Abstract

A spectral scanning radiometer and corresponding algorithm of analysis were developed to evaluate optical stratification of aerosols from airborne measurements. Several flights were carried out to measure direct and circumsolar radiations simultaneously by a Swerlingen Merlin IV and a Cessna 206 aircraft. Results of the data analysis showed that our scheme can evaluate the optical depth of aerosols at any flight level from the ground to 400 mb, the highest flight level, with relative error of <10%. Vertical distribution and latitude–height cross sections of the optical thickness of aerosols and volume spectra of stratospheric aerosols were investigated.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. I. Budyko, “The Effect of Solar Radiation Variation on the Climate of the Earth,” Tellus 21, 611 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric Aerosols: Observation and Theory,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Latitudinal Variation of the Spectral Optical Thickness for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 881 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Dutton, J. DeLuisi, “Spectral Extinction of Direct Solar Radiation by the El Chichon Cloud during December 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1013 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. M. Shah, W. F. J. Evans, “Latitude Survey of Aerosol Optical Thickness of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud in May 1983,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 255 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Comparison of Lidar and Optical Thickness Measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution from Spectral Attenuation Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the, El Chichon Stratospheric Aerosol Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. E. Shaw, “Error Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Sunphotometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. E. Shaw, “Sunphotometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of Sunphotometer by Simultaneous Measurements of Direct-Solar and Circumsolar Radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Angstrom, “Circumsolar Sky Radiation and Turbidity of the Atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 13, 474 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. A. Box, M. H. Reich, S.-Y. Lo, B. H. J. McKellar, “Atmospheric Turbidity and the Circumsolar Radiation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 341 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 1: Calibration Considerations,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3691 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. I. Gordon, “New Uses for the Solar Almucanter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3381 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. T. Twitty, “The Inversion of Aureole Measurements to Derive Aerosol Size Distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. E. Shaw, “Inversion of Optical Scattering and Spectral Extinction Measurements to Recover Aerosol Size Spectra,” Appl. Opt. 18, 988 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. E. Shaw, “Optical Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols over the Antarctic Ice Sheet,” Atmos. Environ. 14, 911 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Deepak, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, “Experimental Validation of the Solar Aureole Technique for Determining Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2236 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the Optical Properties of Aerosols from Aureole and Extinction Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 2: Studies of the Inferred Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3697 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol Size Distributions: Remote Determination from Airborne Measurements of the Solar Aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. J. DeLuisi et al., “Results of a Comprehensive Atmospheric Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in the Southwestern United States. Part I: Size Distribution, Extinction Optical Depth and Vertical Profiles of Aerosols Suspended in the Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Matrix Formulations for the Transfer of Solar Radiation in a Plane-Parallel Scattering Atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 13 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, “Retrieval of the Optical Thickness and the Volume Spectrum from the Solar Aureole Intensity,” (in preparation).
  28. M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Estimation of the Imaginary Index of Refraction from the Airborne Pyranometer Measurements,” (in preparation).
  29. T. Takamura, M. Miyazaki, “Measurements of the Vertical and Horizontal Profiles of Aerosols over the Pacific Ocean near Japan Island,” Tech. Rep. Sci. Tech. Natl. Defence Acad.19, 1 (1981).
  30. T. Ohkita, Ed., “Residence Time of Aerosols,” Report of Research Project, Grant in Aid for Scientific Research B158-R11-1 (1983), p. 98.
  31. M. Shiobara, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, private communication.
  32. I. Tabata, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, private communication.
  33. D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First 18 Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the Long Term Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Content After the Eruption of Volcano El Chichon: Lidar Measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465 (1985).
  35. J. J. Michalsky, B. M. Herman, N. R. Larson, “Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Enhancement by El Chichon: The First Year,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 76 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Asano, M. Sekine, M. Kobayashi, K. Murai, “Atmospheric Turbidity and Aerosol Size Distribution in Winter at Tsukuba: Effects of the Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 453 (1985).

1986 (2)

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of Sunphotometer by Simultaneous Measurements of Direct-Solar and Circumsolar Radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Matrix Formulations for the Transfer of Solar Radiation in a Plane-Parallel Scattering Atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (4)

S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the Long Term Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Content After the Eruption of Volcano El Chichon: Lidar Measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465 (1985).

S. Asano, M. Sekine, M. Kobayashi, K. Murai, “Atmospheric Turbidity and Aerosol Size Distribution in Winter at Tsukuba: Effects of the Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 453 (1985).

J. I. Gordon, “New Uses for the Solar Almucanter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3381 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Shah, W. F. J. Evans, “Latitude Survey of Aerosol Optical Thickness of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud in May 1983,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 255 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (5)

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the, El Chichon Stratospheric Aerosol Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Michalsky, B. M. Herman, N. R. Larson, “Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Enhancement by El Chichon: The First Year,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First 18 Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 2: Studies of the Inferred Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 1: Calibration Considerations,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3691 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (5)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the Optical Properties of Aerosols from Aureole and Extinction Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Shaw, “Sunphotometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Comparison of Lidar and Optical Thickness Measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Latitudinal Variation of the Spectral Optical Thickness for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 881 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Dutton, J. DeLuisi, “Spectral Extinction of Direct Solar Radiation by the El Chichon Cloud during December 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1013 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric Aerosols: Observation and Theory,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Deepak, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, “Experimental Validation of the Solar Aureole Technique for Determining Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2236 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Optical Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols over the Antarctic Ice Sheet,” Atmos. Environ. 14, 911 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (4)

G. E. Shaw, “Error Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Sunphotometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol Size Distributions: Remote Determination from Airborne Measurements of the Solar Aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. DeLuisi et al., “Results of a Comprehensive Atmospheric Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in the Southwestern United States. Part I: Size Distribution, Extinction Optical Depth and Vertical Profiles of Aerosols Suspended in the Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. T. Twitty, “The Inversion of Aureole Measurements to Derive Aerosol Size Distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1969 (2)

M. I. Budyko, “The Effect of Solar Radiation Variation on the Climate of the Earth,” Tellus 21, 611 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution from Spectral Attenuation Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angstrom, A.

Arking, A.

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the, El Chichon Stratospheric Aerosol Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Asano, S.

S. Asano, M. Sekine, M. Kobayashi, K. Murai, “Atmospheric Turbidity and Aerosol Size Distribution in Winter at Tsukuba: Effects of the Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 453 (1985).

Baldwin, B.

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Box, G. P.

Box, M. A.

Budyko, M. I.

M. I. Budyko, “The Effect of Solar Radiation Variation on the Climate of the Earth,” Tellus 21, 611 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Camp, W. V.

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

DeLuisi, J.

E. Dutton, J. DeLuisi, “Spectral Extinction of Direct Solar Radiation by the El Chichon Cloud during December 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1013 (1983).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J. J.

J. J. DeLuisi et al., “Results of a Comprehensive Atmospheric Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in the Southwestern United States. Part I: Size Distribution, Extinction Optical Depth and Vertical Profiles of Aerosols Suspended in the Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E.

E. Dutton, J. DeLuisi, “Spectral Extinction of Direct Solar Radiation by the El Chichon Cloud during December 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1013 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

Evans, W. F. J.

G. M. Shah, W. F. J. Evans, “Latitude Survey of Aerosol Optical Thickness of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud in May 1983,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 255 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. I.

Hansen, J.

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harshvardhan,

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the, El Chichon Stratospheric Aerosol Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, T.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, “Retrieval of the Optical Thickness and the Volume Spectrum from the Solar Aureole Intensity,” (in preparation).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Estimation of the Imaginary Index of Refraction from the Airborne Pyranometer Measurements,” (in preparation).

Hayashida, S.

S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the Long Term Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Content After the Eruption of Volcano El Chichon: Lidar Measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465 (1985).

Herman, B. M.

J. J. Michalsky, B. M. Herman, N. R. Larson, “Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Enhancement by El Chichon: The First Year,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First 18 Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the Long Term Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Content After the Eruption of Volcano El Chichon: Lidar Measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465 (1985).

Johnson, D.

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the, El Chichon Stratospheric Aerosol Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

S. Asano, M. Sekine, M. Kobayashi, K. Murai, “Atmospheric Turbidity and Aerosol Size Distribution in Winter at Tsukuba: Effects of the Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 453 (1985).

Lacis, A.

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, N. R.

J. J. Michalsky, B. M. Herman, N. R. Larson, “Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Enhancement by El Chichon: The First Year,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lebedeff, S.

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, P.

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.-Y.

McCormick, M. P.

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Comparison of Lidar and Optical Thickness Measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McKellar, B. H. J.

Michalsky, J. J.

J. J. Michalsky, B. M. Herman, N. R. Larson, “Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Enhancement by El Chichon: The First Year,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. R.

Miyazaki, M.

T. Takamura, M. Miyazaki, “Measurements of the Vertical and Horizontal Profiles of Aerosols over the Pacific Ocean near Japan Island,” Tech. Rep. Sci. Tech. Natl. Defence Acad.19, 1 (1981).

Murai, K.

S. Asano, M. Sekine, M. Kobayashi, K. Murai, “Atmospheric Turbidity and Aerosol Size Distribution in Winter at Tsukuba: Effects of the Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 453 (1985).

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Matrix Formulations for the Transfer of Solar Radiation in a Plane-Parallel Scattering Atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of Sunphotometer by Simultaneous Measurements of Direct-Solar and Circumsolar Radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the Optical Properties of Aerosols from Aureole and Extinction Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Estimation of the Imaginary Index of Refraction from the Airborne Pyranometer Measurements,” (in preparation).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, “Retrieval of the Optical Thickness and the Volume Spectrum from the Solar Aureole Intensity,” (in preparation).

O’Neill, N. T.

Parent, R. J.

Pollack, J. B.

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Reich, M. H.

Rind, D.

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, J. M.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variation of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First 18 Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Russell, G.

J. Hansen, D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, G. Russell, “Climatic Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Science 213, 957 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagan, C.

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, M.

S. Asano, M. Sekine, M. Kobayashi, K. Murai, “Atmospheric Turbidity and Aerosol Size Distribution in Winter at Tsukuba: Effects of the Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 453 (1985).

Shah, G. M.

G. M. Shah, W. F. J. Evans, “Latitude Survey of Aerosol Optical Thickness of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud in May 1983,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 255 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Sunphotometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, “Optical Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols over the Antarctic Ice Sheet,” Atmos. Environ. 14, 911 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, “Inversion of Optical Scattering and Spectral Extinction Measurements to Recover Aerosol Size Spectra,” Appl. Opt. 18, 988 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Shaw, “Error Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Sunphotometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shiobara, M.

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Latitudinal Variation of the Spectral Optical Thickness for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 881 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Comparison of Lidar and Optical Thickness Measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Summers, A.

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Comparison of Lidar and Optical Thickness Measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, I.

I. Tabata, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, private communication.

Takamura, T.

T. Takamura, M. Miyazaki, “Measurements of the Vertical and Horizontal Profiles of Aerosols over the Pacific Ocean near Japan Island,” Tech. Rep. Sci. Tech. Natl. Defence Acad.19, 1 (1981).

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Matrix Formulations for the Transfer of Solar Radiation in a Plane-Parallel Scattering Atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of Sunphotometer by Simultaneous Measurements of Direct-Solar and Circumsolar Radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the Optical Properties of Aerosols from Aureole and Extinction Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution from Spectral Attenuation Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, “Retrieval of the Optical Thickness and the Volume Spectrum from the Solar Aureole Intensity,” (in preparation).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Estimation of the Imaginary Index of Refraction from the Airborne Pyranometer Measurements,” (in preparation).

Toon, O. B.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric Aerosols: Observation and Theory,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, W. V. Camp, “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1071 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric Aerosols: Observation and Theory,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Twitty, J. T.

Weinman, J. A.

Whitten, R. C.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric Aerosols: Observation and Theory,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, G.

Yamauchi, T.

Appl. Opt. (11)

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution from Spectral Attenuation Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Angstrom, “Circumsolar Sky Radiation and Turbidity of the Atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 13, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol Size Distributions: Remote Determination from Airborne Measurements of the Solar Aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980 (1976).
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M. A. Box, M. H. Reich, S.-Y. Lo, B. H. J. McKellar, “Atmospheric Turbidity and the Circumsolar Radiation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 341 (1977).
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A. Deepak, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, “Experimental Validation of the Solar Aureole Technique for Determining Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2236 (1982).
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T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the Optical Properties of Aerosols from Aureole and Extinction Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951 (1983).
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[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 2: Studies of the Inferred Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Gordon, “New Uses for the Solar Almucanter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3381 (1985).
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M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, M. Shiobara, “Calibration of Sunphotometer by Simultaneous Measurements of Direct-Solar and Circumsolar Radiations,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1170 (1986).
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Atmos. Environ. (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Optical Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols over the Antarctic Ice Sheet,” Atmos. Environ. 14, 911 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Latitudinal Variation of the Spectral Optical Thickness for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 881 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Dutton, J. DeLuisi, “Spectral Extinction of Direct Solar Radiation by the El Chichon Cloud during December 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1013 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Shah, W. F. J. Evans, “Latitude Survey of Aerosol Optical Thickness of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud in May 1983,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 255 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, J. D. Spinhirne, “El Chichon Eruption Cloud: Comparison of Lidar and Optical Thickness Measurements for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 885 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Other (6)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, “Retrieval of the Optical Thickness and the Volume Spectrum from the Solar Aureole Intensity,” (in preparation).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Estimation of the Imaginary Index of Refraction from the Airborne Pyranometer Measurements,” (in preparation).

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M. Shiobara, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, private communication.

I. Tabata, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, private communication.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Response function of the field of view: lower solid line and circles, theoretical and experimental values, respectively, with reference to the lower and left scales; upper solid line, experimental values with reference to the upper and right scales; dashed line, simulated signals calculated by Eq. (1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Kernel functions vs the size parameter kr for the differential scattering cross section at various scattering angles (solid lines) and for the total extinction cross section (dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical profiles of the aerosol optical thickness in the layer between a flight level and the top of the atmosphere. Closed and open circles show values obtained from the direct and diffuse solar radiations, respectively, in the first ascent on 7 Nov. 1984.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed (circles) and retrieved (solid lines) aureole intensities in the solar almucantar at λ = 500 nm as a function of the scattering angle. Values at pressures of 1019, 934, 862, and 468 mb with the rms deviation σ are displayed. Data: 7 Nov. 1984.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but at θ = 20° and as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vertical profile of the aerosol optical thickness at λ = 500 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Latitude–height cross section of the aerosol optical thickness in per mill at λ = 500 nm along 140°E. Data: 7 and 8 Aug. 1984.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Aerosol optical depth for scattering at 550-mb level vs latitude. Data: 16 Feb. 1984 (○ at 478 mb and · at 565 mb); 7, 8 Aug. 1984 (●).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time series of the aerosol optical depth at a 550-mb level for λ = 368 (□), 500 (○), and 862 (△) nm. Optical thickness measured at Syowa Station, Antarctica (dashed line) and that retrieved from lidar measurements at Tsukuba, Japan (solid line) are also shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time series of the retrieved volume spectrum of aerosols at 550-mb level vs the particle radius in microns. Best fits of the lognormal function defined in Eq. (11) are shown by dotted lines.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Aerosol column mass above 550-mb level (○) in the present study and above tropopause (△) by Hofmann and Rosen as a function of time (lower scale) or days after the eruption (upper scale). Exponential decaying profiles with several e-folding times from 100 to 1000 days are also shown by straight lines.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Specifications of the Aureolemeter

Tables Icon

Table II Flight Log of Airborne Measurements

Tables Icon

Table III Optical Thickness for Scattering, Backscattering Ratio, and First Two Coefficients of Legendre Expansion of the Phase Function of Aerosols; Parameters of the Power-Law Fitting of the Spectrum of the Optical Thickness and the Lognormal Fitting of the Volume Spectrum are also Shown

Equations (12)

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E ( θ ) = m ω 0 τ P ( θ ) exp ( - m τ ) F 0 d Ω ,
R ( θ ) = E ( θ ) / m F d Ω ,
F = exp ( - m τ ) F 0 .
β a 1 ( θ ) = R 0 ( θ ) and τ a 1 = τ a 0 ;
β a n + 1 ( θ ) = γ n ( θ ) β a n ( θ ) ,
γ n ( θ ) = R o ( θ ) / R n ( θ ) ;
β a ( θ ) = K ( θ , x ) v ( x ) d x ,             x = ln r ,
K ( θ , x ) = 3 4 r S ( θ , k r ) 2 π ( k r ) 2 ,             k = 2 π / λ ,
τ a = K e ( λ , x ) v ( x ) d x
K e ( λ , x ) = 3 4 r Q e ( k r ) .
v ( ln r ) = C exp { - [ ln ( r / a ) / ln s ] 2 / 2 } + C J ,
P a ( θ ) = 1 4 π m ( 2 n + 1 ) x m p ( cos θ ) ,

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