Abstract

We report the experimental results of the resonance characteristics of the backscattering in an optical passive ring-resonator gyro (OPRG). This resonance has two peaks with a separation equal to the Sagnac phase shift when rotation is given. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theory that we have already presented. This phenomenon degrades the gyro linearity almost 10% in a high sensitivity OPRG with the frequency output. A method to eliminate this noise is proposed.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Overview of Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Hotate, “Fiber Optics Gyroscope,” in JARECT, Optical Devices and Fibers, Vol. 17, Y. Suematsu, Ed. (OHM and North-Holland, Tokyo, 1985), pp. 333–348.
  3. K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation Detection by Optical Heterodyne Fiber Gyro with Frequency Output,” Opt. Lett. 7, 331 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.
  5. B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Gated Phase-Modulation Approach to Fiber-Optic Gyroscope with Linearized Scale Factor,” Opt. Lett. 9, 375 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. C. Lefevre, P. Graindorge, H. J. Arditty, S. Vatoux, M. Papuchon, “Double Closed-Loop Hybrid Fiber Gyroscope Using Digital Phase Ramp,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), postdeadline paper PDS7.
  7. K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Rayleigh Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” presented at Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 313–316.
  8. K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Effect of Rayleigh Backscattering in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3916 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyros,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper THGG13.
  10. K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 645 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Eigenstate of Polarization in a Fiber Ring Resonator and Its Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2606 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Only the preliminary experimental data have been presented in the following paper: K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Resonance Characteristics of Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Electron. Lett. 22, 135 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kemmler, K. Kempf, W. Schroeder, “Static and Dynamic Optical Properties of a Fiber Ring Resonator,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WBB6.
  14. R. E. Meyer, S. Ezekiel, D. W. Stowe, V. J. Tekippe, “Passive Fiber-Optic Ring Resonator for Rotation Sensing,” Opt. Lett. 8, 644 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. H. Yu, D. B. Hall, “Low Loss Fiber Ring Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 478, 104 (1984).
  16. After we submitted this paper, the following article was published which describes the detailed experiments on the component σ: F. Zarinetchi, S. Ezekiel, “Observation of Lock-In Behavior in a Passive Resonator Gyroscope,” Opt. Lett. 11, 401 (1986). Our experiments and analysis in this paper are concentrated on the component 〈I3〉.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (4)

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 645 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Eigenstate of Polarization in a Fiber Ring Resonator and Its Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2606 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Only the preliminary experimental data have been presented in the following paper: K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Resonance Characteristics of Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Electron. Lett. 22, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

After we submitted this paper, the following article was published which describes the detailed experiments on the component σ: F. Zarinetchi, S. Ezekiel, “Observation of Lock-In Behavior in a Passive Resonator Gyroscope,” Opt. Lett. 11, 401 (1986). Our experiments and analysis in this paper are concentrated on the component 〈I3〉.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (4)

M. H. Yu, D. B. Hall, “Low Loss Fiber Ring Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 478, 104 (1984).

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Overview of Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Gated Phase-Modulation Approach to Fiber-Optic Gyroscope with Linearized Scale Factor,” Opt. Lett. 9, 375 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Effect of Rayleigh Backscattering in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3916 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

Arditty, H. J.

H. C. Lefevre, P. Graindorge, H. J. Arditty, S. Vatoux, M. Papuchon, “Double Closed-Loop Hybrid Fiber Gyroscope Using Digital Phase Ramp,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), postdeadline paper PDS7.

Auch, W.

N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Overview of Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

Fuerstenau, N.

N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.

Graindorge, P.

H. C. Lefevre, P. Graindorge, H. J. Arditty, S. Vatoux, M. Papuchon, “Double Closed-Loop Hybrid Fiber Gyroscope Using Digital Phase Ramp,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), postdeadline paper PDS7.

Hall, D. B.

M. H. Yu, D. B. Hall, “Low Loss Fiber Ring Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 478, 104 (1984).

Higashiguchi, M.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Eigenstate of Polarization in a Fiber Ring Resonator and Its Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2606 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Only the preliminary experimental data have been presented in the following paper: K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Resonance Characteristics of Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Electron. Lett. 22, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 645 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Effect of Rayleigh Backscattering in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3916 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation Detection by Optical Heterodyne Fiber Gyro with Frequency Output,” Opt. Lett. 7, 331 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyros,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper THGG13.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Rayleigh Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” presented at Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 313–316.

Hotate, K.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 645 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Eigenstate of Polarization in a Fiber Ring Resonator and Its Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2606 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Only the preliminary experimental data have been presented in the following paper: K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Resonance Characteristics of Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Electron. Lett. 22, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Effect of Rayleigh Backscattering in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3916 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation Detection by Optical Heterodyne Fiber Gyro with Frequency Output,” Opt. Lett. 7, 331 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, “Fiber Optics Gyroscope,” in JARECT, Optical Devices and Fibers, Vol. 17, Y. Suematsu, Ed. (OHM and North-Holland, Tokyo, 1985), pp. 333–348.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyros,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper THGG13.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Rayleigh Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” presented at Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 313–316.

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 645 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Eigenstate of Polarization in a Fiber Ring Resonator and Its Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2606 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Only the preliminary experimental data have been presented in the following paper: K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Resonance Characteristics of Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Electron. Lett. 22, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Effect of Rayleigh Backscattering in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3916 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Rayleigh Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” presented at Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 313–316.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyros,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper THGG13.

Kemmler, M.

M. Kemmler, K. Kempf, W. Schroeder, “Static and Dynamic Optical Properties of a Fiber Ring Resonator,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WBB6.

Kempf, K.

M. Kemmler, K. Kempf, W. Schroeder, “Static and Dynamic Optical Properties of a Fiber Ring Resonator,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WBB6.

Kim, B. Y.

Koch, M.

N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.

Lefevre, H. C.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Overview of Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lefevre, P. Graindorge, H. J. Arditty, S. Vatoux, M. Papuchon, “Double Closed-Loop Hybrid Fiber Gyroscope Using Digital Phase Ramp,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), postdeadline paper PDS7.

Luebeck, E.

N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.

Meyer, R. E.

Niwa, N.

Okuma, N.

Papuchon, M.

H. C. Lefevre, P. Graindorge, H. J. Arditty, S. Vatoux, M. Papuchon, “Double Closed-Loop Hybrid Fiber Gyroscope Using Digital Phase Ramp,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), postdeadline paper PDS7.

Schroeder, W.

M. Kemmler, K. Kempf, W. Schroeder, “Static and Dynamic Optical Properties of a Fiber Ring Resonator,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WBB6.

Shaw, H. J.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Overview of Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Gated Phase-Modulation Approach to Fiber-Optic Gyroscope with Linearized Scale Factor,” Opt. Lett. 9, 375 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siol, G.

N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.

Stowe, D. W.

Tekippe, V. J.

Vatoux, S.

H. C. Lefevre, P. Graindorge, H. J. Arditty, S. Vatoux, M. Papuchon, “Double Closed-Loop Hybrid Fiber Gyroscope Using Digital Phase Ramp,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), postdeadline paper PDS7.

Wetzing, V.

N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.

Yu, M. H.

M. H. Yu, D. B. Hall, “Low Loss Fiber Ring Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 478, 104 (1984).

Zarinetchi, F.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Only the preliminary experimental data have been presented in the following paper: K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Resonance Characteristics of Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” Electron. Lett. 22, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in an Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 645 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Overview of Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. H. Yu, D. B. Hall, “Low Loss Fiber Ring Resonator,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 478, 104 (1984).

Other (6)

M. Kemmler, K. Kempf, W. Schroeder, “Static and Dynamic Optical Properties of a Fiber Ring Resonator,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper WBB6.

H. C. Lefevre, P. Graindorge, H. J. Arditty, S. Vatoux, M. Papuchon, “Double Closed-Loop Hybrid Fiber Gyroscope Using Digital Phase Ramp,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), postdeadline paper PDS7.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Rayleigh Backscattering in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyro,” presented at Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 313–316.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, “Kerr Effect in Optical Passive Ring-Resonator Gyros,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper THGG13.

N. Fuerstenau, V. Wetzing, E. Luebeck, G. Siol, W. Auch, M. Koch, “Drift and Scale Factor Tests on SEL Fiber Gyro in Controlled Environment,” presented at Symposium on Gyro Technology, Stuttgart (1984), pp. 3.0–3.30.

K. Hotate, “Fiber Optics Gyroscope,” in JARECT, Optical Devices and Fibers, Vol. 17, Y. Suematsu, Ed. (OHM and North-Holland, Tokyo, 1985), pp. 333–348.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic setup of the OPRG using the reflecting ring resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual diagram of the resonance characteristics of the signal and the Rayleigh backscattering: (a) resonance in the rest state; (b) spritting of the resonance peaks of the Rayleigh backscattering 〈I3〉 caused by the Sagnac phase shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for measuring the backscattering characteristics in the OPRG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results for the resonance characteristics of the signal intensity I s and the backscattering intensity I B : (a) when the setup is at rest, (b) when the setup rotates at 0.28 rad/sec (θ s = 0.8 rad), and (c) when the setup rotates at 0.39 rad/sec (θ s = 1.1 rad); m is an integer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated resonance characteristics of the signal intensity I s and the backscattering intensity I B : (a) when the setup is at rest, (b) when the setup rotates at 0.28 rad/sec (θ s = 0.8 rad), and (c) when the setup rotates at 0.39 rad/sec (θ s = 1.1 rad); m is an integer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the degradation of the linearity and the fiber-loop length taking account of the spectrum width of the optical source, the power coupling coefficient of the coupler = 0.99, loss of the coupler = 0.005 dB, diameter of the fiber loop= 0.1 m. (a) Wavelength = 0.8 μm, Rayleigh scattering coefficient = 3 dB/km, loss of the fiber loop= 4 dB/km. (b) Wavelength = 1.5 μm, Rayleigh scattering coefficient = 0.2 dB/km, loss of the fiber loop = 0.2 dB/km.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

OPRG configuration to eliminate the noise caused by Rayleigh backscattering.

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