Abstract

CO2 lidars have heretofore been used to measure water vapor concentrations primarily using the 10R(20) line at 10.247 μm, which has a strong overlap with a water vapor absorption line. This paper discusses the use of that line as well as other CO2 laser lines for which the absorption coefficients are weaker. The literature on measurement of water vapor absorption coefficients using CO2 lasers is reviewed, and the results from four laboratories are shown to be generally consistent with each other after they are normalized to the same partial pressure, temperature, and ethylene absorption coefficient for the 10P(14) CO2 laser line; however, the agreement with the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory's hitran and fascod 2 spectral data tapes is not good either for the water vapor absorption lines or for the water vapor continuum. Demonstration measurements of atmospheric water vapor have been conducted using the Mobile Atmospheric Pollutant Mapping System, a dual CO2 lidar system using heterodyne detection. Results are discussed for measurements using three sets of laser line pairs covering a wide range of water vapor partial pressures.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]

1987 (2)

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Water-Vapor Continuum and Line Absorption in the 8 to 14 μm Atmospheric Window,” Infrared Phys. 27, No. 2, 63 (1987); private communication.
[CrossRef]

R. G. Isaacs, W.-C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

L. C. Bradley, K. L. SooHoo, C. Freed, “Absolute Frequencies of Lasing Transitions in Nine CO2 Isotopic Species,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-22, 234 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jain, B. C. Arya, D. R. Nakra, A. K. Saha, “Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Minor Constituents with a Laser–Water Vapour,” Ind. J. Radio Space Phys. 15, 29 (1986).

1985 (2)

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, “Observations of Lower-Atmospheric Moisture Structure and its Evolution Using a Raman Lidar,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cutten, “Atmospheric Broadband Transmission Measurements and Predictions in the 8–13-μm Window: Influence of Water Continuum Absorption Errors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1085 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

1983 (4)

1982 (1)

C. Cahen, G. Megie, P. Flamant, “Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

K. W. Rothe, “Monitoring of Various Atmospheric Constituents Using a cw Chemical Hydrogen/Deuterium Laser and a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Radio Electron. Eng. 50, 567 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Persson, B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, “Temperature and Pressure Dependence of NH3 and C2H4 Absorption Cross Sections at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1711 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (4)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

Alt, R. L.

D. E. Burch, R. L. Alt, “Continuum Absorption by H2O in the 700–1200 cm−1 and 2400–2800 cm−1 Windows,” Report AFGL-TR-84-0128 to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (1984).

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Williamsburg, VA (American Meteorological Society, 1986).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, “Current Issues in Infrared Atmospheric Transparency,” presented at the International Meeting on Atmospheric Transparency for Satellite Applications, sponsored by U. Naples, Capri, Italy (Sept. 1986).

Arya, B. C.

S. L. Jain, B. C. Arya, D. R. Nakra, A. K. Saha, “Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Minor Constituents with a Laser–Water Vapour,” Ind. J. Radio Space Phys. 15, 29 (1986).

Baker, P. W.

Ben-Shalom, A.

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, U. P. Oppenheim, E. Ribak, “Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Water Vapor in the Region 4.3–5.5 and 8–13 Micron,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper TuC21.

Bogan, J. R.

W. B. Grant, J. R. Bogan, A. M. Brothers, “DIAL Signal Averaging,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (1987).
[PubMed]

Boscher, J.

W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, J. Boscher, M. Rother, “Laser Remote Sensing Measurements of Atmospheric Species and Natural Target Reflectivities,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 38.

J. Boscher, G. Schafer, W. Wiesemann, “Gasfernanalyse mit CO2-Laser,” Report 01 TL 018A-AK/RT/WRT 2077, BF-R-63.616-4 by the Battelle-Institut, e.V., Frankfurt, F.R.G. (Mar.1979).

Bradley, L. C.

L. C. Bradley, K. L. SooHoo, C. Freed, “Absolute Frequencies of Lasing Transitions in Nine CO2 Isotopic Species,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-22, 234 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R. J.

Brothers, A. M.

W. B. Grant, J. R. Bogan, A. M. Brothers, “DIAL Signal Averaging,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (1987).
[PubMed]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, “Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Gases and Aerosols With an Airborne DIAL System,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 138.

Bruce, C. W.

Burch, D. E.

D. E. Burch, “Continuum Absorption by H2O,” Report AFGL-RT-81-0030 to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (1982).

D. E. Burch, R. L. Alt, “Continuum Absorption by H2O in the 700–1200 cm−1 and 2400–2800 cm−1 Windows,” Report AFGL-TR-84-0128 to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (1984).

Byer, R. L.

Cahen, C.

C. Cahen, G. Megie, P. Flamant, “Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cantrell, B. K.

J. G. Hawley, R. E. Warren, D. D. Powell, D. E. Cooper, T. F. Gallagher, B. K. Cantrell, “Remote and in situ Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases—Infrared Spectroscopy for Ammonia,” Final Report EA-4370 by SRI International for the Electric Power Research Institute (Dec.1985).

Charpentier, H.

Christy, E. H.

E. H. Christy, K. H. Faller, in Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, Washington, DC, 10–12 Dec. 1973, paper 23.

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Williamsburg, VA (American Meteorological Society, 1986).

S. A. Clough, AFGL; private communication (1987).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, “Current Issues in Infrared Atmospheric Transparency,” presented at the International Meeting on Atmospheric Transparency for Satellite Applications, sponsored by U. Naples, Capri, Italy (Sept. 1986).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Line Shape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Comera, J.

Cooper, D. E.

J. G. Hawley, R. E. Warren, D. D. Powell, D. E. Cooper, T. F. Gallagher, B. K. Cantrell, “Remote and in situ Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases—Infrared Spectroscopy for Ammonia,” Final Report EA-4370 by SRI International for the Electric Power Research Institute (Dec.1985).

Crane, R. A.

Cutten, D. R.

Daman, E. K.

Davies, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Line Shape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Devir, A. D.

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, U. P. Oppenheim, E. Ribak, “Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Water Vapor in the Region 4.3–5.5 and 8–13 Micron,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper TuC21.

Donavan, J. F.

R. J. Nordstrom, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Donavan, D. Gass, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption at 12 CO2 Laser Frequencies,” Final Report 711934-1 by the Ohio State U., ElectroScience Laboratory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Sept.1979).

Eng, S. T.

Englisch, W.

W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, J. Boscher, M. Rother, “Laser Remote Sensing Measurements of Atmospheric Species and Natural Target Reflectivities,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 38.

Faller, K. H.

E. H. Christy, K. H. Faller, in Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, Washington, DC, 10–12 Dec. 1973, paper 23.

Fischer, G.

Flamant, P.

C. Cahen, G. Megie, P. Flamant, “Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

L. C. Bradley, K. L. SooHoo, C. Freed, “Absolute Frequencies of Lasing Transitions in Nine CO2 Isotopic Species,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-22, 234 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

J. G. Hawley, R. E. Warren, D. D. Powell, D. E. Cooper, T. F. Gallagher, B. K. Cantrell, “Remote and in situ Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases—Infrared Spectroscopy for Ammonia,” Final Report EA-4370 by SRI International for the Electric Power Research Institute (Dec.1985).

Gamache, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Line Shape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Garbuny, M.

Gass, D.

R. J. Nordstrom, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Donavan, D. Gass, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption at 12 CO2 Laser Frequencies,” Final Report 711934-1 by the Ohio State U., ElectroScience Laboratory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Sept.1979).

Gelbwachs, J. A.

Gengchen, W.

W. Gengchen, K. Qinlin, “Detection of NOx, C2H4 Concentrations by Using CO and CO2 Lasers,” in Abstracts, Thirteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Toronto, Canada, NASA Conf. Publ. 2431 (11–15 Aug. 1986), p. 259.

Goldenberg, S.

Grant, W. B.

Hardesty, R. M.

Hawley, J. G.

J. G. Hawley, R. E. Warren, D. D. Powell, D. E. Cooper, T. F. Gallagher, B. K. Cantrell, “Remote and in situ Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases—Infrared Spectroscopy for Ammonia,” Final Report EA-4370 by SRI International for the Electric Power Research Institute (Dec.1985).

Hinderling, J.

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Water-Vapor Continuum and Line Absorption in the 8 to 14 μm Atmospheric Window,” Infrared Phys. 27, No. 2, 63 (1987); private communication.
[CrossRef]

Hubert, M. H.

Isaacs, R. G.

Jain, S. L.

S. L. Jain, B. C. Arya, D. R. Nakra, A. K. Saha, “Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Minor Constituents with a Laser–Water Vapour,” Ind. J. Radio Space Phys. 15, 29 (1986).

Jaussaud, C.

Johansson, J.

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Comparison of 8 to 12 Micrometer and 3 to 5 Micrometer CVF Transmissometer Data with lowtran Calculations,” Air Force Geophysical Laboratory Report AFGL-TR-84-0171 (1984).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Line Shape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, “Current Issues in Infrared Atmospheric Transparency,” presented at the International Meeting on Atmospheric Transparency for Satellite Applications, sponsored by U. Naples, Capri, Italy (Sept. 1986).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Williamsburg, VA (American Meteorological Society, 1986).

Kneubühl, F. K.

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Water-Vapor Continuum and Line Absorption in the 8 to 14 μm Atmospheric Window,” Infrared Phys. 27, No. 2, 63 (1987); private communication.
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, U. P. Oppenheim, E. Ribak, “Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Water Vapor in the Region 4.3–5.5 and 8–13 Micron,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper TuC21.

Long, R. K.

Loper, G. L.

Makushkin, Yu. S.

Margolis, J. S.

Marichev, V. N.

Marthinsson, B.

Mayer, A.

McClenny, W. A.

Megie, G.

C. Cahen, G. Megie, P. Flamant, “Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, “Observations of Lower-Atmospheric Moisture Structure and its Evolution Using a Raman Lidar,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

Mitsel, A. A.

Molina, L. T.

Morgan, D. R.

Murray, E. R.

E. R. Murray, “Remote Measurement of Gases Using Differential Absorption Lidar,” Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978).

Nakra, D. R.

S. L. Jain, B. C. Arya, D. R. Nakra, A. K. Saha, “Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Minor Constituents with a Laser–Water Vapour,” Ind. J. Radio Space Phys. 15, 29 (1986).

Nordstrom, J.

Nordstrom, R. J.

R. J. Nordstrom, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Donavan, D. Gass, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption at 12 CO2 Laser Frequencies,” Final Report 711934-1 by the Ohio State U., ElectroScience Laboratory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Sept.1979).

O'Neill, M. A.

Oppenheim, U. P.

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, U. P. Oppenheim, E. Ribak, “Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Water Vapor in the Region 4.3–5.5 and 8–13 Micron,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper TuC21.

Patty, R. R.

Persson, U.

Peterson, J. C.

Powell, D. D.

J. G. Hawley, R. E. Warren, D. D. Powell, D. E. Cooper, T. F. Gallagher, B. K. Cantrell, “Remote and in situ Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases—Infrared Spectroscopy for Ammonia,” Final Report EA-4370 by SRI International for the Electric Power Research Institute (Dec.1985).

Qinlin, K.

W. Gengchen, K. Qinlin, “Detection of NOx, C2H4 Concentrations by Using CO and CO2 Lasers,” in Abstracts, Thirteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Toronto, Canada, NASA Conf. Publ. 2431 (11–15 Aug. 1986), p. 259.

Ribak, E.

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, U. P. Oppenheim, E. Ribak, “Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Water Vapor in the Region 4.3–5.5 and 8–13 Micron,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper TuC21.

Rosengren, L.-G.

Rothe, K. W.

K. W. Rothe, “Monitoring of Various Atmospheric Constituents Using a cw Chemical Hydrogen/Deuterium Laser and a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Radio Electron. Eng. 50, 567 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rother, M.

W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, J. Boscher, M. Rother, “Laser Remote Sensing Measurements of Atmospheric Species and Natural Target Reflectivities,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 38.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman et al., “The hitran Databases: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt.26, 15Sept. (1987), in press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, “Current Issues in Infrared Atmospheric Transparency,” presented at the International Meeting on Atmospheric Transparency for Satellite Applications, sponsored by U. Naples, Capri, Italy (Sept. 1986).

Russwurm, G. M.

Ryan, J.

Saha, A. K.

S. L. Jain, B. C. Arya, D. R. Nakra, A. K. Saha, “Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Minor Constituents with a Laser–Water Vapour,” Ind. J. Radio Space Phys. 15, 29 (1986).

Schafer, G.

J. Boscher, G. Schafer, W. Wiesemann, “Gasfernanalyse mit CO2-Laser,” Report 01 TL 018A-AK/RT/WRT 2077, BF-R-63.616-4 by the Battelle-Institut, e.V., Frankfurt, F.R.G. (Mar.1979).

Schnell, W.

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, “Current Issues in Infrared Atmospheric Transparency,” presented at the International Meeting on Atmospheric Transparency for Satellite Applications, sponsored by U. Naples, Capri, Italy (Sept. 1986).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Williamsburg, VA (American Meteorological Society, 1986).

Shumate, M. S.

Sigrist, M. W.

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Water-Vapor Continuum and Line Absorption in the 8 to 14 μm Atmospheric Window,” Infrared Phys. 27, No. 2, 63 (1987); private communication.
[CrossRef]

SooHoo, K. L.

L. C. Bradley, K. L. SooHoo, C. Freed, “Absolute Frequencies of Lasing Transitions in Nine CO2 Isotopic Species,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-22, 234 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. E.

J. Nordstrom, M. E. Thomas, J. C. Peterson, E. K. Daman, R. K. Long, “Effects of Oxygen Addition on Pressure-Broadened Water-Vapor Absorption in the 10-μm Region,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2724 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Nordstrom, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Donavan, D. Gass, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption at 12 CO2 Laser Frequencies,” Final Report 711934-1 by the Ohio State U., ElectroScience Laboratory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Sept.1979).

Tipping, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Line Shape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Wang, W.-C.

Warren, R. E.

J. G. Hawley, R. E. Warren, D. D. Powell, D. E. Cooper, T. F. Gallagher, B. K. Cantrell, “Remote and in situ Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases—Infrared Spectroscopy for Ammonia,” Final Report EA-4370 by SRI International for the Electric Power Research Institute (Dec.1985).

Whiteman, D.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, “Observations of Lower-Atmospheric Moisture Structure and its Evolution Using a Raman Lidar,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wiesemann, W.

W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, J. Boscher, M. Rother, “Laser Remote Sensing Measurements of Atmospheric Species and Natural Target Reflectivities,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 38.

J. Boscher, G. Schafer, W. Wiesemann, “Gasfernanalyse mit CO2-Laser,” Report 01 TL 018A-AK/RT/WRT 2077, BF-R-63.616-4 by the Battelle-Institut, e.V., Frankfurt, F.R.G. (Mar.1979).

Worsham, R. D.

Zuev, V. E.

Zuev, V. V.

Appl. Opt. (16)

P. W. Baker, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Differential Absorption Measurements on Vertical Paths with a CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2257 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent DIAL Measurement of Range-Resolved Water Vapor Concentration,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2545 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Zuev, V. E. Zuev, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, “Laser Sounding of Atmospheric Humidity: Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3742 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, L.-G. Rosengren, “Water Vapor Absorption of Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2480 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ryan, M. H. Hubert, R. A. Crane, “Water-Vapor Absorption at Isotopic CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 22, 711 (1983);Erratum, Appl. Opt. 23, 1302 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Loper, M. A. O'Neill, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Water-Vapor Continuum CO2 Laser Absorption Spectra Between 27°C and −10°C,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3701 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Patty, G. M. Russwurm, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, “CO2 Laser Absorption Coefficients for Determining Ambient Levels of O3, NH3, and C2H4,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2850 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Schnell, G. Fischer, “Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Coefficients of Various Air Pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2058 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mayer, J. Comera, H. Charpentier, C. Jaussaud, “Absorption Coefficients of Various Pollutant Gases at CO2 Laser Wavelengths; Application to the Remote Sensing of Those Pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 17, 391 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nordstrom, M. E. Thomas, J. C. Peterson, E. K. Daman, R. K. Long, “Effects of Oxygen Addition on Pressure-Broadened Water-Vapor Absorption in the 10-μm Region,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2724 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Persson, B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, “Temperature and Pressure Dependence of NH3 and C2H4 Absorption Cross Sections at CO2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1711 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Brewer, C. W. Bruce, “Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of NH3 at the 9-μm and 10-μm 12C16O2 Laser Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3746 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Molina, W. B. Grant, “FTIR Spectrometer Determined Absorption Coefficients of Seven Hydrazine Fuel Gases: Implications for Laser Remote Sensing,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3893 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Cutten, “Atmospheric Broadband Transmission Measurements and Predictions in the 8–13-μm Window: Influence of Water Continuum Absorption Errors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1085 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Isaacs, W.-C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple Scattering lowtran and fascode Models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, “Pollutant Detection by Absorption Using Mie Scattering and Topographic Targets as Retroreflectors,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, “Observations of Lower-Atmospheric Moisture Structure and its Evolution Using a Raman Lidar,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 66, 1288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J Quantum Electron (1)

L. C. Bradley, K. L. SooHoo, C. Freed, “Absolute Frequencies of Lasing Transitions in Nine CO2 Isotopic Species,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-22, 234 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ind. J. Radio Space Phys. (1)

S. L. Jain, B. C. Arya, D. R. Nakra, A. K. Saha, “Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Minor Constituents with a Laser–Water Vapour,” Ind. J. Radio Space Phys. 15, 29 (1986).

Infrared Phys. (1)

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Water-Vapor Continuum and Line Absorption in the 8 to 14 μm Atmospheric Window,” Infrared Phys. 27, No. 2, 63 (1987); private communication.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

C. Cahen, G. Megie, P. Flamant, “Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. R. Murray, “Remote Measurement of Gases Using Differential Absorption Lidar,” Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978).

Radio Electron. Eng. (1)

K. W. Rothe, “Monitoring of Various Atmospheric Constituents Using a cw Chemical Hydrogen/Deuterium Laser and a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Radio Electron. Eng. 50, 567 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, J. Boscher, M. Rother, “Laser Remote Sensing Measurements of Atmospheric Species and Natural Target Reflectivities,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 38.

E. V. Browell, “Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Gases and Aerosols With an Airborne DIAL System,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 138.

R. J. Nordstrom, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Donavan, D. Gass, “Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption at 12 CO2 Laser Frequencies,” Final Report 711934-1 by the Ohio State U., ElectroScience Laboratory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Sept.1979).

J. Boscher, G. Schafer, W. Wiesemann, “Gasfernanalyse mit CO2-Laser,” Report 01 TL 018A-AK/RT/WRT 2077, BF-R-63.616-4 by the Battelle-Institut, e.V., Frankfurt, F.R.G. (Mar.1979).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Line Shape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, “Current Issues in Infrared Atmospheric Transparency,” presented at the International Meeting on Atmospheric Transparency for Satellite Applications, sponsored by U. Naples, Capri, Italy (Sept. 1986).

D. E. Burch, R. L. Alt, “Continuum Absorption by H2O in the 700–1200 cm−1 and 2400–2800 cm−1 Windows,” Report AFGL-TR-84-0128 to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (1984).

D. E. Burch, “Continuum Absorption by H2O,” Report AFGL-RT-81-0030 to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (1982).

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Comparison of 8 to 12 Micrometer and 3 to 5 Micrometer CVF Transmissometer Data with lowtran Calculations,” Air Force Geophysical Laboratory Report AFGL-TR-84-0171 (1984).

W. B. Grant, J. R. Bogan, A. M. Brothers, “DIAL Signal Averaging,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Ben-Shalom, A. D. Devir, S. G. Lipson, U. P. Oppenheim, E. Ribak, “Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Water Vapor in the Region 4.3–5.5 and 8–13 Micron,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper TuC21.

J. G. Hawley, R. E. Warren, D. D. Powell, D. E. Cooper, T. F. Gallagher, B. K. Cantrell, “Remote and in situ Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases—Infrared Spectroscopy for Ammonia,” Final Report EA-4370 by SRI International for the Electric Power Research Institute (Dec.1985).

L. S. Rothman et al., “The hitran Databases: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt.26, 15Sept. (1987), in press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings, Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Williamsburg, VA (American Meteorological Society, 1986).

S. A. Clough, AFGL; private communication (1987).

W. Gengchen, K. Qinlin, “Detection of NOx, C2H4 Concentrations by Using CO and CO2 Lasers,” in Abstracts, Thirteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Toronto, Canada, NASA Conf. Publ. 2431 (11–15 Aug. 1986), p. 259.

E. H. Christy, K. H. Faller, in Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, Washington, DC, 10–12 Dec. 1973, paper 23.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Averaged signals, ratio, and derivative for the 10/R(18)/10R(18) line pair taken at 1:50 p.m. on 12 Nov. 1986.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as for Fig. 1 but for the 10R(20)/10R(18) line pair taken at 1:38 p.m. on 12 Nov. 1986.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as for Fig. 1 but for the 10R(12)/10R(18) line pair taken at 2:02 p.m. on 12 Nov. 1986.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Averaged signals and derivative for the 10R(20)/10R(18) line pair taken at 5:00 p.m. on 19 Nov. 1986.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as for Fig. 3, but for data taken at 4:30 p.m. on 19 Nov. 1986.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Averaged signals and derivative for 5839 lidar pulse pairs, the 9R(14)/9R(18) line pair taken at 11:50 a.m. on 31 Dec. 1986.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Absorption Coefficients for C2H4 for 760 Torr, 300 K, at the 10P(14) CO2 Laser Line

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Table II Water Vapor Absorption Coefficients at 300 K, 10-Torr Partial Pressure, and α C2H4 = 34.76 atm−1 cm−1, for Selected CO2 Laser Lines (10−6 cm−1) for 10 Torr, 300 K

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of Water Vapor Absorption Coefficients Determined Using CO2 Lasers with the Values on the AFGL Spectral Data Tapes for 10-Torr Partial Pressure, 300 K, α C2H4 = 35.0 atm−1 cm−1

Tables Icon

Table IV CO2-Laser Determined Values for the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption for 300 K, 10-Torr Partial Pressure, 760-Torr Total Pressure

Tables Icon

Table V CO2 Laser Line Pairs Useful for Water Vapor Measurements

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Table VI Lidar System Parameters

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Table VII Summary of Water Vapor Measurements

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P / P 0 = exp ( 2 Δ α c l ) ,
c = 1 Δ α δ log ( P / P 0 ) δ l .

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