G.

J. G. Sotter, “Chemical Kinetics of the Cordite Explosion Zone,” in Tenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1965), pp. 1405–1411.
[CrossRef]

Summerfield, M.

K. Kuo, M. Summerfield, Eds, Fundamentals of Solid Propellant Combustion, AIAA Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Series, Vol. 90 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

R. P. Lucht, D. W. Sweeney, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements of OH in Atmospheric Pressure CH4/O2/N2 Flames Under Sooting and Non-Sooting Conditions,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 259 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, L. R.

L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

Trubert, J. F.

G. Lengelle, A. Bizot, J. Duterque, J. F. Trubert, “Steady-State Burning of Homogeneous Propellants,” Chap. 7, pp. 361– 408 in Ref. 1.

Vanderhoff, J. A.

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. B. Peterson, A. J. Kotlar, “The Feasibility of Using CARS for the Study of Muzzle Flash,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 2, (Oct.1986), pp. 263–271.

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. A. Beyer, A. J. Kotlar, W. R. Anderson, “Kr+ and Ar+ Laser-Excited Fluorescence of CN in a Flame,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1976 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Vanderhoff, W. R. Anderson, A. J. Kotlar, R. A. Beyer, “Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Methane-Nitrous Oxide Flame,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1299–1306.

Vandsburger, U.

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.

Verdieck, J. F.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vosen, S. R.

R. J. Cattolica, S. R. Vosen, “Two-Dimensional Measurements of the [OH] in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,”in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1273–1282.

Weaver, D. P.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CN in Solid Propellant Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI86-18 (Oct.1987).

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence in High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” AIAA Paper 86–0295 (Jan.1986).

D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, “High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Zone Structure from Analysis of Hydroxyl Radical Chemiluminescence,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 414 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Investigation of High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry Using Emission Spectroscopy,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “CN Radical Distributions in Solid Propellant Flames,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ.457, Vol. 1, (Oct.1986), pp. 181–195.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “A High Pressure Combustor for the Spectroscopic Study of Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 56 (11), 2131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Williams, W. D.

W. D. Williams, J. H. Jones, B. P. Curry, J. W. L. Lewis, “Raman Scattering Diagnostics Development Using an Excimer/Dual Dye Laser System I,” AEDC TR 83-15 (July1983).

Wilmot, G. B.

G. B. Wilmot, W. H. Barber, J. W. Fleming, A. P. Baronavski, “Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Solid Propellant Combustion Diagnostics,” in Twentieth JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 383, Vol. 2 (Oct.1983), pp. 1–4.

Wolfhard, H. G.

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1979).

AEDC TR 83-15

W. D. Williams, J. H. Jones, B. P. Curry, J. W. L. Lewis, “Raman Scattering Diagnostics Development Using an Excimer/Dual Dye Laser System I,” AEDC TR 83-15 (July1983).

AIAA J.

T. L. Boggs, R. L. Derr, M. W. Beckstead, “Surface Structure of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellants,” AIAA J. 8, 370 (1970).
[CrossRef]

AIAA Paper 86–0295

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence in High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” AIAA Paper 86–0295 (Jan.1986).

Appl. Opt.

Combust. Flame

P. A. Bonczyk, J. A. Shirley, “Measurement of CH and CN Concentration in Flames by Laser-Induced Saturated Fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 34, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Inst. Paper 85-5-6A

S. Hulsizer, D. H. Campbell, T. Edwards, “2-D Imaging of High Pressure Solid Propellant Flames,” Combust. Inst. Paper 85-5-6A (Apr.1985).

Combust. Sci. Technol.

R. P. Lucht, D. W. Sweeney, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-Saturated Fluorescence Measurements of OH in Atmospheric Pressure CH4/O2/N2 Flames Under Sooting and Non-Sooting Conditions,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 259 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fundamentals of Solid Propellant Combustion

K. Kuo, M. Summerfield, Eds, Fundamentals of Solid Propellant Combustion, AIAA Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Series, Vol. 90 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

R. Engleman, “The Δυ = 0 and +1 Sequence Bands of the CN Violet System Observed During the Flash Photolysis of BrCN,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 49, 106 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Propulsion Power

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “Investigation of High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry Using Emission Spectroscopy,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, “High Pressure Solid Propellant Combustion Zone Structure from Analysis of Hydroxyl Radical Chemiluminescence,” J. Propulsion Power 2, 414 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

W. H. Smith, H. S. Liszt, “Franck-Condon Factors and Absolute Oscillator Strengths for NH, SiH, S2, and SO,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 45 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lents, “An Evaluation of Molecular Constants and Transition Probabilities for the NH Free Radical,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 13, 297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

D. R. Crosley, Collisional Effects on Laser-Induced Fluorescence Flame Measurements,” Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

W. Jevons, “The More Refrangible Band System of Cyanogen as Developed in Active Nitrogen,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 112, 407 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, S. Hulsizer, “A High Pressure Combustor for the Spectroscopic Study of Solid Propellant Combustion Chemistry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 56 (11), 2131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Twentieth JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 383

G. B. Wilmot, W. H. Barber, J. W. Fleming, A. P. Baronavski, “Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Solid Propellant Combustion Diagnostics,” in Twentieth JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 383, Vol. 2 (Oct.1983), pp. 1–4.

Twenty-second JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 432

T. E. Haw, S. Darrah, L. E. Harris, “Single-Shot H2 CARS Spectrometry of Propellant Ignition and Combustion, Under Pressure,” in Twenty-second JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 432, Vol. 1 (Oct.1985), pp. 55–64.

Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ.

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “CN Radical Distributions in Solid Propellant Flames,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ.457, Vol. 1, (Oct.1986), pp. 181–195.

Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457

J. A. Vanderhoff, R. B. Peterson, A. J. Kotlar, “The Feasibility of Using CARS for the Study of Muzzle Flash,” in Twenty-Third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 2, (Oct.1986), pp. 263–271.

C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, U. Vandsburger, M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, “Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics and Vaporization on Energy Release Rates and Flow Field Structure in a Dump Combustor,” in Twenty-third JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CPIA Publ. 457, Vol. 1 (1986), pp. 545–550.

Western States Section/ Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-8

T. Parr, D. Hanson-Parr, “Species and Temperature Profiles in Ignition and Deflagration of HMX,” Western States Section/ Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-8 (Apr.1987).

Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 85-14

D. H. Campbell, “Self-Absorption Effects in Emission and Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 85-14 (Oct.1985).

Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-27

N. M. Laurendeau, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Comparison of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Methods for Measurement of Hydroxyl Concentration in Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-27 (Apr.1986).

Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29

L. R. Thorne, M. C. Branch, D. W. Chandler, R. J. Kee, R. J. Miller, “Hydrocarbon-Nitric Oxide Interactions in Low-Pressure Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 86-29 (Apr.1986).

Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-20

M. C. Branch, A. Alfarayedhi, M. Sadeqi, “Structure of Flames Associated with Nitramine Solid Propellants,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-20 (Apr.1987).

Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40

E. Gutmark, T. P. Parr, D. M. Hanson-Parr, K. C. Schadow, “Azimuthal Structure of Circular Diffusion Flame,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI 87-40 (Apr.1987).

Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI86-18

T. Edwards, D. P. Weaver, D. H. Campbell, F. Frederick, “Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CN in Solid Propellant Flames,” Western States Section/Combustion Institute Paper WSS/CI86-18 (Oct.1987).

Other

L. E. Harris, “CARS Spectroscopy of the Reaction Zone of Methane-Nitrous Oxide and RDX Propellant Flame,” Technical Report ARAED-TR-85007 (Jan.1986).

R. J. Cattolica, S. R. Vosen, “Two-Dimensional Measurements of the [OH] in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,”in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1273–1282.

N. Kubota, “Physicochemical Processes of HMX Propellant Combustion,” in Nineteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1983), pp. 777–785.

G. Lengelle, A. Bizot, J. Duterque, J. F. Trubert, “Steady-State Burning of Homogeneous Propellants,” Chap. 7, pp. 361– 408 in Ref. 1.

R. A. Fifer, “Chemistry of Nitrate Ester and Nitramine Propellants,” Chap. 4, pp. 177–238 in Ref. 1.

T. L. Boggs, “The Thermal Behavior of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX),” Chap 3, pp. 121–176 in Ref. 1.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Photochemical Effects in Two-Photon-Excited Fluorescence Detection of Atomic Oxygen in Flames,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1987), paper MB4-1.

J. B. Jeffries, R. A. Copeland, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “Multiple Species Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Flames,” presented at Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion (1986).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1950).

R. W. B. Pearse, A. G. Gaydon, The Identification of Molecular Spectra (Chapman & Hall, London, 1976).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1979).

A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (Chapman & Hall, London, 1974).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vanderhoff, W. R. Anderson, A. J. Kotlar, R. A. Beyer, “Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Methane-Nitrous Oxide Flame,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984), pp. 1299–1306.

N. Kubota, “Physicochemical Processes of HMX Propellant Combustion,” in Nineteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1983), pp. 777–785.

J. G. Sotter, “Chemical Kinetics of the Cordite Explosion Zone,” in Tenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1965), pp. 1405–1411.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the high pressure combustor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of laser-induced fluorescence apparatus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OH AX 0,0 LIF spectrum in the outer cone of a 1-atm CH4/O2 flame, Reticon detector (700 elements), 306.42-nm excitation, 4 mJ/pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CN BX 0,0 LIF spectrum in the inner cone of a 1-atm CH4/N2O flame, PMT detector, 421.5-nm excitation, 0.2 mJ/pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CN BX 0,0 LIF spectrum in the inner cone of a 1-atm CH4/N2O flame, Reticon detector (200 elements), 421.5-nm excitation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

NH AX 0,0 LIF spectrum in the inner cone of a 1-atm CH4/N2O flame, PMT detector, 342.2-nm excitation, 0.9 mJ/pulse.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

NH AX 0,0 LIF spectrum in the inner cone of a 1-atm CH4/N2O flame, PMT detector, excimer laser excitation (307.96 and 308.21 nm), 25 mJ/pulse; inset: corresponding N2 Raman spectrum in air (same intensity and wavelength scales).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Laser (306.42-nm) transmittance through flame as a function of pressure. AP1 propellant, 4 mm above surface, laser intensity (in absence of flame): 4.3 mJ/pulse.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OH LIF intensity as a function of laser power. AP1 propellant, 4 mm above surface, 0.8 MPa. 309.2-nm (OH Q18)- and 310.6-nm (OH Q112) data points are an average of five scans/experiment on Reticon; 315.1-nm (OH P113) points are average intensity on PMT during experiment.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OH LIF intensity (scaled to 3.5-mJ/pulse attenuated laser energy in flame) as a function of pressure: 4 mm above surface; AP1 propellant; 306.42-nm excitation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

OH LIF and chemiluminescent intensities as a function of distance above surface. Fluorescence: 0.8 MPa; emission: 0.2 MPa.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

OH LIF intensity as a function of horizontal position in flame. AP1 propellant, 0.8 MPa, 4.3 mJ/pulse, 315.1-nm fluorescence line monitored on PMT.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Change in CN LIF intensity as a function of (nominal) distance above the propellant surface (AP propellant, 1-atm nitrogen).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Idealized experimental results from propellant burning down through collection volume.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

CN LIF results in AP1 propellant, 1 atm (nitrogen), 75-Hz data collection rate, 20-μm vertical collection volume height.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Relationship between propellant burn rate and interaction of LIF beam with surface (transition region defined in Fig. 14).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Change in emission and LIF intensity as a function of pressure for AP1 propellant. Intensity measured at peak of CN distribution.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

CN LIF distribution in HMX1 propellant flame, 0.8 MPa, 75-Hz data collection rate.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

CN LIF distribution in HMX1 propellant flame, 1.8 MPa, 75-Hz data collection rate.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Experimental data obtained in the same conditions as Fig. 19 but with the laser tuned off CN LIF line.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Reaction zone thickness as a function of pressure and burn rate for all propellants studied.

Tables (1)

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Table I Summary of Propellants Studied

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