Abstract

The authors were required to fabricate small highly curved components with unusually deep asphericity together with extremely smooth and low damaged surfaces using lithium niobate, a crystalline material with anisotropic machining properties. Diamond-turning produced an accurate profile but with unacceptable roughness. Because existing CNC machines could not polish these surfaces adequately, a new polishing machine was developed. Three axes were controlled by a microcomputer to drive a very small rotating polishing tool over the rotating aspherical surface. The tool path was controlled to remove material uniformly from the surface or make corrections to surface profile.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).
  2. D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, G. E. Marx, L. D. Hutchinson, A. L. Kellner, “Operational Integrated Optical R. F. Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3033 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Foreman, “Simple Numerical Measure of the Manufacturability of Aspheric Optical Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 25, 826 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, “Diamond Machined Geodesic Lenses in LiNbO3,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 85 (1979).
  6. D. J. Nicholas, J. E. Boon, “Production of an Aspheric Surface for an F/1 Focusing Lens by a CNC Machine,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 92 (1980).
  7. J. Wilks, “Performance of Diamonds as Cutting Tools for Precision Machining,” Precis. Eng. 2, 57 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Aspen, R. McDonough, F. R. Nitchie, “Computer Assisted Optical Surfacing,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2739 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Jones, “Optimization of Computer Controlled Polishing,” Appl. Opt. 16, 218 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Jones, “Computer-Controlled Optical Surfacing with Orbital Tool Motion,” Opt. Eng. 25, 785 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. W. Preston, “The Theory and Design of Plate Glass Finishing Machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214 (1927).
  12. C. G. Kumanin, Ed. Generation of Optical Surfaces (Focal Press, London, 1967).
  13. J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, “An Experimental Study of In-Plane Light Scattering in Titanium Diffused Y-Cut LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 67 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

1986 (2)

R. A. Jones, “Computer-Controlled Optical Surfacing with Orbital Tool Motion,” Opt. Eng. 25, 785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Foreman, “Simple Numerical Measure of the Manufacturability of Aspheric Optical Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 25, 826 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, “An Experimental Study of In-Plane Light Scattering in Titanium Diffused Y-Cut LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 67 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (4)

D. J. Nicholas, J. E. Boon, “Production of an Aspheric Surface for an F/1 Focusing Lens by a CNC Machine,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 92 (1980).

J. Wilks, “Performance of Diamonds as Cutting Tools for Precision Machining,” Precis. Eng. 2, 57 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, G. E. Marx, L. D. Hutchinson, A. L. Kellner, “Operational Integrated Optical R. F. Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3033 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

R. Aspen, R. McDonough, F. R. Nitchie, “Computer Assisted Optical Surfacing,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2739 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, “Diamond Machined Geodesic Lenses in LiNbO3,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 85 (1979).

1977 (1)

1927 (1)

F. W. Preston, “The Theory and Design of Plate Glass Finishing Machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214 (1927).

Aspen, R.

Boon, J. E.

D. J. Nicholas, J. E. Boon, “Production of an Aspheric Surface for an F/1 Focusing Lens by a CNC Machine,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 92 (1980).

Bradley, J. C.

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, G. E. Marx, L. D. Hutchinson, A. L. Kellner, “Operational Integrated Optical R. F. Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3033 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, “Diamond Machined Geodesic Lenses in LiNbO3,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 85 (1979).

DeLaRue, R. M.

J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, “An Experimental Study of In-Plane Light Scattering in Titanium Diffused Y-Cut LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 67 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).

Doughty, G. F.

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).

Finlayson, N.

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

Foreman, J.

Hutchinson, L. D.

Jones, R. A.

R. A. Jones, “Computer-Controlled Optical Surfacing with Orbital Tool Motion,” Opt. Eng. 25, 785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Jones, “Optimization of Computer Controlled Polishing,” Appl. Opt. 16, 218 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kellner, A. L.

Malarkey, E. C.

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, G. E. Marx, L. D. Hutchinson, A. L. Kellner, “Operational Integrated Optical R. F. Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3033 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, “Diamond Machined Geodesic Lenses in LiNbO3,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 85 (1979).

Marx, G. E.

McDonough, R.

Mergerian, D.

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, G. E. Marx, L. D. Hutchinson, A. L. Kellner, “Operational Integrated Optical R. F. Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3033 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, “Diamond Machined Geodesic Lenses in LiNbO3,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 85 (1979).

Nicholas, D. J.

D. J. Nicholas, J. E. Boon, “Production of an Aspheric Surface for an F/1 Focusing Lens by a CNC Machine,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 92 (1980).

Nitchie, F. R.

Pautienus, R. P.

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, G. E. Marx, L. D. Hutchinson, A. L. Kellner, “Operational Integrated Optical R. F. Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3033 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, “Diamond Machined Geodesic Lenses in LiNbO3,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 85 (1979).

Preston, F. W.

F. W. Preston, “The Theory and Design of Plate Glass Finishing Machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214 (1927).

Singh, J.

J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, “An Experimental Study of In-Plane Light Scattering in Titanium Diffused Y-Cut LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 67 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).

Smith, J. F.

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, J.

J. Wilks, “Performance of Diamonds as Cutting Tools for Precision Machining,” Precis. Eng. 2, 57 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. B.

G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).

Wright, S.

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology (1)

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, S. Wright, “Fabrication Techniques for Geodesic Lenses in Lithium Niobate,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, & Manufacturing Technology CHMT-5, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, “An Experimental Study of In-Plane Light Scattering in Titanium Diffused Y-Cut LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 67 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Glass Technol. (1)

F. W. Preston, “The Theory and Design of Plate Glass Finishing Machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, 214 (1927).

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. A. Jones, “Computer-Controlled Optical Surfacing with Orbital Tool Motion,” Opt. Eng. 25, 785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

J. Wilks, “Performance of Diamonds as Cutting Tools for Precision Machining,” Precis. Eng. 2, 57 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (4)

D. Mergerian, E. C. Malarkey, R. P. Pautienus, J. C. Bradley, “Diamond Machined Geodesic Lenses in LiNbO3,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 176, 85 (1979).

D. J. Nicholas, J. E. Boon, “Production of an Aspheric Surface for an F/1 Focusing Lens by a CNC Machine,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 92 (1980).

G. F. Doughty, R. M. DeLaRue, N. Finlayson, J. Singh, J. F. Smith, “An Integrated Optical Microwave Spectrum Analyser (IOSA) Using Geodesic Lenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 705 (1982).

G. F. Doughty, R. B. Wilson, J. Singh, R. M. DeLaRue, S. Wright, “Aspheric Geodesic Lenses in an Integrated Optics Spectrum Analyser,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 235, 35 (1980).

Other (1)

C. G. Kumanin, Ed. Generation of Optical Surfaces (Focal Press, London, 1967).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geodesic lens integrated-optical microwave-spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nomarski phase contrast micrograph of the central part of a diamond-turned LiNbO3 lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aspherical surface polishing using a small tool controlled by three CNC axes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prototype of microcomputer-controlled polishing machine.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Description of a geodesic lens profile in terms of circular arcs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Felt-cone polishing tool and pool of colloidal silica in a diamond-turned lens mounted on the MCPM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Talystep traces of the central part of an aspherical lens in LiNbO3: top, after diamond-turning; bottom, after polishing.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Interferograms of spherical LiNbO3 surfaces: left, after diamond-turning; right, after polishing.

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