Abstract

We examine the photon correlation and other vital performance characteristics of silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in photon counting or the Geiger mode, and assess their suitability as detectors for photon correlation spectroscopy and laser velocimetry measurements.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. N. Armencha, D. V. Tarkhin, “Mechanisms Governing the Frequency of Current Pulse Formation in Avalanche Silicon Photodiodes,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 5, 235 (1971).
  2. P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of Avalanche Photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234 (1974).
  3. P. Antognetti, S. Cova, A. Longoni, “A Study of the Operation and Performance of an Avalanche Photodiode as a Single Photon Detector,” EURATOM Publ. 5370, 453 (1975).
  4. P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, “Large Area Reach-Through Avalanche Diodes for X-Ray Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 138 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Cova, A. Longoni, A. Andreoni, “Towards Picosecond Resolution with Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. E. Ingerson, R. J. Kearney, R. L. Coulter, “Photon Counting with Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2013 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Barber, “Photon Counting with Avalanche Photodiodes,” Electr. Eng. 56, 63 (1984).
  8. H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, London, 1974).
  9. RCA Data sheet, C30921S Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (May1984).
  10. E. Gulari, B. Chu, “Photon Correlation in the Nanosecond Range and Its Applications to the Evaluation of RCA C31034 Photomultiplier Tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1560 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, “Theory of Periodic Sampling of Photon-Counting Distributions,” J. Phys. A. Ser. 2, 1, 690 (1968).
  12. R. F. Chang, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, R. W. Detenbeck, “Correlations in Light from a Laser at Threshold,” Phys. Rev. 178, 612 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Number Fluctuations of Polydisperse Scatterers, Single-Interval Statistics and Experimental Errors,” Opt. Acta 31, 629 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. II. Active Quenching,” paper in preparation and to be submitted to Applied Optics.
  15. C. J. Oliver, “Spectral Analysis with Short Data Batches,” J. Phys. A. 12, 591 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, “Enhancement of Electron Impact Ionization in a Superlattice; A New Avalanche Photodiode with a Large Ionization Rate Ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lestt. 40, 38 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (2)

S. Barber, “Photon Counting with Avalanche Photodiodes,” Electr. Eng. 56, 63 (1984).

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Number Fluctuations of Polydisperse Scatterers, Single-Interval Statistics and Experimental Errors,” Opt. Acta 31, 629 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, “Enhancement of Electron Impact Ionization in a Superlattice; A New Avalanche Photodiode with a Large Ionization Rate Ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lestt. 40, 38 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, A. Andreoni, “Towards Picosecond Resolution with Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. J. Oliver, “Spectral Analysis with Short Data Batches,” J. Phys. A. 12, 591 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. Gulari, B. Chu, “Photon Correlation in the Nanosecond Range and Its Applications to the Evaluation of RCA C31034 Photomultiplier Tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1560 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, “Large Area Reach-Through Avalanche Diodes for X-Ray Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 138 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, A. Longoni, “A Study of the Operation and Performance of an Avalanche Photodiode as a Single Photon Detector,” EURATOM Publ. 5370, 453 (1975).

1974 (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of Avalanche Photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234 (1974).

1971 (1)

N. N. Armencha, D. V. Tarkhin, “Mechanisms Governing the Frequency of Current Pulse Formation in Avalanche Silicon Photodiodes,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 5, 235 (1971).

1969 (1)

R. F. Chang, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, R. W. Detenbeck, “Correlations in Light from a Laser at Threshold,” Phys. Rev. 178, 612 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, “Theory of Periodic Sampling of Photon-Counting Distributions,” J. Phys. A. Ser. 2, 1, 690 (1968).

Alley, C. O.

R. F. Chang, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, R. W. Detenbeck, “Correlations in Light from a Laser at Threshold,” Phys. Rev. 178, 612 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, A. Andreoni, “Towards Picosecond Resolution with Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Antognetti, P.

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, A. Longoni, “A Study of the Operation and Performance of an Avalanche Photodiode as a Single Photon Detector,” EURATOM Publ. 5370, 453 (1975).

Armencha, N. N.

N. N. Armencha, D. V. Tarkhin, “Mechanisms Governing the Frequency of Current Pulse Formation in Avalanche Silicon Photodiodes,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 5, 235 (1971).

Barber, S.

S. Barber, “Photon Counting with Avalanche Photodiodes,” Electr. Eng. 56, 63 (1984).

Brown, R. G. W.

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. II. Active Quenching,” paper in preparation and to be submitted to Applied Optics.

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, “Enhancement of Electron Impact Ionization in a Superlattice; A New Avalanche Photodiode with a Large Ionization Rate Ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lestt. 40, 38 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. F.

R. F. Chang, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, R. W. Detenbeck, “Correlations in Light from a Laser at Threshold,” Phys. Rev. 178, 612 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B.

E. Gulari, B. Chu, “Photon Correlation in the Nanosecond Range and Its Applications to the Evaluation of RCA C31034 Photomultiplier Tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1560 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, J.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of Avalanche Photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234 (1974).

Coulter, R. L.

Cova, S.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, A. Andreoni, “Towards Picosecond Resolution with Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, A. Longoni, “A Study of the Operation and Performance of an Avalanche Photodiode as a Single Photon Detector,” EURATOM Publ. 5370, 453 (1975).

Detenbeck, R. W.

R. F. Chang, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, R. W. Detenbeck, “Correlations in Light from a Laser at Threshold,” Phys. Rev. 178, 612 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gulari, E.

E. Gulari, B. Chu, “Photon Correlation in the Nanosecond Range and Its Applications to the Evaluation of RCA C31034 Photomultiplier Tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1560 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, “Enhancement of Electron Impact Ionization in a Superlattice; A New Avalanche Photodiode with a Large Ionization Rate Ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lestt. 40, 38 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ingerson, T. E.

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, “Theory of Periodic Sampling of Photon-Counting Distributions,” J. Phys. A. Ser. 2, 1, 690 (1968).

Jones, R.

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. II. Active Quenching,” paper in preparation and to be submitted to Applied Optics.

Kearney, R. J.

Korenman, V.

R. F. Chang, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, R. W. Detenbeck, “Correlations in Light from a Laser at Threshold,” Phys. Rev. 178, 612 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, A. Andreoni, “Towards Picosecond Resolution with Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, A. Longoni, “A Study of the Operation and Performance of an Avalanche Photodiode as a Single Photon Detector,” EURATOM Publ. 5370, 453 (1975).

McIntyre, R. J.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, “Large Area Reach-Through Avalanche Diodes for X-Ray Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 138 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of Avalanche Photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234 (1974).

Oliver, C. J.

C. J. Oliver, “Spectral Analysis with Short Data Batches,” J. Phys. A. 12, 591 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pike, E. R.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, “Theory of Periodic Sampling of Photon-Counting Distributions,” J. Phys. A. Ser. 2, 1, 690 (1968).

Randle, K. J.

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Number Fluctuations of Polydisperse Scatterers, Single-Interval Statistics and Experimental Errors,” Opt. Acta 31, 629 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Number Fluctuations of Polydisperse Scatterers, Single-Interval Statistics and Experimental Errors,” Opt. Acta 31, 629 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. II. Active Quenching,” paper in preparation and to be submitted to Applied Optics.

Ridley, K. D.

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. II. Active Quenching,” paper in preparation and to be submitted to Applied Optics.

Tarkhin, D. V.

N. N. Armencha, D. V. Tarkhin, “Mechanisms Governing the Frequency of Current Pulse Formation in Avalanche Silicon Photodiodes,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 5, 235 (1971).

Tsang, W. T.

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, “Enhancement of Electron Impact Ionization in a Superlattice; A New Avalanche Photodiode with a Large Ionization Rate Ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lestt. 40, 38 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Webb, P. P.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, “Large Area Reach-Through Avalanche Diodes for X-Ray Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 138 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of Avalanche Photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234 (1974).

Williams, G. F.

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, “Enhancement of Electron Impact Ionization in a Superlattice; A New Avalanche Photodiode with a Large Ionization Rate Ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lestt. 40, 38 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lestt. (1)

F. Capasso, W. T. Tsang, A. L. Hutchinson, G. F. Williams, “Enhancement of Electron Impact Ionization in a Superlattice; A New Avalanche Photodiode with a Large Ionization Rate Ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lestt. 40, 38 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electr. Eng. (1)

S. Barber, “Photon Counting with Avalanche Photodiodes,” Electr. Eng. 56, 63 (1984).

EURATOM Publ. 5370 (1)

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, A. Longoni, “A Study of the Operation and Performance of an Avalanche Photodiode as a Single Photon Detector,” EURATOM Publ. 5370, 453 (1975).

IEEE Trans Nucl. Sci. (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, “Large Area Reach-Through Avalanche Diodes for X-Ray Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 138 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A. (1)

C. J. Oliver, “Spectral Analysis with Short Data Batches,” J. Phys. A. 12, 591 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A. Ser. 2 (1)

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, “Theory of Periodic Sampling of Photon-Counting Distributions,” J. Phys. A. Ser. 2, 1, 690 (1968).

Opt. Acta (1)

J. G. Rarity, K. J. Randle, “Number Fluctuations of Polydisperse Scatterers, Single-Interval Statistics and Experimental Errors,” Opt. Acta 31, 629 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. F. Chang, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, R. W. Detenbeck, “Correlations in Light from a Laser at Threshold,” Phys. Rev. 178, 612 (1969).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of Avalanche Photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234 (1974).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, A. Andreoni, “Towards Picosecond Resolution with Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Gulari, B. Chu, “Photon Correlation in the Nanosecond Range and Its Applications to the Evaluation of RCA C31034 Photomultiplier Tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1560 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Semicond. (1)

N. N. Armencha, D. V. Tarkhin, “Mechanisms Governing the Frequency of Current Pulse Formation in Avalanche Silicon Photodiodes,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 5, 235 (1971).

Other (3)

R. G. W. Brown, R. Jones, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Correlation Measurements. II. Active Quenching,” paper in preparation and to be submitted to Applied Optics.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, London, 1974).

RCA Data sheet, C30921S Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (May1984).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Circuitry for testing APDs in passive quenching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

APD pulse height distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of APD dark count as a function of temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of APD dark count as a function of voltage in excess of VBR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of APD count rate with applied voltage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of APD count rate with temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correlograms from an APD: (1) top three traces at dark-count rate; (2) middle three traces at 104 counts/s; (3) lower three traces at 105 counts/s showing dead time and afterpulsing effects.

Equations (1)

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α = ( g 2 ( τ ) - 1 ) · n ¯ .

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