Abstract

Surface relief gratings with 1200, 2400, and 3600 lines/mm on planar SiO2–TiO2 waveguides were fabricated by a combination of a dipcoating method (sol gel process) with an embossing technique. The grating is embossed into a deformable gel film, which by subsequent heat treatment is transformed into an oxide waveguiding film. During the heat treatment the film thickness shrinks to about one-fourth of its value directly after the embossing. Values of the process parameters, e.g., of the embossing pressure, are given with which input and output grating couplers of good quality were fabricated. Measurements of input and output efficiencies are reported; incoupling efficiencies up to ∼28% were obtained.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Embossing Technique for Fabricating Integrated Optical Components in Hard Inorganic Waveguiding Materials,” Opt. Lett. 8, 537 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).
  3. K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Switches and Gas Sensors,” Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Directional Switching in Planar Waveguides Effected by Adsorption—Desorption Processes,” in Technical Digest, Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, 1983, Conf. Publ. 227 (IEE, London, 1983), pp. 152–155.
  5. K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 514, 275 (1984).
  6. K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Grating Couplers as Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Thin Solid Films 126, 205 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Briguet, ETH Zuerich, private communication;W. Lukosz, V. Briguet, “Novel Integrated Thermo-Optic Switches,” Thin Solid Films 126, 197 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Lukosz, V. Briguet, “Light-Induced-Desorption: A New Mechanism for Bistability in Integrated Optical Devices,” Meeting ‘Optical Bistability 3’, Tucson, December 1985 (Springer, New York, 1986, in press).

1985 (1)

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Grating Couplers as Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Thin Solid Films 126, 205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Switches and Gas Sensors,” Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 514, 275 (1984).

1983 (2)

W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Embossing Technique for Fabricating Integrated Optical Components in Hard Inorganic Waveguiding Materials,” Opt. Lett. 8, 537 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).

Briguet, V.

K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).

V. Briguet, ETH Zuerich, private communication;W. Lukosz, V. Briguet, “Novel Integrated Thermo-Optic Switches,” Thin Solid Films 126, 197 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, V. Briguet, “Light-Induced-Desorption: A New Mechanism for Bistability in Integrated Optical Devices,” Meeting ‘Optical Bistability 3’, Tucson, December 1985 (Springer, New York, 1986, in press).

Buser, E.

K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).

Horisberger, M.

K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).

Lukosz, W.

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Grating Couplers as Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Thin Solid Films 126, 205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 514, 275 (1984).

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Switches and Gas Sensors,” Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Embossing Technique for Fabricating Integrated Optical Components in Hard Inorganic Waveguiding Materials,” Opt. Lett. 8, 537 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).

W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Directional Switching in Planar Waveguides Effected by Adsorption—Desorption Processes,” in Technical Digest, Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, 1983, Conf. Publ. 227 (IEE, London, 1983), pp. 152–155.

W. Lukosz, V. Briguet, “Light-Induced-Desorption: A New Mechanism for Bistability in Integrated Optical Devices,” Meeting ‘Optical Bistability 3’, Tucson, December 1985 (Springer, New York, 1986, in press).

Tiefenthaler, K.

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Grating Couplers as Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Thin Solid Films 126, 205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 514, 275 (1984).

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Switches and Gas Sensors,” Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Embossing Technique for Fabricating Integrated Optical Components in Hard Inorganic Waveguiding Materials,” Opt. Lett. 8, 537 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).

W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Directional Switching in Planar Waveguides Effected by Adsorption—Desorption Processes,” in Technical Digest, Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, 1983, Conf. Publ. 227 (IEE, London, 1983), pp. 152–155.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

K. Tiefenthaler, V. Briguet, E. Buser, M. Horisberger, W. Lukosz, “Preparation of Planar SiO2–TiO2 and LiNbO3 Wave-guides with a Dipcoating Method and an Embossing Technique for Producing Grating Couplers and Channel Waveguides,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 165 (1983).

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 514, 275 (1984).

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, “Grating Couplers as Integrated Optical Humidity and Gas Sensors,” Thin Solid Films 126, 205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. Briguet, ETH Zuerich, private communication;W. Lukosz, V. Briguet, “Novel Integrated Thermo-Optic Switches,” Thin Solid Films 126, 197 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, V. Briguet, “Light-Induced-Desorption: A New Mechanism for Bistability in Integrated Optical Devices,” Meeting ‘Optical Bistability 3’, Tucson, December 1985 (Springer, New York, 1986, in press).

W. Lukosz, K. Tiefenthaler, “Directional Switching in Planar Waveguides Effected by Adsorption—Desorption Processes,” in Technical Digest, Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, 1983, Conf. Publ. 227 (IEE, London, 1983), pp. 152–155.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of embossing apparatus. The dipcoated film F on substrate S is pressed against the die M, a grating with 1/Λ = 1200, 2400, and 3600 lines/mm (Λ grating period). Diameter of piston D =3 mm. Distance d = 0.2–0.5 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrograph of master grating with 1/Λ = 2442 lines/mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrograph of embossed surface relief gratings with 1/ Λ = 2442 lines/mm. Viewing angle 80°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as in Fig. 3 but with 1/Λ = 3600 lines/mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shrinkage by heat treatment. Surface relief of embossed film immediately after embossing (left) and after the heat treatment (right) when (a) the grating embossed into the gel film is a negative replica of the sinusoidal master, and (b) only the protrusions of the master are pressed into the gel film. d ̅ F and dF, median thicknesses of the film; Δ d F ̅ , ΔdF, modulations; Λ, grating period.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface relief grating used as a diffraction grating. Lx, Ly, extension of grating in the x and y directions; ηl, diffraction efficiencies; l = 0,±1,…, order. In the scanning diffraction experiment the grating is scanned with a laser beam of diameter ø ≪ Lx,Ly.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiency η1 of surface relief grating vs coordinates x,y in the plane of the grating (see Fig. 6) showing the spatial dependence of the modulation of an embossed grating with 1/Λ = 1200 lines/mm. λ = 632.8 nm. Maximum efficiency ηl = 2× 10−4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface relief grating used as input coupler. S, substrate; F, waveguiding film; C, cover medium; ns, ηF, and nc refractive indices; α, angle of incidence of laser beam incident from (a) the cover region or (b) the substrate region.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output grating coupler. The guided mode is partially out-coupled into the substrate or cover regions with efficiencies ηS and ηC, respectively.

Equations (8)

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N = n air sin α l + l λ / Λ ,
t ( x ) = exp [ i ϕ ( x ) ] 1 + i ϕ ( x ) .
Δ ϕ ( x ) = ( 2 π / λ ) ( n F N c ) Δ d F ( x )
η l = | d l | 2 ( n F n C ) 2 ( 2 π Δ d F / λ ) 2 ,
l [ ( P l ) t + ( P l ) r ]
{ l [ ( P l ) t + ( P l ) r ] } / P
η Δ { l [ ( P l ) t + ( P l ) r ] / P } .
η ± 1 = 0.5 × 10 4 ; η C = 4.8 % ; η S = 7.8 % ; η ± 1 = 2.6 × 10 4 ; η C = 8.7 % ; η S = 14 % ; η ± 1 = 5 × 10 4 ; η C = 20 % ; η S = 35 % .

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