Abstract

Modifications of material surface properties due to interactions with ambient atomic oxygen have been observed on surfaces facing the orbital direction in low earth orbits. Some effects are very damaging to surface optical properties while some are more subtle and even beneficial. Most combustible materials are heavily etched, and some coatings, such as silver and osmium, are seriously degraded or removed as volatile oxides. The growth of oxide films on metals and semiconductors considered stable in dry air was measured. Material removal, surface roughness, reflectance, and optical densities are reported. Effects of temperature, contamination, and overcoatings are noted.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Simpson, F. C. Witteborn, “Effect of the Shuttle Contaminant Environment on a Sensitive Infrared Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2051 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. G. Jacchia, “Thermospheric Temperature, Density, and Composition: New Models,” SAO Report 375 (1977).
  3. A. E. Hedin et al., “A Global Thermospheric Model Based on Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter Data, MSIS 2, Composition,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2148 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “The Production of Glow Precursors By Oxidative Erosion of Spacecraft Surfaces,” NASA CP-2391, Second Workshop on Spacecraft Glow (1985), pp. 174–179.
  5. R. L. Shannon, R. B. Gillette, “Laboratory Demonstration Model Active Cleaning Technique Device, Final Report,” Boeing Aerospace Report D180-18031-1 (1974).
  6. P. N. Peters, E. R. Miller, “Utilization of Atomic Oxygen at Orbital Altitudes for In Situ Cleaning of Optical and Other Sensitive Surfaces,” Marshall Space Flight Center Suggestion79-49 (1979).
  7. J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Solid Surfaces at Orbital Altitudes,” in Proceedings, First LDEF Mission Working Group Meeting (NASA, Langley Research Center, 1981), p. 48.
  8. L. Leger, J. T. Visentine, J. E. Kuminecz, “Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 84-9548 (1984).
  9. A. F. Whitaker et al., “Atomic Oxygen Effects on Thermal Control and Optical Materials, STS8 Results,” AIAA Paper 85-0415 (1985).
  10. J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Measurement of Reaction Rates and Activation Energies of 5 eV Oxygen Atoms with Graphite and Other Solid Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 85-0417 (1985).
  11. T. R. Gull et al., “Effects on Optical Surfaces at Shuttle Altitudes,” AIAA Paper 85-0418 (1985).
  12. W. K. Stuckey et al., “Effects on Advanced Materials: Results of the STS-8 EOIM Experiment,” AIAA Paper 85-0419 (1985).
  13. B. A. Banks et al., “Ion Beam Sputter Deposited Thin Film Coatings for Protection of Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit,” AIAA Paper 85-0420 (1985).
  14. W. S. Slemp, B. Santos, G. F. Sykes, “Effects of STS-8 Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Composites Polymeric Films and Coatings,” AIAA Paper 85-0421 (1985).
  15. G. S. Arnold, D. R. Peplinski, “Kinetics of Oxygen Interactions with Materials,” AIAA Paper 85-0472 (1985).
  16. J. J. Triolo et al., “Degradation Studies of Materials Retrieved by the Solar Max Repair Mission, STS 41-C,” AIAA Paper 85-0474 (1985).
  17. G. E. Sommargren, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Hass, L. Hadley, “Optical Properties of Metals,” in AIP Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), Sec. 69.
  19. D. W. Lynch, W. R. Hunter, “Comments on the Optical Constants of Metals and an Introduction to the Data for Several Metals,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985).
  20. P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of Apparent Atomic Oxygen Reactions on Ag, C, and Os Exposed During the Shuttle STS-4 Orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Anceilo, R. Kelly, Eds., Ion Bombardment Modification of Surfaces, Fundamentals and Applications (Elsevier, New York, 1970).
  22. W. P. Griffith, The Chemistry of the Rarer Platinum Metals (Os, Ru, Ir and Rh) (Interscience, London, 1967).
  23. E. Savotslu, Physical Metallurgy of Pt Metals, Translation, I. Savin (Mir, Moscow, 1978).
  24. J. E. Field, Ed., The Properties of Diamond (Academic, New York, 1979).
  25. S. Evans, “Depth Profiles of Ion-Induced Structural Changes in Diamond from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 427 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. R. Hammond, “The Elements (Carbon),” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, Ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1979), p. B-9.
  27. H. J. Mathieu, M. Datta, D. Landolt, “Thickness of Natural Oxide Films Determined by AES and XPS with/without Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 331 (1985).
  28. M. R. Torr, “Osmium Coated Diffraction Grating in the Space Shuttle Environment: Performance,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2959 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. S. Colligon, R. W. Bramham, “Low Energy Sputtering of Gold,” in Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, D. W. Palmer et al., Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1970), p. 258.
  30. D. McKeown, W. E. Corbin, “Space Measurements of the Contamination of Surfaces by OGO-6 Outgassing and their Cleaning by Sputtering and Desorption,” paper presented at Space Simulation Conference, NBS, Gaithersburg, MD, Sept. 1970.

1985

A. F. Whitaker et al., “Atomic Oxygen Effects on Thermal Control and Optical Materials, STS8 Results,” AIAA Paper 85-0415 (1985).

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Measurement of Reaction Rates and Activation Energies of 5 eV Oxygen Atoms with Graphite and Other Solid Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 85-0417 (1985).

T. R. Gull et al., “Effects on Optical Surfaces at Shuttle Altitudes,” AIAA Paper 85-0418 (1985).

W. K. Stuckey et al., “Effects on Advanced Materials: Results of the STS-8 EOIM Experiment,” AIAA Paper 85-0419 (1985).

B. A. Banks et al., “Ion Beam Sputter Deposited Thin Film Coatings for Protection of Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit,” AIAA Paper 85-0420 (1985).

W. S. Slemp, B. Santos, G. F. Sykes, “Effects of STS-8 Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Composites Polymeric Films and Coatings,” AIAA Paper 85-0421 (1985).

G. S. Arnold, D. R. Peplinski, “Kinetics of Oxygen Interactions with Materials,” AIAA Paper 85-0472 (1985).

J. J. Triolo et al., “Degradation Studies of Materials Retrieved by the Solar Max Repair Mission, STS 41-C,” AIAA Paper 85-0474 (1985).

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “The Production of Glow Precursors By Oxidative Erosion of Spacecraft Surfaces,” NASA CP-2391, Second Workshop on Spacecraft Glow (1985), pp. 174–179.

H. J. Mathieu, M. Datta, D. Landolt, “Thickness of Natural Oxide Films Determined by AES and XPS with/without Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 331 (1985).

M. R. Torr, “Osmium Coated Diffraction Grating in the Space Shuttle Environment: Performance,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2959 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

L. Leger, J. T. Visentine, J. E. Kuminecz, “Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 84-9548 (1984).

1983

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of Apparent Atomic Oxygen Reactions on Ag, C, and Os Exposed During the Shuttle STS-4 Orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

1979

P. N. Peters, E. R. Miller, “Utilization of Atomic Oxygen at Orbital Altitudes for In Situ Cleaning of Optical and Other Sensitive Surfaces,” Marshall Space Flight Center Suggestion79-49 (1979).

1978

S. Evans, “Depth Profiles of Ion-Induced Structural Changes in Diamond from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. E. Hedin et al., “A Global Thermospheric Model Based on Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter Data, MSIS 2, Composition,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Simpson, F. C. Witteborn, “Effect of the Shuttle Contaminant Environment on a Sensitive Infrared Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2051 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, G. S.

G. S. Arnold, D. R. Peplinski, “Kinetics of Oxygen Interactions with Materials,” AIAA Paper 85-0472 (1985).

Banks, B. A.

B. A. Banks et al., “Ion Beam Sputter Deposited Thin Film Coatings for Protection of Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit,” AIAA Paper 85-0420 (1985).

Bramham, R. W.

J. S. Colligon, R. W. Bramham, “Low Energy Sputtering of Gold,” in Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, D. W. Palmer et al., Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1970), p. 258.

Colligon, J. S.

J. S. Colligon, R. W. Bramham, “Low Energy Sputtering of Gold,” in Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, D. W. Palmer et al., Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1970), p. 258.

Corbin, W. E.

D. McKeown, W. E. Corbin, “Space Measurements of the Contamination of Surfaces by OGO-6 Outgassing and their Cleaning by Sputtering and Desorption,” paper presented at Space Simulation Conference, NBS, Gaithersburg, MD, Sept. 1970.

Datta, M.

H. J. Mathieu, M. Datta, D. Landolt, “Thickness of Natural Oxide Films Determined by AES and XPS with/without Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 331 (1985).

Evans, S.

S. Evans, “Depth Profiles of Ion-Induced Structural Changes in Diamond from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, R. B.

R. L. Shannon, R. B. Gillette, “Laboratory Demonstration Model Active Cleaning Technique Device, Final Report,” Boeing Aerospace Report D180-18031-1 (1974).

Gregory, J. C.

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Measurement of Reaction Rates and Activation Energies of 5 eV Oxygen Atoms with Graphite and Other Solid Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 85-0417 (1985).

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “The Production of Glow Precursors By Oxidative Erosion of Spacecraft Surfaces,” NASA CP-2391, Second Workshop on Spacecraft Glow (1985), pp. 174–179.

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Solid Surfaces at Orbital Altitudes,” in Proceedings, First LDEF Mission Working Group Meeting (NASA, Langley Research Center, 1981), p. 48.

Griffith, W. P.

W. P. Griffith, The Chemistry of the Rarer Platinum Metals (Os, Ru, Ir and Rh) (Interscience, London, 1967).

Gull, T. R.

T. R. Gull et al., “Effects on Optical Surfaces at Shuttle Altitudes,” AIAA Paper 85-0418 (1985).

Hadley, L.

G. Hass, L. Hadley, “Optical Properties of Metals,” in AIP Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), Sec. 69.

Hammond, C. R.

C. R. Hammond, “The Elements (Carbon),” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, Ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1979), p. B-9.

Hass, G.

G. Hass, L. Hadley, “Optical Properties of Metals,” in AIP Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), Sec. 69.

Hedin, A. E.

A. E. Hedin et al., “A Global Thermospheric Model Based on Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter Data, MSIS 2, Composition,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

D. W. Lynch, W. R. Hunter, “Comments on the Optical Constants of Metals and an Introduction to the Data for Several Metals,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985).

Jacchia, L. G.

L. G. Jacchia, “Thermospheric Temperature, Density, and Composition: New Models,” SAO Report 375 (1977).

Kuminecz, J. E.

L. Leger, J. T. Visentine, J. E. Kuminecz, “Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 84-9548 (1984).

Landolt, D.

H. J. Mathieu, M. Datta, D. Landolt, “Thickness of Natural Oxide Films Determined by AES and XPS with/without Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 331 (1985).

Leger, L.

L. Leger, J. T. Visentine, J. E. Kuminecz, “Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 84-9548 (1984).

Linton, R. C.

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of Apparent Atomic Oxygen Reactions on Ag, C, and Os Exposed During the Shuttle STS-4 Orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

D. W. Lynch, W. R. Hunter, “Comments on the Optical Constants of Metals and an Introduction to the Data for Several Metals,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985).

Mathieu, H. J.

H. J. Mathieu, M. Datta, D. Landolt, “Thickness of Natural Oxide Films Determined by AES and XPS with/without Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 331 (1985).

McKeown, D.

D. McKeown, W. E. Corbin, “Space Measurements of the Contamination of Surfaces by OGO-6 Outgassing and their Cleaning by Sputtering and Desorption,” paper presented at Space Simulation Conference, NBS, Gaithersburg, MD, Sept. 1970.

Miller, E. R.

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of Apparent Atomic Oxygen Reactions on Ag, C, and Os Exposed During the Shuttle STS-4 Orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Peters, E. R. Miller, “Utilization of Atomic Oxygen at Orbital Altitudes for In Situ Cleaning of Optical and Other Sensitive Surfaces,” Marshall Space Flight Center Suggestion79-49 (1979).

Peplinski, D. R.

G. S. Arnold, D. R. Peplinski, “Kinetics of Oxygen Interactions with Materials,” AIAA Paper 85-0472 (1985).

Peters, P. N.

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “The Production of Glow Precursors By Oxidative Erosion of Spacecraft Surfaces,” NASA CP-2391, Second Workshop on Spacecraft Glow (1985), pp. 174–179.

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Measurement of Reaction Rates and Activation Energies of 5 eV Oxygen Atoms with Graphite and Other Solid Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 85-0417 (1985).

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of Apparent Atomic Oxygen Reactions on Ag, C, and Os Exposed During the Shuttle STS-4 Orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Peters, E. R. Miller, “Utilization of Atomic Oxygen at Orbital Altitudes for In Situ Cleaning of Optical and Other Sensitive Surfaces,” Marshall Space Flight Center Suggestion79-49 (1979).

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Solid Surfaces at Orbital Altitudes,” in Proceedings, First LDEF Mission Working Group Meeting (NASA, Langley Research Center, 1981), p. 48.

Santos, B.

W. S. Slemp, B. Santos, G. F. Sykes, “Effects of STS-8 Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Composites Polymeric Films and Coatings,” AIAA Paper 85-0421 (1985).

Savotslu, E.

E. Savotslu, Physical Metallurgy of Pt Metals, Translation, I. Savin (Mir, Moscow, 1978).

Shannon, R. L.

R. L. Shannon, R. B. Gillette, “Laboratory Demonstration Model Active Cleaning Technique Device, Final Report,” Boeing Aerospace Report D180-18031-1 (1974).

Simpson, J. P.

Slemp, W. S.

W. S. Slemp, B. Santos, G. F. Sykes, “Effects of STS-8 Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Composites Polymeric Films and Coatings,” AIAA Paper 85-0421 (1985).

Sommargren, G. E.

Stuckey, W. K.

W. K. Stuckey et al., “Effects on Advanced Materials: Results of the STS-8 EOIM Experiment,” AIAA Paper 85-0419 (1985).

Sykes, G. F.

W. S. Slemp, B. Santos, G. F. Sykes, “Effects of STS-8 Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Composites Polymeric Films and Coatings,” AIAA Paper 85-0421 (1985).

Torr, M. R.

Triolo, J. J.

J. J. Triolo et al., “Degradation Studies of Materials Retrieved by the Solar Max Repair Mission, STS 41-C,” AIAA Paper 85-0474 (1985).

Visentine, J. T.

L. Leger, J. T. Visentine, J. E. Kuminecz, “Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 84-9548 (1984).

Whitaker, A. F.

A. F. Whitaker et al., “Atomic Oxygen Effects on Thermal Control and Optical Materials, STS8 Results,” AIAA Paper 85-0415 (1985).

Witteborn, F. C.

AIAA Paper 84-9548

L. Leger, J. T. Visentine, J. E. Kuminecz, “Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 84-9548 (1984).

AIAA Paper 85-0415

A. F. Whitaker et al., “Atomic Oxygen Effects on Thermal Control and Optical Materials, STS8 Results,” AIAA Paper 85-0415 (1985).

AIAA Paper 85-0417

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Measurement of Reaction Rates and Activation Energies of 5 eV Oxygen Atoms with Graphite and Other Solid Surfaces,” AIAA Paper 85-0417 (1985).

AIAA Paper 85-0418

T. R. Gull et al., “Effects on Optical Surfaces at Shuttle Altitudes,” AIAA Paper 85-0418 (1985).

AIAA Paper 85-0419

W. K. Stuckey et al., “Effects on Advanced Materials: Results of the STS-8 EOIM Experiment,” AIAA Paper 85-0419 (1985).

AIAA Paper 85-0420

B. A. Banks et al., “Ion Beam Sputter Deposited Thin Film Coatings for Protection of Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit,” AIAA Paper 85-0420 (1985).

AIAA Paper 85-0421

W. S. Slemp, B. Santos, G. F. Sykes, “Effects of STS-8 Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Composites Polymeric Films and Coatings,” AIAA Paper 85-0421 (1985).

AIAA Paper 85-0472

G. S. Arnold, D. R. Peplinski, “Kinetics of Oxygen Interactions with Materials,” AIAA Paper 85-0472 (1985).

AIAA Paper 85-0474

J. J. Triolo et al., “Degradation Studies of Materials Retrieved by the Solar Max Repair Mission, STS 41-C,” AIAA Paper 85-0474 (1985).

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

P. N. Peters, R. C. Linton, E. R. Miller, “Results of Apparent Atomic Oxygen Reactions on Ag, C, and Os Exposed During the Shuttle STS-4 Orbits,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. E. Hedin et al., “A Global Thermospheric Model Based on Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter Data, MSIS 2, Composition,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

H. J. Mathieu, M. Datta, D. Landolt, “Thickness of Natural Oxide Films Determined by AES and XPS with/without Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 331 (1985).

Marshall Space Flight Center Suggestion

P. N. Peters, E. R. Miller, “Utilization of Atomic Oxygen at Orbital Altitudes for In Situ Cleaning of Optical and Other Sensitive Surfaces,” Marshall Space Flight Center Suggestion79-49 (1979).

NASA CP-2391, Second Workshop on Spacecraft Glow

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “The Production of Glow Precursors By Oxidative Erosion of Spacecraft Surfaces,” NASA CP-2391, Second Workshop on Spacecraft Glow (1985), pp. 174–179.

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

S. Evans, “Depth Profiles of Ion-Induced Structural Changes in Diamond from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. R. Hammond, “The Elements (Carbon),” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, Ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1979), p. B-9.

J. S. Colligon, R. W. Bramham, “Low Energy Sputtering of Gold,” in Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, D. W. Palmer et al., Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1970), p. 258.

D. McKeown, W. E. Corbin, “Space Measurements of the Contamination of Surfaces by OGO-6 Outgassing and their Cleaning by Sputtering and Desorption,” paper presented at Space Simulation Conference, NBS, Gaithersburg, MD, Sept. 1970.

L. G. Jacchia, “Thermospheric Temperature, Density, and Composition: New Models,” SAO Report 375 (1977).

R. L. Shannon, R. B. Gillette, “Laboratory Demonstration Model Active Cleaning Technique Device, Final Report,” Boeing Aerospace Report D180-18031-1 (1974).

J. C. Gregory, P. N. Peters, “Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Solid Surfaces at Orbital Altitudes,” in Proceedings, First LDEF Mission Working Group Meeting (NASA, Langley Research Center, 1981), p. 48.

O. Anceilo, R. Kelly, Eds., Ion Bombardment Modification of Surfaces, Fundamentals and Applications (Elsevier, New York, 1970).

W. P. Griffith, The Chemistry of the Rarer Platinum Metals (Os, Ru, Ir and Rh) (Interscience, London, 1967).

E. Savotslu, Physical Metallurgy of Pt Metals, Translation, I. Savin (Mir, Moscow, 1978).

J. E. Field, Ed., The Properties of Diamond (Academic, New York, 1979).

G. Hass, L. Hadley, “Optical Properties of Metals,” in AIP Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), Sec. 69.

D. W. Lynch, W. R. Hunter, “Comments on the Optical Constants of Metals and an Introduction to the Data for Several Metals,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, Orlando, 1985).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stylus profilometry tracing on CR-39 plastic showing heavy etching (21.5 μm) by atomic oxygen during exposure in the orbital direction. (Tops of the plateaus were protected by 200-nm thick Nb films.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fine structure in the etched region of the CR-39 plastic shown in Fig. 1 (top portion protected by Nb film; bottom portion etched from exposure).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Etching of a bulk osmium sample while in low earth orbits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical heterodyne measurements of unexposed Ir sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical heterodyne measurements of exposed Ir sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vitreous carbon surface showing polished finish where protected by holder, mask pattern, or contamination and dark finish where exposed to etching by atomic oxygen.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stylus profilometry tracing between the exes (XX) on vitreous carbon surface shown in Fig. 6. Protected regions are elevated.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I STS-8 Atomic Oxygen Exposure Dataa

Tables Icon

Table II Some Effects Observed on Thin Films Exposed to 3.5 × 1020 Oxygen Atoms cm−2 in Low Earth Orbitsa

Tables Icon

Table III Some Effects Observed on Bulk Samples Exposed to 3.5 × 1020 Oxygen Atoms cm−2 in Low Earth Orbitsa

Tables Icon

Table IV Ultraviolet Reflectance Measurements Made on a 10-nm Pt/Os Film on Fused Silica with a Portion Exposed to 3.5 × 1020 Atoms cm−2 of Atomic Oxygen

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