Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to meet the need to measure distributions of physical and biological properties of the ocean over large areas synoptically and over long time periods by means of remote sensing utilizing contemporaneous buoy, ship, aircraft, and satellite (i.e., multiplatform) sampling strategies. A mapping of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll fields in a Gulf Stream warm core ring using the multiplatform approach is described. Sampling capabilities of each sensing system are discussed as background for the data collected by means of these three dissimilar methods. Commensurate space/time sample sets from each sensing system are compared, and their relative accuracies in space and time are determined. The three-dimensional composite maps derived from the data set provide a synoptic perspective unobtainable from single platforms alone.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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1985 (5)

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Campbell, W. Esaias, “Spatial Patterns in Temperature and Chlorophyll over Nantucket Shoals,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans, K. S. Baker, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, “Chronology of Warm-Core Ring 82-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8803 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Pigment Biomass in Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring 82B and its Environs,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8859 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Trees, M. C. Kennicutt, J. M. Brooks, “Errors Associated with the Standard Fluorometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Pheopigments,” Mar. Chem. 17, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

W. W. Gieskes, G. W. Kraay, “Unknown Chlorophyll a Derivatives in the North Sea and the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Revealed by HPLC Analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 757 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Joyce et al., “Rapid Evolution of a Gulf Stream Warm-Core Ring,” Nature London 308, 837 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, J. L. Star, “Oceanographic Biooptical Profiling System,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2791 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (5)

1982 (5)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined Using Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Mar. Biol. 66, 267 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, “Water Raman Normalization of Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Measurements: a Computer Model Study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Visible and Infrared Remote Sensing: A Status Report,” Naval Res. Rev. 34, 7 (1982).

Warm Core Rings Executive Committee, “Multidisciplinary Program to Study Warm Core Rings,” Eos 63, 834 (1982).

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (6)

1980 (5)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric Effects in the Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980a).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Katsaros, “Radiative Sensing of Sea Surface Temperature,” Air-Sea Interaction293 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Remote Sensing Optical Properties of a Stratified Ocean: an Improved Interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3428 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Water and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of Atmospheric Effects from Satellite Imagery of the Oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, V. G. Kunde, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. Saunders, “The Skin Temperature of the Ocean, a Review,” Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Lege 6 Ser. ( VI), 93 (1973).

1970 (1)

D. Anding, R. Kauth, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Space,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. H. D. Strickland, T. F. Parsons, “A Practical Handbook of Sea Water Analysis,” Bull. Fish. Res. Can. 167, 1968), 311 pp.

1966 (1)

C. J. Lorenzen, “A Method for the Continuous Measurement of In-Vivo Chlorophyll Concentrations,” Deep Sea Res. 13, 223 (1966).

Ahmed, Z.

E. P. McClain, W. G. Pichel, C. C. Walton, Z. Ahmed, J. Sutton, Multi-channel Improvements to Satellite-Derived Global Sea Surface Temperatures,” in Proceedings, Twenty-fourth COSPAR, Ottawa (1982), 11 pp.

Anding, D.

D. Anding, R. Kauth, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Space,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, K. S. Baker, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, “Chronology of Warm-Core Ring 82-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8803 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Pigment Biomass in Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring 82B and its Environs,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8859 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined Using Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Mar. Biol. 66, 267 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Water and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Brown, J. W. Brown, K. S. Baker, J. B. Fahy, S. R. Emmerson, R. H. Evans, in Warm Core Rings Experiment Cruise II NOAA A VHRR Imagery Digest, 7 Apr.–13 May 1982, UM RSMAS Technical Report 82005 (1982), 102 pp.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, Fluorometric Techniques for the Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ref. 81–17, La Jolla, CA 92093 (1981), 14 pp.

Booth, C. R.

Bristow, M. P.

Broenkow, W. W.

Brooks, J. M.

C. C. Trees, M. C. Kennicutt, J. M. Brooks, “Errors Associated with the Standard Fluorometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Pheopigments,” Mar. Chem. 17, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus 7 CZCS: Reduction of its Radiometric Sensitivity with Time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, D. B. Olson, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Infrared Observation of the Kinematics of a Warm-core Ring,” Aust. J. Freshwater Res. 34, 535 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of Ship Determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner Estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, J. W. Brown, K. S. Baker, J. B. Fahy, S. R. Emmerson, R. H. Evans, in Warm Core Rings Experiment Cruise II NOAA A VHRR Imagery Digest, 7 Apr.–13 May 1982, UM RSMAS Technical Report 82005 (1982), 102 pp.

Brown, O. B.

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, K. S. Baker, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, “Chronology of Warm-Core Ring 82-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8803 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of Ship Determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner Estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, D. B. Olson, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Infrared Observation of the Kinematics of a Warm-core Ring,” Aust. J. Freshwater Res. 34, 535 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus 7 CZCS: Reduction of its Radiometric Sensitivity with Time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Visible and Infrared Remote Sensing: A Status Report,” Naval Res. Rev. 34, 7 (1982).

O. B. Brown, J. W. Brown, K. S. Baker, J. B. Fahy, S. R. Emmerson, R. H. Evans, in Warm Core Rings Experiment Cruise II NOAA A VHRR Imagery Digest, 7 Apr.–13 May 1982, UM RSMAS Technical Report 82005 (1982), 102 pp.

Bundy, D.

Campbell, J.

J. Campbell, W. Esaias, “Spatial Patterns in Temperature and Chlorophyll over Nantucket Shoals,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

R. C. Smith, J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, J. J. McCarthy, “Primary Production of the World Ocean,” Symposium, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology. S.I.O. Ref 83–26 (1981).

Clark, D. K.

Dalu, G.

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, V. G. Kunde, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dustan, P.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, Fluorometric Techniques for the Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ref. 81–17, La Jolla, CA 92093 (1981), 14 pp.

Emery, W. J.

W. J. Emery, G. L. Pickard, Descriptive Physical Oceanography (Pergamon, New York, 1982), 249 pp.

Emmerson, S. R.

O. B. Brown, J. W. Brown, K. S. Baker, J. B. Fahy, S. R. Emmerson, R. H. Evans, in Warm Core Rings Experiment Cruise II NOAA A VHRR Imagery Digest, 7 Apr.–13 May 1982, UM RSMAS Technical Report 82005 (1982), 102 pp.

Eppley, R. W.

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W.

J. Campbell, W. Esaias, “Spatial Patterns in Temperature and Chlorophyll over Nantucket Shoals,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Esaias, “Remote Sensing in Biological Oceanography,” Ocealus 24, 32 (1981).

Esaias, W. E.

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, “Water Raman Normalization of Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Measurements: a Computer Model Study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, J. J. McCarthy, “Primary Production of the World Ocean,” Symposium, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology. S.I.O. Ref 83–26 (1981).

Estes, R. H.

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, K. S. Baker, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, “Chronology of Warm-Core Ring 82-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8803 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of Ship Determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner Estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus 7 CZCS: Reduction of its Radiometric Sensitivity with Time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, D. B. Olson, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Infrared Observation of the Kinematics of a Warm-core Ring,” Aust. J. Freshwater Res. 34, 535 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Visible and Infrared Remote Sensing: A Status Report,” Naval Res. Rev. 34, 7 (1982).

O. B. Brown, J. W. Brown, K. S. Baker, J. B. Fahy, S. R. Emmerson, R. H. Evans, in Warm Core Rings Experiment Cruise II NOAA A VHRR Imagery Digest, 7 Apr.–13 May 1982, UM RSMAS Technical Report 82005 (1982), 102 pp.

Fahy, J. B.

O. B. Brown, J. W. Brown, K. S. Baker, J. B. Fahy, S. R. Emmerson, R. H. Evans, in Warm Core Rings Experiment Cruise II NOAA A VHRR Imagery Digest, 7 Apr.–13 May 1982, UM RSMAS Technical Report 82005 (1982), 102 pp.

Furtek, R.

Gieskes, W. W.

W. W. Gieskes, G. W. Kraay, “Unknown Chlorophyll a Derivatives in the North Sea and the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Revealed by HPLC Analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 757 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus 7 CZCS: Reduction of its Radiometric Sensitivity with Time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of Ship Determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner Estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear Water Radiances for Atmospheric Correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric Effects in the Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980a).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Remote Sensing Optical Properties of a Stratified Ocean: an Improved Interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3428 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of Atmospheric Effects from Satellite Imagery of the Oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, W. R. McCluney, “Estimation of the Depth of Sunlight Penetration in the Sea for Remote Sensing,” Appl. Opt. 14, 413 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Intrepretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), 114 pp.

Hoge, F. E.

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joyce, T.

T. Joyce et al., “Rapid Evolution of a Gulf Stream Warm-Core Ring,” Nature London 308, 837 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm-Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).

T. Joyce, ENDEAVOR 83 Cruise Report (Apr.1982).

Katsaros, K. B.

K. B. Katsaros, “Radiative Sensing of Sea Surface Temperature,” Air-Sea Interaction293 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kauth, R.

D. Anding, R. Kauth, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Space,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kennicutt, M. C.

C. C. Trees, M. C. Kennicutt, J. M. Brooks, “Errors Associated with the Standard Fluorometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Pheopigments,” Mar. Chem. 17, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kraay, G. W.

W. W. Gieskes, G. W. Kraay, “Unknown Chlorophyll a Derivatives in the North Sea and the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Revealed by HPLC Analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 757 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kunde, V. G.

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, V. G. Kunde, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, C. J.

C. J. Lorenzen, “A Method for the Continuous Measurement of In-Vivo Chlorophyll Concentrations,” Deep Sea Res. 13, 223 (1966).

Maul, G. H.

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, J. J.

R. C. Smith, J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, J. J. McCarthy, “Primary Production of the World Ocean,” Symposium, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology. S.I.O. Ref 83–26 (1981).

McClain, E. P.

E. P. McClain, W. G. Pichel, C. C. Walton, Z. Ahmed, J. Sutton, Multi-channel Improvements to Satellite-Derived Global Sea Surface Temperatures,” in Proceedings, Twenty-fourth COSPAR, Ottawa (1982), 11 pp.

McCluney, W. R.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Intrepretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), 114 pp.

Mourad, A. G.

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, D.

Olson, D. B.

O. B. Brown, D. B. Olson, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Infrared Observation of the Kinematics of a Warm-core Ring,” Aust. J. Freshwater Res. 34, 535 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, T. F.

J. H. D. Strickland, T. F. Parsons, “A Practical Handbook of Sea Water Analysis,” Bull. Fish. Res. Can. 167, 1968), 311 pp.

Pichel, W. G.

E. P. McClain, W. G. Pichel, C. C. Walton, Z. Ahmed, J. Sutton, Multi-channel Improvements to Satellite-Derived Global Sea Surface Temperatures,” in Proceedings, Twenty-fourth COSPAR, Ottawa (1982), 11 pp.

Pickard, G. L.

W. J. Emery, G. L. Pickard, Descriptive Physical Oceanography (Pergamon, New York, 1982), 249 pp.

Poole, L. R.

Prabhakara, C.

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, V. G. Kunde, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, P. L.

P. L. Richardson, “Gulf Stream Rings,” in Eddies in Marine Science, A. R. Robinson, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 19–64.
[CrossRef]

Saunders, P.

P. Saunders, “The Skin Temperature of the Ocean, a Review,” Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Lege 6 Ser. ( VI), 93 (1973).

Schwalb, A.

A. Schwalb, The TIROS-N/NOAA A-G Satellite Series, NOAA TM NESS 95 (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 75 pp.; available from NTIS, 1978).

Shemdin, O. H.

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, K. S. Baker, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, “Chronology of Warm-Core Ring 82-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8803 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Pigment Biomass in Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring 82B and its Environs,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8859 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, J. L. Star, “Oceanographic Biooptical Profiling System,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2791 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined Using Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Mar. Biol. 66, 267 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, “Remote Sensing and Depth Distribution of Chlorophyll, Mar. Ecol. 5, 359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, J. J. McCarthy, “Primary Production of the World Ocean,” Symposium, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology. S.I.O. Ref 83–26 (1981).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Water and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, “Ocean Color for the Estimation of Global Marine Primary Productivity” in Global Ocean Flux Study, in Proceedings, Workshop, National Academy of Science, Woods Hole, MA (1984).

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Ship and Satellite Bio-Optical Research in the California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. R. F. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 371–376.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, Fluorometric Techniques for the Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ref. 81–17, La Jolla, CA 92093 (1981), 14 pp.

Star, J. L.

Strickland, J. H. D.

J. H. D. Strickland, T. F. Parsons, “A Practical Handbook of Sea Water Analysis,” Bull. Fish. Res. Can. 167, 1968), 311 pp.

Sturm, B.

B. Sturm, “Ocean Color Remote Sensing and the Retrieval of Surface Chlorophyll in Coastal Waters Using Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography from Space, J. R. F. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 267–280.
[CrossRef]

Sutton, J.

E. P. McClain, W. G. Pichel, C. C. Walton, Z. Ahmed, J. Sutton, Multi-channel Improvements to Satellite-Derived Global Sea Surface Temperatures,” in Proceedings, Twenty-fourth COSPAR, Ottawa (1982), 11 pp.

Swift, R. N.

Trees, C. C.

C. C. Trees, M. C. Kennicutt, J. M. Brooks, “Errors Associated with the Standard Fluorometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Pheopigments,” Mar. Chem. 17, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

E. P. McClain, W. G. Pichel, C. C. Walton, Z. Ahmed, J. Sutton, Multi-channel Improvements to Satellite-Derived Global Sea Surface Temperatures,” in Proceedings, Twenty-fourth COSPAR, Ottawa (1982), 11 pp.

Weiffenback, G.

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wiebe, P.

T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm-Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).

Wilson, P.

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Ship and Satellite Bio-Optical Research in the California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. R. F. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 371–376.

Air-Sea Interaction (1)

K. B. Katsaros, “Radiative Sensing of Sea Surface Temperature,” Air-Sea Interaction293 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

H. R. Gordon, W. R. McCluney, “Estimation of the Depth of Sunlight Penetration in the Sea for Remote Sensing,” Appl. Opt. 14, 413 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of Atmospheric Effects from Satellite Imagery of the Oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear Water Radiances for Atmospheric Correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, “Water Raman Normalization of Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Measurements: a Computer Model Study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of Ship Determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner Estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Dual Laser Excitation and Mapping of Phytoplankton Photopigments in a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, J. L. Star, “Oceanographic Biooptical Profiling System,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2791 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus 7 CZCS: Reduction of its Radiometric Sensitivity with Time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Remote Sensing Optical Properties of a Stratified Ocean: an Improved Interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3428 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aust. J. Freshwater Res. (1)

O. B. Brown, D. B. Olson, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Infrared Observation of the Kinematics of a Warm-core Ring,” Aust. J. Freshwater Res. 34, 535 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Boundary Layer Meteorol. (1)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric Effects in the Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980a).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Fish. Res. Can. (1)

J. H. D. Strickland, T. F. Parsons, “A Practical Handbook of Sea Water Analysis,” Bull. Fish. Res. Can. 167, 1968), 311 pp.

Deep Sea Res. (1)

C. J. Lorenzen, “A Method for the Continuous Measurement of In-Vivo Chlorophyll Concentrations,” Deep Sea Res. 13, 223 (1966).

Eos (1)

Warm Core Rings Executive Committee, “Multidisciplinary Program to Study Warm Core Rings,” Eos 63, 834 (1982).

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

R. H. Evans, K. S. Baker, O. B. Brown, R. C. Smith, “Chronology of Warm-Core Ring 82-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8803 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Pigment Biomass in Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring 82B and its Environs,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8859 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, V. G. Kunde, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

J. Campbell, W. Esaias, “Spatial Patterns in Temperature and Chlorophyll over Nantucket Shoals,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

W. W. Gieskes, G. W. Kraay, “Unknown Chlorophyll a Derivatives in the North Sea and the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Revealed by HPLC Analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 757 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Water and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Biol. (2)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined Using Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Mar. Biol. 66, 267 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Chem. (1)

C. C. Trees, M. C. Kennicutt, J. M. Brooks, “Errors Associated with the Standard Fluorometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Pheopigments,” Mar. Chem. 17, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. (1)

R. C. Smith, “Remote Sensing and Depth Distribution of Chlorophyll, Mar. Ecol. 5, 359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Geod. (1)

G. H. Maul, A. G. Mourad, P. Wilson, O. H. Shemdin, R. H. Estes, G. Weiffenback, “Report on International Symposium on Interaction of Marine Geodesy and Ocean Dynamics,” Mar. Geod. 3, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Lege 6 Ser. (1)

P. Saunders, “The Skin Temperature of the Ocean, a Review,” Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Lege 6 Ser. ( VI), 93 (1973).

Nature London (1)

T. Joyce et al., “Rapid Evolution of a Gulf Stream Warm-Core Ring,” Nature London 308, 837 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Naval Res. Rev. (1)

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Satellite Visible and Infrared Remote Sensing: A Status Report,” Naval Res. Rev. 34, 7 (1982).

Ocealus (1)

W. Esaias, “Remote Sensing in Biological Oceanography,” Ocealus 24, 32 (1981).

Oceanus (1)

T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm-Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

D. Anding, R. Kauth, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Space,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

W. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Phytoplankton Blooming off the U.S. East Coast: A Satellite Description,” Science 229, 163 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Symposium, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology (1)

R. C. Smith, J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, J. J. McCarthy, “Primary Production of the World Ocean,” Symposium, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology. S.I.O. Ref 83–26 (1981).

Other (16)

MAREX, The Marine Resources Experiment Program: Report of the Ocean Color Science Working Group, J. Walsh, Ed. (OAO Corp., Beltsville, MD, 1982), 102 pp.

JOI, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., Satellite Planning Committee,Oceanography from Space, a Research Strategy for the Decade 1985–1995 (Washington, DC, 1984).

Global Ocean Flux Study, in Proceedings, Workshop Sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, 10–14 Sept. 1984, Woods Hole (1984), 360 pp.

P. L. Richardson, “Gulf Stream Rings,” in Eddies in Marine Science, A. R. Robinson, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 19–64.
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll and Other Organic Pigments,” The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980, J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., NASA Conference Proceedings Document CP2188 (1981).

J. H. Steele, Ed., Spatial Pattern in Plankton Communities (Plenum, New York, 1978).

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Ship and Satellite Bio-Optical Research in the California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. R. F. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 371–376.

B. Sturm, “Ocean Color Remote Sensing and the Retrieval of Surface Chlorophyll in Coastal Waters Using Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography from Space, J. R. F. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 267–280.
[CrossRef]

E. P. McClain, W. G. Pichel, C. C. Walton, Z. Ahmed, J. Sutton, Multi-channel Improvements to Satellite-Derived Global Sea Surface Temperatures,” in Proceedings, Twenty-fourth COSPAR, Ottawa (1982), 11 pp.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Intrepretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), 114 pp.

R. C. Smith, “Ocean Color for the Estimation of Global Marine Primary Productivity” in Global Ocean Flux Study, in Proceedings, Workshop, National Academy of Science, Woods Hole, MA (1984).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, Fluorometric Techniques for the Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ref. 81–17, La Jolla, CA 92093 (1981), 14 pp.

W. J. Emery, G. L. Pickard, Descriptive Physical Oceanography (Pergamon, New York, 1982), 249 pp.

A. Schwalb, The TIROS-N/NOAA A-G Satellite Series, NOAA TM NESS 95 (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 75 pp.; available from NTIS, 1978).

O. B. Brown, J. W. Brown, K. S. Baker, J. B. Fahy, S. R. Emmerson, R. H. Evans, in Warm Core Rings Experiment Cruise II NOAA A VHRR Imagery Digest, 7 Apr.–13 May 1982, UM RSMAS Technical Report 82005 (1982), 102 pp.

T. Joyce, ENDEAVOR 83 Cruise Report (Apr.1982).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Space/time domain for various oceanic phenomena and limits of coverage for various platforms. Stippled areas indicate space/time scales for selected physical forcings. Hatched areas show the excursion-generation times of some biological components, and the solid lines indicate the space/time coverage for buoys, ships, aircraft, and satellites. Adapted from Steele (1978) and Esaias (1981).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Processed Coastal Zone Color Scanner image of the U.S. East Coast on 19 Apr. 1982. (Phytoplankton pigment concentration, ranging from 0.05 to 10.0 mg m−3, is scaled logarithmically from low to high concentrations.) (b) Processed advanced very high resolution radiometer image of the U.S. East Coast on 19 Apr. 1982. (Temperature ranges from 5 to 25°C.) The Gulf Stream can be seen as the low pigment high SST region of the images running from lower left to the mid right. Two warm core rings can be recognized in the images: ring 82-B which shows surface features similar to the Gulf Stream/Sargasso Sea in the upper right of the figure; and ring 82-F which is warmer than the surrounding slope/shelf waters but which shows relatively high pigment concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ship △ and aircraft x sampling pattern in WCR 82-B. The ship began the first chord of the star sampling pattern at 0400 GMT on 20 Apr. and completed chord five at 1100 GMT on 21 Apr. The aircraft began the first chord at 1415 GMT on 20 Apr. and completed the pattern ~2 h later. Inset shows the location of WCR 82-B during this period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of SST vs time (distance along-track) for the aircraft (PRT-5) and ship (Sea-Bird) sensors for legs 1,2, and 3 (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of SST vs time (distance along-track) for the satellite (AVHRR) and ship (Sea-Bird) sensors for legs 1–5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-dimensional composite plot of sea-surface temperature for WCR 82-B and surroundings (24 Apr. 1982). [For a color-encoded presentation of this 3-D composite see the upper plate on the cover of this issue.]

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chlorophyll vs time (distance along-track) for legs 1,2, and 3 for the AOL (dots) and ship (triangles).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Chlorophyll vs time (distance along-track) for legs 1–5 for the ship ○ and satellite (CZCS, solid line).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Chlorophyll vs time (distance along-track) for legs 1–5 for the AOL ○ and satellite (solid line).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Three-dimensional composite of chlorophyll concentration for WCR 82-B and surroundings (14 Apr. 1982). [For a color-encoded presentation of this 3-D composite see the lower plate on the cover of this issue.]

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