Abstract

An aluminum on n-type gallium arsenide Schottky diode with a prism coupler on the front face was illuminated by a p-polarized Nd:YAG laser to excite the surface plasma resonance in the aluminum barrier contact. The internal photoemission current and reflectance were measured simultaneously as a function of the angle of incidence. The excitation of the surface plasma resonance was observed by a dip in the reflectance which occurred at the same angle as a peak in the photoemission current. These effects disappeared in the case of s-polarization. Enhancement in the photoemission current by as much as a factor of 3 was obtained.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Williams, “Injection by Internal Photoemission,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 6, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1970), pp. 97–139.
    [Crossref]
  2. C. R. Crowell, W. G. Spitzer, L. E. Howarth, E. E. Labate, “Attenuation Length Measurements of Hot Electrons in Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. 127, 2006 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  4. J. Bosenberg, “Photoelectrons from Optically Excited Nonradiative Surface Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Lett. A 37, 439 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. H. Macek, A. Otto, W. Steinmann, “Resonant Photoemission from Aluminum Films at 5 eV Photon Energy due to Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves,” Phys. Status Solidi B 51, K59 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. S. Agarwal, S. S. Jha, J. C. Tsang, “Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Resonance Factors in a Classical Calculation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2089 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Derov, Y. Y. Teng, A. S. Karakashian, “Angular Scan Spectrum of a Surface Plasma Excitation on a Schottky Diode,” Phys. Lett. A 95, 197 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, “Enhanced Quantum Efficiency Internal Photoemission Detectors by Grating Coupling to Surface Plasma Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, M. Inokuti, “The Optical Properties of Metallic Aluminum,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 399.
  10. E. D. Palik, “Gallium Arsenide (GaAs),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 439.
  11. A. S. Karakashian, “Theory of the Response of Schottky Barrier Diodes to Transverse Magnetic Surface Waves,” Phys. Lett. A 85, 463 (1981).
    [Crossref]

1985 (1)

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, “Enhanced Quantum Efficiency Internal Photoemission Detectors by Grating Coupling to Surface Plasma Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. Derov, Y. Y. Teng, A. S. Karakashian, “Angular Scan Spectrum of a Surface Plasma Excitation on a Schottky Diode,” Phys. Lett. A 95, 197 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

G. S. Agarwal, S. S. Jha, J. C. Tsang, “Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Resonance Factors in a Classical Calculation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2089 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. S. Karakashian, “Theory of the Response of Schottky Barrier Diodes to Transverse Magnetic Surface Waves,” Phys. Lett. A 85, 463 (1981).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

C. H. Macek, A. Otto, W. Steinmann, “Resonant Photoemission from Aluminum Films at 5 eV Photon Energy due to Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves,” Phys. Status Solidi B 51, K59 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

J. Bosenberg, “Photoelectrons from Optically Excited Nonradiative Surface Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Lett. A 37, 439 (1971).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

C. R. Crowell, W. G. Spitzer, L. E. Howarth, E. E. Labate, “Attenuation Length Measurements of Hot Electrons in Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. 127, 2006 (1962).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, S. S. Jha, J. C. Tsang, “Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Resonance Factors in a Classical Calculation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2089 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bosenberg, J.

J. Bosenberg, “Photoelectrons from Optically Excited Nonradiative Surface Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Lett. A 37, 439 (1971).
[Crossref]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, “Enhanced Quantum Efficiency Internal Photoemission Detectors by Grating Coupling to Surface Plasma Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[Crossref]

Crowell, C. R.

C. R. Crowell, W. G. Spitzer, L. E. Howarth, E. E. Labate, “Attenuation Length Measurements of Hot Electrons in Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. 127, 2006 (1962).
[Crossref]

Derov, J.

J. Derov, Y. Y. Teng, A. S. Karakashian, “Angular Scan Spectrum of a Surface Plasma Excitation on a Schottky Diode,” Phys. Lett. A 95, 197 (1983).
[Crossref]

Diadiuk, V.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, “Enhanced Quantum Efficiency Internal Photoemission Detectors by Grating Coupling to Surface Plasma Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[Crossref]

Howarth, L. E.

C. R. Crowell, W. G. Spitzer, L. E. Howarth, E. E. Labate, “Attenuation Length Measurements of Hot Electrons in Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. 127, 2006 (1962).
[Crossref]

Inokuti, M.

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, M. Inokuti, “The Optical Properties of Metallic Aluminum,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 399.

Jha, S. S.

G. S. Agarwal, S. S. Jha, J. C. Tsang, “Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Resonance Factors in a Classical Calculation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2089 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jones, T.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, “Enhanced Quantum Efficiency Internal Photoemission Detectors by Grating Coupling to Surface Plasma Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[Crossref]

Karakashian, A. S.

J. Derov, Y. Y. Teng, A. S. Karakashian, “Angular Scan Spectrum of a Surface Plasma Excitation on a Schottky Diode,” Phys. Lett. A 95, 197 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. S. Karakashian, “Theory of the Response of Schottky Barrier Diodes to Transverse Magnetic Surface Waves,” Phys. Lett. A 85, 463 (1981).
[Crossref]

Labate, E. E.

C. R. Crowell, W. G. Spitzer, L. E. Howarth, E. E. Labate, “Attenuation Length Measurements of Hot Electrons in Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. 127, 2006 (1962).
[Crossref]

Lenth, W.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, “Enhanced Quantum Efficiency Internal Photoemission Detectors by Grating Coupling to Surface Plasma Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[Crossref]

Macek, C. H.

C. H. Macek, A. Otto, W. Steinmann, “Resonant Photoemission from Aluminum Films at 5 eV Photon Energy due to Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves,” Phys. Status Solidi B 51, K59 (1972).
[Crossref]

Otto, A.

C. H. Macek, A. Otto, W. Steinmann, “Resonant Photoemission from Aluminum Films at 5 eV Photon Energy due to Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves,” Phys. Status Solidi B 51, K59 (1972).
[Crossref]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, “Gallium Arsenide (GaAs),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 439.

Shiles, E.

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, M. Inokuti, “The Optical Properties of Metallic Aluminum,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 399.

Smith, D. Y.

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, M. Inokuti, “The Optical Properties of Metallic Aluminum,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 399.

Spitzer, W. G.

C. R. Crowell, W. G. Spitzer, L. E. Howarth, E. E. Labate, “Attenuation Length Measurements of Hot Electrons in Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. 127, 2006 (1962).
[Crossref]

Steinmann, W.

C. H. Macek, A. Otto, W. Steinmann, “Resonant Photoemission from Aluminum Films at 5 eV Photon Energy due to Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves,” Phys. Status Solidi B 51, K59 (1972).
[Crossref]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Teng, Y. Y.

J. Derov, Y. Y. Teng, A. S. Karakashian, “Angular Scan Spectrum of a Surface Plasma Excitation on a Schottky Diode,” Phys. Lett. A 95, 197 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tsang, J. C.

G. S. Agarwal, S. S. Jha, J. C. Tsang, “Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Resonance Factors in a Classical Calculation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2089 (1982).
[Crossref]

Williams, R.

R. Williams, “Injection by Internal Photoemission,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 6, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1970), pp. 97–139.
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, “Enhanced Quantum Efficiency Internal Photoemission Detectors by Grating Coupling to Surface Plasma Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (3)

J. Bosenberg, “Photoelectrons from Optically Excited Nonradiative Surface Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Lett. A 37, 439 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Derov, Y. Y. Teng, A. S. Karakashian, “Angular Scan Spectrum of a Surface Plasma Excitation on a Schottky Diode,” Phys. Lett. A 95, 197 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. S. Karakashian, “Theory of the Response of Schottky Barrier Diodes to Transverse Magnetic Surface Waves,” Phys. Lett. A 85, 463 (1981).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. R. Crowell, W. G. Spitzer, L. E. Howarth, E. E. Labate, “Attenuation Length Measurements of Hot Electrons in Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. 127, 2006 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. S. Agarwal, S. S. Jha, J. C. Tsang, “Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Resonance Factors in a Classical Calculation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2089 (1982).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

C. H. Macek, A. Otto, W. Steinmann, “Resonant Photoemission from Aluminum Films at 5 eV Photon Energy due to Nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves,” Phys. Status Solidi B 51, K59 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. Williams, “Injection by Internal Photoemission,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 6, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1970), pp. 97–139.
[Crossref]

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, M. Inokuti, “The Optical Properties of Metallic Aluminum,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 399.

E. D. Palik, “Gallium Arsenide (GaAs),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985), p. 439.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for an angle scan of the photoemission current and reflectance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance and photoemission current plotted against the angle of incidence for the photodiode without the coupler: reflectance, —; current, □. The inset shows the energy band diagram at the Al/GaAs interface and the mechanism for the internal photo-emission by the evanescent wave accompanying the SPO. The barrier height Bn is 0.8 eV, the energy gap Eg is 1.4 eV, and the photon energy ħw is 1.17 eV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance and photoemission current plotted against the angle of incidence on the base of the prism coupler for the p-polarized case: reflectance, —; current, □.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance and photoemission current plotted against the angle of incidence on the base of the prism coupler for the s-polarized case: reflectance, —; current, □.

Tables (2)

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Table I Properties of the Schottky Photodiode Used in this Experiment

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Table II Summary of Results

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