Abstract

The High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) is a triple etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer designed to measure Doppler shifts of rotational lines in the O2 atmospheric system from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. These shifts are used to determine wind vectors in the stratosphere and mesosphere. This paper presents the techniques used to determine the gap thicknesses and reflectivities of the three etalons of the HRDI instrument. The spacings are found to be 1.000, 0.186, and 0.025 cm. These spacings are independent of the reflectivity of the etalons. The reflectivities of the three etalons should be nearly equal to minimize the errors in the wind measurement caused by mistuning of the etalons. The choice of the reflectivity does not strongly influence the statistical error in the wind error when the values are less than ~0.90.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Jacquinot, “The Luminosity of Spectrometers with Prisms, Gratings or Fabry-Perot Etalons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 761 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. V. Houston, “A Compound Interferometer for Fine Structure Work,” Phys. Rev. 29, 478 (1927).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 49 (1958).
  4. R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriues sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domaines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 336 (1958).
  5. R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 501 (1958).
  6. H. Chantrel, “Spectrométres Interféentiels de haute résolution a un et deux étalons de Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CRNS 46, 17 (1959).
  7. A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, “Upper Atmospheric Temperatures from Doppler Line widths—III,” Planet. Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. D. Cocks, D. F. Creighton, F. Jacka, “Application of a Duel Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Daytime Airglow Studies,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 42, 499 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Mack, D. P. McNutt, F. L. Roesler, R. Chabbal, “The PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. I: The Pilot Model,” Appl. Opt. 2, 873 (1963).
  10. F. L. Roesler, “Effects of Plate Defects in a Polyetalon Fabry-Peot Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 8, 829 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. O. Stoner, “PEPSIOS Purely Interfermetric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. III. Calculations of Interferometer Characteristics by a Method of Optical Transients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 370 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, “PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer IV. Performance of the PEPSIOS Spectrometer,” J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C-2, 313 (1967).
  13. D. P. McNutt, “PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. II. Theory of Spacer Ratios,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 288 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Daehler, F. L. Roesler, “High Contrast in a Polyetalon Fabry-Perot Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1240 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. T. Trauger, F. L. Roesler, “Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Adjustment for the Compensation of Doppler Shift from Rapidly Rotating and Rapidly Flowing Sources,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1964 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. R. Burnett, W. E. Lammer, W. T. Novak, V. L. Sides, “Absorption Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Sodium at Boca Raton, Florida, 1967–1971,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2934 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. R. Burnett, R. W. Lasher, A. S. Miskin, V. L. Sides, “Spectroscopic Measurement of Sodium Dayglow: Absence of a Large Diurnal Variation,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1837 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Partowmah, F. L. Roesler, “Absorption Studies of Daytime Sodium Abundance,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2607 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Yegingil, H. Ogelman, N. Kiziloglu, “Investigation of Sodium in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5507 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. P. McNutt, J. E. Mack, “Telluric Absorption, Residual Intensities, and Shifts in the Fraunhofer D Lines,” J. Geophys Res. 68, 3419 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. E. Barmore, “High Resolution Observations of the 6300 A Oxygen line in the Dayglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 185 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “OH PEPSIOS,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2887 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. B. Hays, High-Resolution Optical Measurements of Atmospheric Wind from Space. 1: Lower Atmosphere Molecular Absorption,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1136 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged, Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).
  28. T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Doppler Line Profile Analysis for a Multichannel Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 612 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. G. Hernandez, “Analytical Description of a Fabry-Perot Photoelectric Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1745 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Technique for Recovering Doppler Line Profiles from Fabry-Perot Interferometer Fringes of Very Low Intensity,” Appl. Opt. 10, 193 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Doppler Line Profile Analysis for a Multichannel Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 612 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Light Scattering from Multilayer Optics: Comparison of Theory and Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 19, 669 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Chabbal, “Calcul du Facteur de Filtrage Intégral d’un Spectrométre Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS, 39, 77 (1957).
  34. P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d’emploi des cellules PhotoÉlectriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interféromtres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).
  35. R. Chabbal, “Recherche des Meilleures Conditions d’utilisation d’un Spectrométre Photoélectrique Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS 24, 138 (1953).
  36. B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Étude des Épaisseurs Relatives des deux Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférentiel,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 231 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  37. B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Épaisseurs Relatives des Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférential II. Cas de deux Fabry-Pérot en série avec un filtre Interférential,” J. Opt. Paris 8, 271 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (2)

1983 (2)

1982 (2)

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, High-Resolution Optical Measurements of Atmospheric Wind from Space. 1: Lower Atmosphere Molecular Absorption,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1136 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged, Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

1980 (3)

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Light Scattering from Multilayer Optics: Comparison of Theory and Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 19, 669 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yegingil, H. Ogelman, N. Kiziloglu, “Investigation of Sodium in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5507 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Cocks, D. F. Creighton, F. Jacka, “Application of a Duel Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Daytime Airglow Studies,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 42, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (3)

M. Partowmah, F. L. Roesler, “Absorption Studies of Daytime Sodium Abundance,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2607 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Barmore, “High Resolution Observations of the 6300 A Oxygen line in the Dayglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 185 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Épaisseurs Relatives des Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférential II. Cas de deux Fabry-Pérot en série avec un filtre Interférential,” J. Opt. Paris 8, 271 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

C. R. Burnett, R. W. Lasher, A. S. Miskin, V. L. Sides, “Spectroscopic Measurement of Sodium Dayglow: Absence of a Large Diurnal Variation,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1837 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Étude des Épaisseurs Relatives des deux Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférentiel,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

J. T. Trauger, F. L. Roesler, “Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Adjustment for the Compensation of Doppler Shift from Rapidly Rotating and Rapidly Flowing Sources,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1964 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Burnett, W. E. Lammer, W. T. Novak, V. L. Sides, “Absorption Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Sodium at Boca Raton, Florida, 1967–1971,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2934 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, “PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer IV. Performance of the PEPSIOS Spectrometer,” J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C-2, 313 (1967).

1966 (2)

1965 (2)

D. P. McNutt, “PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. II. Theory of Spacer Ratios,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 288 (1965).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, “Upper Atmospheric Temperatures from Doppler Line widths—III,” Planet. Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

J. E. Mack, D. P. McNutt, F. L. Roesler, R. Chabbal, “The PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. I: The Pilot Model,” Appl. Opt. 2, 873 (1963).

D. P. McNutt, J. E. Mack, “Telluric Absorption, Residual Intensities, and Shifts in the Fraunhofer D Lines,” J. Geophys Res. 68, 3419 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

H. Chantrel, “Spectrométres Interféentiels de haute résolution a un et deux étalons de Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CRNS 46, 17 (1959).

1958 (3)

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 49 (1958).

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriues sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domaines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 336 (1958).

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 501 (1958).

1957 (1)

R. Chabbal, “Calcul du Facteur de Filtrage Intégral d’un Spectrométre Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS, 39, 77 (1957).

1954 (1)

1953 (1)

R. Chabbal, “Recherche des Meilleures Conditions d’utilisation d’un Spectrométre Photoélectrique Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS 24, 138 (1953).

1948 (1)

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d’emploi des cellules PhotoÉlectriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interféromtres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

1927 (1)

W. V. Houston, “A Compound Interferometer for Fine Structure Work,” Phys. Rev. 29, 478 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Barmore, F. E.

F. E. Barmore, “High Resolution Observations of the 6300 A Oxygen line in the Dayglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 185 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Bens, A. R.

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, “Upper Atmospheric Temperatures from Doppler Line widths—III,” Planet. Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, C. R.

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “OH PEPSIOS,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2887 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Burnett, R. W. Lasher, A. S. Miskin, V. L. Sides, “Spectroscopic Measurement of Sodium Dayglow: Absence of a Large Diurnal Variation,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1837 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, W. E. Lammer, W. T. Novak, V. L. Sides, “Absorption Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Sodium at Boca Raton, Florida, 1967–1971,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2934 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, E. B.

Ceckowski, D. H.

Chabbal, R.

J. E. Mack, D. P. McNutt, F. L. Roesler, R. Chabbal, “The PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. I: The Pilot Model,” Appl. Opt. 2, 873 (1963).

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 49 (1958).

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriues sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domaines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 336 (1958).

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 501 (1958).

R. Chabbal, “Calcul du Facteur de Filtrage Intégral d’un Spectrométre Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS, 39, 77 (1957).

R. Chabbal, “Recherche des Meilleures Conditions d’utilisation d’un Spectrométre Photoélectrique Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS 24, 138 (1953).

Chantrel, H.

H. Chantrel, “Spectrométres Interféentiels de haute résolution a un et deux étalons de Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CRNS 46, 17 (1959).

Cocks, T. D.

T. D. Cocks, D. F. Creighton, F. Jacka, “Application of a Duel Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Daytime Airglow Studies,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 42, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, “Upper Atmospheric Temperatures from Doppler Line widths—III,” Planet. Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Creighton, D. F.

T. D. Cocks, D. F. Creighton, F. Jacka, “Application of a Duel Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Daytime Airglow Studies,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 42, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Daehler, M.

Dines, T.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged, Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, C.

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d’emploi des cellules PhotoÉlectriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interféromtres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Elson, J. M.

Gaume, F.

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Épaisseurs Relatives des Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférential II. Cas de deux Fabry-Pérot en série avec un filtre Interférential,” J. Opt. Paris 8, 271 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Étude des Épaisseurs Relatives des deux Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférentiel,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

Hernandez, G.

Houston, W. V.

W. V. Houston, “A Compound Interferometer for Fine Structure Work,” Phys. Rev. 29, 478 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Jacka, F.

T. D. Cocks, D. F. Creighton, F. Jacka, “Application of a Duel Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Daytime Airglow Studies,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 42, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, “The Luminosity of Spectrometers with Prisms, Gratings or Fabry-Perot Etalons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 761 (1954).
[CrossRef]

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d’emploi des cellules PhotoÉlectriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interféromtres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Kennedy, B. C.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

Killeen, T. L.

Kiziloglu, N.

I. Yegingil, H. Ogelman, N. Kiziloglu, “Investigation of Sodium in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5507 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lammer, W. E.

C. R. Burnett, W. E. Lammer, W. T. Novak, V. L. Sides, “Absorption Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Sodium at Boca Raton, Florida, 1967–1971,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2934 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lasher, R. W.

C. R. Burnett, R. W. Lasher, A. S. Miskin, V. L. Sides, “Spectroscopic Measurement of Sodium Dayglow: Absence of a Large Diurnal Variation,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1837 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mack, J. E.

F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, “PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer IV. Performance of the PEPSIOS Spectrometer,” J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C-2, 313 (1967).

D. P. McNutt, J. E. Mack, “Telluric Absorption, Residual Intensities, and Shifts in the Fraunhofer D Lines,” J. Geophys Res. 68, 3419 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Mack, D. P. McNutt, F. L. Roesler, R. Chabbal, “The PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. I: The Pilot Model,” Appl. Opt. 2, 873 (1963).

McNutt, D. P.

McWhirter, I.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged, Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miskin, A. S.

C. R. Burnett, R. W. Lasher, A. S. Miskin, V. L. Sides, “Spectroscopic Measurement of Sodium Dayglow: Absence of a Large Diurnal Variation,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1837 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Moghrabi, B.

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Épaisseurs Relatives des Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférential II. Cas de deux Fabry-Pérot en série avec un filtre Interférential,” J. Opt. Paris 8, 271 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Étude des Épaisseurs Relatives des deux Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférentiel,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Novak, W. T.

C. R. Burnett, W. E. Lammer, W. T. Novak, V. L. Sides, “Absorption Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Sodium at Boca Raton, Florida, 1967–1971,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2934 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ogelman, H.

I. Yegingil, H. Ogelman, N. Kiziloglu, “Investigation of Sodium in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5507 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Partowmah, M.

M. Partowmah, F. L. Roesler, “Absorption Studies of Daytime Sodium Abundance,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2607 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, J. P.

Rees, D.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged, Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

Roesler, F. L.

Rounce, P. A.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A. F. D.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, “Upper Atmospheric Temperatures from Doppler Line widths—III,” Planet. Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sides, V. L.

C. R. Burnett, R. W. Lasher, A. S. Miskin, V. L. Sides, “Spectroscopic Measurement of Sodium Dayglow: Absence of a Large Diurnal Variation,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1837 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, W. E. Lammer, W. T. Novak, V. L. Sides, “Absorption Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Sodium at Boca Raton, Florida, 1967–1971,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2934 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Stoner, J. O.

Symanow, D. A.

Towison, W.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Trauger, J. T.

Yegingil, I.

I. Yegingil, H. Ogelman, N. Kiziloglu, “Investigation of Sodium in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5507 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

J. E. Mack, D. P. McNutt, F. L. Roesler, R. Chabbal, “The PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer. I: The Pilot Model,” Appl. Opt. 2, 873 (1963).

G. Hernandez, “Analytical Description of a Fabry-Perot Photoelectric Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1745 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Technique for Recovering Doppler Line Profiles from Fabry-Perot Interferometer Fringes of Very Low Intensity,” Appl. Opt. 10, 193 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Trauger, F. L. Roesler, “Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Adjustment for the Compensation of Doppler Shift from Rapidly Rotating and Rapidly Flowing Sources,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1964 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Light Scattering from Multilayer Optics: Comparison of Theory and Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 19, 669 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, High-Resolution Optical Measurements of Atmospheric Wind from Space. 1: Lower Atmosphere Molecular Absorption,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1136 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “OH PEPSIOS,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2887 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image Plane Detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Doppler Line Profile Analysis for a Multichannel Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 612 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Doppler Line Profile Analysis for a Multichannel Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 612 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Daehler, F. L. Roesler, “High Contrast in a Polyetalon Fabry-Perot Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1240 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. Roesler, “Effects of Plate Defects in a Polyetalon Fabry-Peot Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 8, 829 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

T. D. Cocks, D. F. Creighton, F. Jacka, “Application of a Duel Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Daytime Airglow Studies,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 42, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys Res. (1)

D. P. McNutt, J. E. Mack, “Telluric Absorption, Residual Intensities, and Shifts in the Fraunhofer D Lines,” J. Geophys Res. 68, 3419 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

C. R. Burnett, W. E. Lammer, W. T. Novak, V. L. Sides, “Absorption Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Sodium at Boca Raton, Florida, 1967–1971,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2934 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, R. W. Lasher, A. S. Miskin, V. L. Sides, “Spectroscopic Measurement of Sodium Dayglow: Absence of a Large Diurnal Variation,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1837 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Partowmah, F. L. Roesler, “Absorption Studies of Daytime Sodium Abundance,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2607 (1977).
[CrossRef]

I. Yegingil, H. Ogelman, N. Kiziloglu, “Investigation of Sodium in the Upper Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 5507 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Paris (1)

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Épaisseurs Relatives des Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférential II. Cas de deux Fabry-Pérot en série avec un filtre Interférential,” J. Opt. Paris 8, 271 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Phys. (1)

F. L. Roesler, J. E. Mack, “PEPSIOS Purely Interferometric High-Resolution Scanning Spectrometer IV. Performance of the PEPSIOS Spectrometer,” J. Phys. 28, Suppl. C-2, 313 (1967).

J. Phys. E (2)

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towison, “Observations of Atmospheric Absorption Lines from a Stabilised Balloon Platform and Measurements of Stratospheric Winds,” J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged, Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon,” J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Rech. CNRS (3)

R. Chabbal, “Calcul du Facteur de Filtrage Intégral d’un Spectrométre Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS, 39, 77 (1957).

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d’emploi des cellules PhotoÉlectriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interféromtres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

R. Chabbal, “Recherche des Meilleures Conditions d’utilisation d’un Spectrométre Photoélectrique Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CNRS 24, 138 (1953).

J. Rech. CRNS (1)

H. Chantrel, “Spectrométres Interféentiels de haute résolution a un et deux étalons de Fabry-Perot,” J. Rech. CRNS 46, 17 (1959).

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

B. Moghrabi, F. Gaume, “Étude des Épaisseurs Relatives des deux Fabry-Pérot d’un Spectrométre purement Interférentiel,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. V. Houston, “A Compound Interferometer for Fine Structure Work,” Phys. Rev. 29, 478 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (2)

A. R. Bens, L. L. Cogger, G. G. Shepherd, “Upper Atmospheric Temperatures from Doppler Line widths—III,” Planet. Space Sci. 13, 551 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Barmore, “High Resolution Observations of the 6300 A Oxygen line in the Dayglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 25, 185 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt. (3)

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 49 (1958).

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriues sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domaines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 336 (1958).

R. Chabbal, “Recherches Expérimentales et Théoriques sur la Généralisation de l’emploi du spectrométre Fabry Perot aux divers domainines de la spectroscopie,” Rev. Opt. 37, 501 (1958).

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry-Perot Interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schmetic diagram of the HRDI instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Physical interpretation fo the terms in Eq. (10). The quantity ρ is understood to be the reflectance from the etalon, not a single plate. Because of the way the loss processes are modeled, the etalon reflectance is the same from either side.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of three etalons as a function of loss τ. The etalons are assumed to be identical having the same transmittance value, either the peak value of unity or the minimum value given by (1 − R)2/(1 + R)2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample HRDI viewing geometry. The viewing angles of ≃45° can either add or subtract a Doppler shift to the spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

White light W transmitted through a triple Fabry-Perot interferometer. The filter is square shaped with a 0.5-nm HWHH with the spacing of the HRE set to 1 cm. The reflectivities used are R(HRE) = 0.83, R(MRE) = 0.85, and R(LRE) = 0.85. The entire range of possible values (0 < tL/tH < 1) and (0 < tM/tH < 1) is shown here.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 5 except (0 < tL/tH < 0.2) and (0 < tM/tH < 0.5).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative wind errors for differing reflectivities of the HRE. The etalon parameters are tH = 1.000 cm, tM = 0.186 cm, tL = 0.025 cm, τ1 = τ2 = 0.92, RM = RL = 0.90, filter = 0.5-nm HWHH with a square shape. Errors are calculated for a tangent height of 25 km. ENDFILE.

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table I HRE Gap Thicknesses

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Table II Comparison of Triple Etalon Systems

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Table III Effect of Reflectivity on Optimization

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Table IV Effect of Etalon Losses

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Table V Effect of Filter Offsets

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Table VI Optimal HRE Reflectivity for the O2 Atmospheric Band

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Table VII Comparison of Triple Etalon Systems; Effects of Mistuning

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Table VIII Effects of Finesses on Mistuning

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Table IX HRDI Etalon Parameters

Equations (24)

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T ( m ) = ( 1 - R ) 2 1 - 2 R cos ( 2 π m ) + R 2 ,
m = 2 μ t σ cos θ - ϕ π ,
Δ m = m - m 0 = 2 μ 0 σ 0 t 0 ( Δ σ σ 0 + Δ t t 0 + Δ μ μ 0 - θ 2 2 ) ,
N = Δ σ FSR δ σ ,
Δ σ FSR = 1 2 t ,
N perfect = π R 1 - R .
N nonperfect = π R e 1 - R e .
T ( Δ m i ) = ( 1 - L 1 - R ) 2 ( 1 - R 1 + R ) ( 1 + R e 1 - R e ) × ( 1 - R e ) 2 [ 1 - 2 R e cos ( 2 π Δ m i ) + R e 2 ] ,
ρ ( Δ m i ) = 1 - T ( Δ m i ) .
T sys = T H T M T L τ 1 τ 2 1 - τ 1 2 ρ H ρ M - τ 2 2 ρ M ρ L - τ 1 2 τ 2 2 ρ H ρ L + 2 τ 1 2 τ 2 2 ρ H ρ M ρ L ,
Δ σ = σ 0 v sat cos θ c ,
2 σ 0 v sat cos θ c = n Δ σ FSR ,
t = n c 4 v sat σ 0 cos θ .
W ( σ 0 , t H , t M , t L , T F ) × 0 T F ( σ ) T sys ( σ ) d σ - σ 0 - 0.5 Δ σ FSRH σ 0 + 0.5 Δ σ FSRH T F ( σ ) T sys ( σ ) d σ σ 0 - 0.5 Δ σ FSRH σ 0 + 0.5 Δ σ FSRH T F ( σ ) T sys ( σ ) d σ ,
δ v ¯ 2 = 4 c 2 δ σ 2 σ 0 2 1 Σ ( c n - 1 - c n + 1 ) 2 c n ,
S ( δ σ , t 0 + δ t ) = S ( δ σ , t 0 ) + S t | ( δ σ , t 0 ) δ t .
v = [ S ( δ σ , t 0 + δ t ) - S ( - δ σ , t 0 + δ t ) ] c 2 σ S σ | ( δ σ , t 0 ) ,
T ( Δ σ , δ t ) = 1 1 + 4 N 2 ( δ t Δ t FSR + Δ σ Δ σ FSR ) 2 .
S = T = T H T L ,
S Δ σ = 32 N H 2 T H 2 t H 2 Δ σ .
S ( Δ σ , t 0 + δ t ) - S ( - Δ σ , τ 0 + δ t ) = 64 N L 2 t L T H σ Δ σ δ t .
v = 2 c N L 2 t L t N H 2 t H t H .
S = T L T H τ 1 - τ 2 ρ L ρ H ,
v = 2 c ( 1 - τ 2 2 ) N L 2 N H 2 t L t H δ t t H .

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