Abstract

Using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove surface-relief phase gratings are shown to be capable of exhibiting zero reflectivity. Thus these corrugated surfaces may act as antireflection coatings in a variety of applications. The diffraction characteristics of rectangular-groove surface-relief gratings are presented for several ratios of incident wavelength to grating period as a function of filling factor, groove depth, angle of incidence, and polarization. The conditions for zero reflectivity are identified. Results are compared with single-homogeneous-layer approximate theory results. In the limit of long wavelengths for an electromagnetic wave in a dielectric of refractive index n1 normally incident on a dielectric of index n2, it is determined that for antireflection behavior, the grating groove depth should be λ/4(n1n2)1/2 and the filling factor should be n1/(n1 + n2) or n2/(n1 + n2) for the electric field perpendicular or parallel to the grating vector, respectively. The spectral and angular responses of these gratings are like those of single-homogeneous-layer antireflection coatings. These gratings also exhibit birefringent retardation.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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