Abstract

Video frequency noise in diode laser output and its influence on reproduced picture quality have been studied in an optical videodisc player. It was found that laser noise is related to an instability of oscillating longitudinal modes and has a strong correlation with picture quality. A single-mode laser easily oscillates in two or more modes by temperature change and optical feedback, which causes mode-hopping noise and results in white dots randomly appearing on a picture. A multimode laser has a consistently high noise level, and this results in a rough picture quality. Using high frequency superimposed current to power a single-mode laser enables multimode oscillation to be maintained at a steady level. This produces a relatively low noise level resulting in good picture quality. With regard to the video frequency laser noise specifications, it is determined that relative intensity noise should be <6 × 10−14 (Hz−1) in a practical player and <3 × 10−14 (Hz−1) in a pickup simulating noise measuring system.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. Chinone, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, M. Ojima, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Noise of Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers,” in Proceedings, Eighth Semiconductor Laser Conference No. 25 (IEEE, New York, 1982).
  3. T. Gotoh, A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, “Characteristics of Laser Diodes and Picture Quality,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 11 (1982).
  4. A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, “Diode Laser Noise at Control Frequencies in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2913 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Kajimura, W. Kashiwada, H. Ouuchi, K. Aiki, “Highly Reliable GaAlAs Visible Light Emitting MCSP Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 22-1, 325 (1983).
  6. A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Biersterbos, A. Beef, W. Linders, G. Acket, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Optical Noise in GaAlAs Channelled Substrate Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Arnold, K. Petermann, “Intrinsic Noise of Semiconductor Lasers in Optical Communication Systems,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 207 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. S. Winslow, “Mastering and Replication of Reflective Video Discs,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 318 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Ikegami, “Spectral Broadening and Trailing Effect in Directly Modulated Injection Lasers,” in Technical Digest, First European Conference on Optical Communication, London (1975), p. 111.
  12. K. Y. Lau, C. Harder, A. Yariv, “Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Semiconductor Lasers Under High Speed Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 71 (1984).
  13. R. E. Epworth, “The Phenomenon of Modal Noise in Analog and Digital Optical Fiber Systems,” in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 492.
  14. J. Vanderwall, J. Blackburn, “Suppression of Some Artifacts of Modal Noise in Fiber-Optic Systems,” Opt. Lett. 4, 295 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Ojima, K. Aiki, S. Yonezawa, “Noise Suppression in Semiconductor Laser Pick-Ups for Video Disk Players,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1565 (1980).
  16. A. Ohishi, N. Chinone, M. Ojima, A. Arimoto, “Noise Characteristics of High-Frequency Superposed Laser Diodes for Optical Disc Systems,” Electron. Lett. 20, 821 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, A. Oishi, T. Gotoh, N. Ohnuki, “Optimum Conditions for the High Frequency Noise Reduction Method in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1398 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (3)

K. Y. Lau, C. Harder, A. Yariv, “Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Semiconductor Lasers Under High Speed Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 71 (1984).

A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, “Diode Laser Noise at Control Frequencies in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2913 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ohishi, N. Chinone, M. Ojima, A. Arimoto, “Noise Characteristics of High-Frequency Superposed Laser Diodes for Optical Disc Systems,” Electron. Lett. 20, 821 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

T. Kajimura, W. Kashiwada, H. Ouuchi, K. Aiki, “Highly Reliable GaAlAs Visible Light Emitting MCSP Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 22-1, 325 (1983).

J. Biersterbos, A. Beef, W. Linders, G. Acket, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Optical Noise in GaAlAs Channelled Substrate Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

T. Gotoh, A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, “Characteristics of Laser Diodes and Picture Quality,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 11 (1982).

1980 (3)

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[Crossref]

G. Arnold, K. Petermann, “Intrinsic Noise of Semiconductor Lasers in Optical Communication Systems,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 207 (1980).
[Crossref]

M. Ojima, K. Aiki, S. Yonezawa, “Noise Suppression in Semiconductor Laser Pick-Ups for Video Disk Players,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1565 (1980).

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

J. S. Winslow, “Mastering and Replication of Reflective Video Discs,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 318 (1976).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[Crossref]

Acket, G.

J. Biersterbos, A. Beef, W. Linders, G. Acket, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Optical Noise in GaAlAs Channelled Substrate Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983).
[Crossref]

Aiki, K.

T. Kajimura, W. Kashiwada, H. Ouuchi, K. Aiki, “Highly Reliable GaAlAs Visible Light Emitting MCSP Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 22-1, 325 (1983).

M. Ojima, K. Aiki, S. Yonezawa, “Noise Suppression in Semiconductor Laser Pick-Ups for Video Disk Players,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1565 (1980).

Arimoto, A.

A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, A. Oishi, T. Gotoh, N. Ohnuki, “Optimum Conditions for the High Frequency Noise Reduction Method in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1398 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, “Diode Laser Noise at Control Frequencies in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2913 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ohishi, N. Chinone, M. Ojima, A. Arimoto, “Noise Characteristics of High-Frequency Superposed Laser Diodes for Optical Disc Systems,” Electron. Lett. 20, 821 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. Gotoh, A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, “Characteristics of Laser Diodes and Picture Quality,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 11 (1982).

Arnold, G.

G. Arnold, K. Petermann, “Intrinsic Noise of Semiconductor Lasers in Optical Communication Systems,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 207 (1980).
[Crossref]

Beef, A.

J. Biersterbos, A. Beef, W. Linders, G. Acket, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Optical Noise in GaAlAs Channelled Substrate Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983).
[Crossref]

Biersterbos, J.

J. Biersterbos, A. Beef, W. Linders, G. Acket, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Optical Noise in GaAlAs Channelled Substrate Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983).
[Crossref]

Blackburn, J.

Chinone, N.

A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, A. Oishi, T. Gotoh, N. Ohnuki, “Optimum Conditions for the High Frequency Noise Reduction Method in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1398 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Ohishi, N. Chinone, M. Ojima, A. Arimoto, “Noise Characteristics of High-Frequency Superposed Laser Diodes for Optical Disc Systems,” Electron. Lett. 20, 821 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. Gotoh, A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, “Characteristics of Laser Diodes and Picture Quality,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 11 (1982).

N. Chinone, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, M. Ojima, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Noise of Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers,” in Proceedings, Eighth Semiconductor Laser Conference No. 25 (IEEE, New York, 1982).

Epworth, R. E.

R. E. Epworth, “The Phenomenon of Modal Noise in Analog and Digital Optical Fiber Systems,” in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 492.

Gotoh, T.

A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, A. Oishi, T. Gotoh, N. Ohnuki, “Optimum Conditions for the High Frequency Noise Reduction Method in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1398 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gotoh, A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, “Characteristics of Laser Diodes and Picture Quality,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 11 (1982).

Harder, C.

K. Y. Lau, C. Harder, A. Yariv, “Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Semiconductor Lasers Under High Speed Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 71 (1984).

Ikegami, T.

T. Ikegami, “Spectral Broadening and Trailing Effect in Directly Modulated Injection Lasers,” in Technical Digest, First European Conference on Optical Communication, London (1975), p. 111.

Kajimura, T.

N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
[Crossref]

T. Kajimura, W. Kashiwada, H. Ouuchi, K. Aiki, “Highly Reliable GaAlAs Visible Light Emitting MCSP Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 22-1, 325 (1983).

N. Chinone, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, M. Ojima, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Noise of Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers,” in Proceedings, Eighth Semiconductor Laser Conference No. 25 (IEEE, New York, 1982).

Kashiwada, W.

T. Kajimura, W. Kashiwada, H. Ouuchi, K. Aiki, “Highly Reliable GaAlAs Visible Light Emitting MCSP Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 22-1, 325 (1983).

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, T.

N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
[Crossref]

Lang, R.

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. Y.

K. Y. Lau, C. Harder, A. Yariv, “Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Semiconductor Lasers Under High Speed Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 71 (1984).

Linders, W.

J. Biersterbos, A. Beef, W. Linders, G. Acket, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Optical Noise in GaAlAs Channelled Substrate Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, A.

A. Ohishi, N. Chinone, M. Ojima, A. Arimoto, “Noise Characteristics of High-Frequency Superposed Laser Diodes for Optical Disc Systems,” Electron. Lett. 20, 821 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ohnuki, N.

Ohtoshi, T.

N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
[Crossref]

Oishi, A.

Ojima, M.

A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, A. Oishi, T. Gotoh, N. Ohnuki, “Optimum Conditions for the High Frequency Noise Reduction Method in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1398 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, “Diode Laser Noise at Control Frequencies in Optical Videodisc Players,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2913 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ohishi, N. Chinone, M. Ojima, A. Arimoto, “Noise Characteristics of High-Frequency Superposed Laser Diodes for Optical Disc Systems,” Electron. Lett. 20, 821 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. Gotoh, A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, “Characteristics of Laser Diodes and Picture Quality,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 11 (1982).

M. Ojima, K. Aiki, S. Yonezawa, “Noise Suppression in Semiconductor Laser Pick-Ups for Video Disk Players,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1565 (1980).

N. Chinone, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, M. Ojima, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Noise of Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers,” in Proceedings, Eighth Semiconductor Laser Conference No. 25 (IEEE, New York, 1982).

Ouuchi, H.

T. Kajimura, W. Kashiwada, H. Ouuchi, K. Aiki, “Highly Reliable GaAlAs Visible Light Emitting MCSP Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 22-1, 325 (1983).

Petermann, K.

G. Arnold, K. Petermann, “Intrinsic Noise of Semiconductor Lasers in Optical Communication Systems,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 207 (1980).
[Crossref]

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, T.

N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
[Crossref]

N. Chinone, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, M. Ojima, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Noise of Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers,” in Proceedings, Eighth Semiconductor Laser Conference No. 25 (IEEE, New York, 1982).

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[Crossref]

Vanderwall, J.

Winslow, J. S.

J. S. Winslow, “Mastering and Replication of Reflective Video Discs,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 318 (1976).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

K. Y. Lau, C. Harder, A. Yariv, “Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Semiconductor Lasers Under High Speed Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 71 (1984).

Yonezawa, S.

M. Ojima, K. Aiki, S. Yonezawa, “Noise Suppression in Semiconductor Laser Pick-Ups for Video Disk Players,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1565 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Ohishi, N. Chinone, M. Ojima, A. Arimoto, “Noise Characteristics of High-Frequency Superposed Laser Diodes for Optical Disc Systems,” Electron. Lett. 20, 821 (1984).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Biersterbos, A. Beef, W. Linders, G. Acket, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Optical Noise in GaAlAs Channelled Substrate Lasers Induced by Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983).
[Crossref]

N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, “Mode-Hopping Noise in Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers and Its Reduction by Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1264 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Lau, C. Harder, A. Yariv, “Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Semiconductor Lasers Under High Speed Modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 71 (1984).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

J. S. Winslow, “Mastering and Replication of Reflective Video Discs,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-22, 318 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. Ojima, K. Aiki, S. Yonezawa, “Noise Suppression in Semiconductor Laser Pick-Ups for Video Disk Players,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1565 (1980).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. (1)

T. Kajimura, W. Kashiwada, H. Ouuchi, K. Aiki, “Highly Reliable GaAlAs Visible Light Emitting MCSP Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 22-1, 325 (1983).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Arnold, K. Petermann, “Intrinsic Noise of Semiconductor Lasers in Optical Communication Systems,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 207 (1980).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

T. Gotoh, A. Arimoto, M. Ojima, N. Chinone, “Characteristics of Laser Diodes and Picture Quality,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 11 (1982).

Other (3)

N. Chinone, T. Takahashi, T. Kajimura, M. Ojima, “Low Frequency Mode-Hopping Noise of Index-Guided Semiconductor Lasers,” in Proceedings, Eighth Semiconductor Laser Conference No. 25 (IEEE, New York, 1982).

R. E. Epworth, “The Phenomenon of Modal Noise in Analog and Digital Optical Fiber Systems,” in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 492.

T. Ikegami, “Spectral Broadening and Trailing Effect in Directly Modulated Injection Lasers,” in Technical Digest, First European Conference on Optical Communication, London (1975), p. 111.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diode laser noise measuring system simulating an optical pickup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Videodisc player for studying the relationship between diode laser noise and picture quality.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Direct current output and video frequency noise with three feedback levels using a typical 3-mW MCSP laser and a coupling lens of N.A. = 0.15.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RIN vs dc output light intensity for a MCSP laser with coupling lenses of different N.A.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oscillating mode spectra for a. MCSP laser: (a)–(e) in various conditions and (f) for a multimode laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Noise waveforms for (a)–(e) a single-mode laser and (f) a multimode laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

RIN vs temperature for various types of diode laser.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of RIN on feedback for three types of diode laser.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relationship between high frequency Current and output light pulse trains.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diode laser package mounted on a circuit module for high frequency current driving.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical spectrum of FM signals from a videodisc.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Level diagram for signals and noise sources.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RIN = ( Δ P ) 2 P 2 Δ f .
feedback = sin 2 δ .
M , M , C * , C , N d , N l , and N a ,
signal modulation depth = 2 2 × 10 [ M C * ] / 20 ,
RIN = 10 [ M N l ] / 10 Δ f ( Hz 1 ) ,

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