Abstract

A coherent-optical time-of-flight range-finding technique is proposed which uses a simple inexpensive device. Target range is determined by modulating a laser diode's optical frequency and measuring the change in the phase of the light reflected back into the laser. Target velocity as well as range can be measured using this approach. The device is described, and experimental evidence is presented to show the feasibility of measuring distance with subcentimeter resolution over a 1.5-m range.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The Measurement and Use of Registered Reflectance and Range Data in Scene Analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Jarvis, “A Laser Time-of-Flight Range Scanner for Robotic Vision,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. PAMI-5, 505 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Olsson, C. L. Tang, “Dynamic Interferometry Techniques for Optical Path Length Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3503 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Beheim, K. Fritsch, “Remote Displacement Measurements Using a Laser Diode,” Electron. Lett. 21, 93 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Dandridge, “Current-Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Dandridge, R. O. Miles, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Diode Laser Sensor,” Electron. Lett. 16, 948 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1985

G. Beheim, K. Fritsch, “Remote Displacement Measurements Using a Laser Diode,” Electron. Lett. 21, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. A. Jarvis, “A Laser Time-of-Flight Range Scanner for Robotic Vision,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. PAMI-5, 505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

A. Dandridge, “Current-Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

A. Dandridge, R. O. Miles, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Diode Laser Sensor,” Electron. Lett. 16, 948 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The Measurement and Use of Registered Reflectance and Range Data in Scene Analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Beheim, G.

G. Beheim, K. Fritsch, “Remote Displacement Measurements Using a Laser Diode,” Electron. Lett. 21, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brain, A. E.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The Measurement and Use of Registered Reflectance and Range Data in Scene Analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, “Current-Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, R. O. Miles, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Diode Laser Sensor,” Electron. Lett. 16, 948 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Duda, R. O.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The Measurement and Use of Registered Reflectance and Range Data in Scene Analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fritsch, K.

G. Beheim, K. Fritsch, “Remote Displacement Measurements Using a Laser Diode,” Electron. Lett. 21, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandridge, R. O. Miles, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Diode Laser Sensor,” Electron. Lett. 16, 948 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, R. A.

R. A. Jarvis, “A Laser Time-of-Flight Range Scanner for Robotic Vision,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. PAMI-5, 505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. O.

A. Dandridge, R. O. Miles, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Diode Laser Sensor,” Electron. Lett. 16, 948 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nitzan, D.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The Measurement and Use of Registered Reflectance and Range Data in Scene Analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

Tang, C. L.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

G. Beheim, K. Fritsch, “Remote Displacement Measurements Using a Laser Diode,” Electron. Lett. 21, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, “Current-Induced Frequency Modulation in Diode Lasers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 302 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, R. O. Miles, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Diode Laser Sensor,” Electron. Lett. 16, 948 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell.

R. A. Jarvis, “A Laser Time-of-Flight Range Scanner for Robotic Vision,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. PAMI-5, 505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The Measurement and Use of Registered Reflectance and Range Data in Scene Analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic showing laser diode (LD), photodiode (PD), and graded-index rod microlens (GRIN LENS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical oscilloscope displays for stationary targets. The lower trace is direct-coupled, and the upper trace is high-pass filtered: (a) Scotchlite target at 2.4 cm; (b) and (c) paper target at 10 and 100 cm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number of mode hops N vs target range L.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Oscilloscope displays showing effects of target motion at 9-cm range, (a) V = +210 μm/s; (b) V = 0; (c) V = −210 μm/Ws.

Equations (2)

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L = c 4 Δ F ( N 2 + N 1 ) ;
V = λ 4 T ( N 2 N 1 ) ,

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