Abstract

An error analysis of DIAL (differential absorption lidar) measurements of stratospheric ozone from the Space Shuttle is discussed. A transmitter system consisting of a KrF excimer laser pumping gas cells of H2 or D2 producing output wavelengths in the near UV is shown to be useful for the measurement of ozone in a 15–50-km altitude range.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Megie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar Measurements of Ozone Vertical Profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for Error Analysis and Simulation of Lidar Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  7. G. Megie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR Differential Absorption Lidar for Global Measurements of Atmospheric Species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. V. Browell, Ed., “Shuttle Atmospheric Lidar Research Program—Final Report of Atmospheric Lidar Working Group,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).
  10. T. R. Loree, R. C. Sze, D. L. Barker, P. B. Scott, “New Lines in the UV: SRS of Excimer Laser Wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 337 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer-Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Shibata, K. Seki, T. Hayami, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Observation of Atmospheric Ozone by a Differential Absorption Lidar Using Excimer Raman Lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 13, 276 (1985), in Japanese.
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. C. Y. Inn, Y. Tanaka, “Absorption Coefficient of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 870 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U.S. Standard Atmosphere (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1976), 227 pp.
  15. A. J. Kruger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-83, NTIS, AD4028-65.
  17. O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).
  18. T. Aruga, T. Igarashi, “Vertical Distribution of Ozone: A New Method of Determination Using Satellite Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 15, 261 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. T. Shipley, “Ultraviolet DIAL Measurements of O3 Profiles in Regions of Spatially Inhomogeneous Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2827 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Vigroux, “Contribution experimentale a l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. Paris 8, 709 (1953).
  21. A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. P. McCormick, NASA Langley Research Center, and T. J. Swisser, SASC Technologies, Inc.; unpublished data.

1985 (3)

1984 (1)

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

1983 (3)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer-Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR Differential Absorption Lidar for Global Measurements of Atmospheric Species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (3)

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for Error Analysis and Simulation of Lidar Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783 (1979).
[PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Loree, R. C. Sze, D. L. Barker, P. B. Scott, “New Lines in the UV: SRS of Excimer Laser Wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

A. J. Kruger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Aruga, T. Igarashi, “Vertical Distribution of Ozone: A New Method of Determination Using Satellite Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 15, 261 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (2)

E. Vigroux, “Contribution experimentale a l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. Paris 8, 709 (1953).

E. C. Y. Inn, Y. Tanaka, “Absorption Coefficient of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 870 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Akita, I.

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

Ancellet, G.

Aruga, T.

Barker, D. L.

T. R. Loree, R. C. Sze, D. L. Barker, P. B. Scott, “New Lines in the UV: SRS of Excimer Laser Wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Chanin, M. L.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-83, NTIS, AD4028-65.

Hauchecorne, A.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hayami, T.

T. Shibata, K. Seki, T. Hayami, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Observation of Atmospheric Ozone by a Differential Absorption Lidar Using Excimer Raman Lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 13, 276 (1985), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

Hirono, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, T.

Inn, E. C. Y.

Ismail, S.

Kobuchi, M.

T. Shibata, K. Seki, T. Hayami, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Observation of Atmospheric Ozone by a Differential Absorption Lidar Using Excimer Raman Lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 13, 276 (1985), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

Kohno, J.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, A. J.

A. J. Kruger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Loree, T. R.

T. R. Loree, R. C. Sze, D. L. Barker, P. B. Scott, “New Lines in the UV: SRS of Excimer Laser Wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

T. Shibata, K. Seki, T. Hayami, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Observation of Atmospheric Ozone by a Differential Absorption Lidar Using Excimer Raman Lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 13, 276 (1985), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer-Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

Megie, G.

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR Differential Absorption Lidar for Global Measurements of Atmospheric Species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Megie, G. J.

Menzies, R. T.

Minzer, R. A.

A. J. Kruger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Miyazoe, Y.

Nagasawa, C.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Naito, K.

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

Okada, Y.

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

Pelon, J.

G. J. Megie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar Measurements of Ozone Vertical Profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, K. W.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

Scott, P. B.

T. R. Loree, R. C. Sze, D. L. Barker, P. B. Scott, “New Lines in the UV: SRS of Excimer Laser Wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Seki, K.

T. Shibata, K. Seki, T. Hayami, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Observation of Atmospheric Ozone by a Differential Absorption Lidar Using Excimer Raman Lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 13, 276 (1985), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-83, NTIS, AD4028-65.

Shibata, T.

T. Shibata, K. Seki, T. Hayami, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Observation of Atmospheric Ozone by a Differential Absorption Lidar Using Excimer Raman Lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 13, 276 (1985), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, S. T.

Swisser, T. J.

M. P. McCormick, NASA Langley Research Center, and T. J. Swisser, SASC Technologies, Inc.; unpublished data.

Swissler, T. J.

Sze, R. C.

T. R. Loree, R. C. Sze, D. L. Barker, P. B. Scott, “New Lines in the UV: SRS of Excimer Laser Wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, I.

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

Takahashi, K.

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

Tanaka, Y.

Tokunaga, M.

Uchino, O.

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

O. Uchino, M. Tokunaga, M. Maeda, Y. Miyazoe, “Differential-Absorption-Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Ozone with Excimer-Raman Hybrid Laser,” Opt. Lett. 8, 347 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vigroux, E.

E. Vigroux, “Contribution experimentale a l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. Paris 8, 709 (1953).

Walther, H.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, H.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. Paris (1)

E. Vigroux, “Contribution experimentale a l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. Paris 8, 709 (1953).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Monitoring of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer by Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, J. Kohno, T. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Layer by a XeCl Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and Temperature Profiles Obtained by Lidar Between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Loree, R. C. Sze, D. L. Barker, P. B. Scott, “New Lines in the UV: SRS of Excimer Laser Wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

A. J. Kruger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5273 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground-Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

O. Uchino, K. Takahashi, I. Tabata, I. Akita, Y. Okada, K. Naito, “Ruby Lidar Observations of El Chichon Dust Clouds at Tsukuba (36.1°N) and Comparisons with UV Lidar Measurements at Fukuoka (33.6°N),” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 679 (1984).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

T. Shibata, K. Seki, T. Hayami, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Observation of Atmospheric Ozone by a Differential Absorption Lidar Using Excimer Raman Lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 13, 276 (1985), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

U.S. Standard Atmosphere (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1976), 227 pp.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183, Lyngby, Denmark, AGARD-CP-83, NTIS, AD4028-65.

E. V. Browell, Ed., “Shuttle Atmospheric Lidar Research Program—Final Report of Atmospheric Lidar Working Group,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).

M. P. McCormick, NASA Langley Research Center, and T. J. Swisser, SASC Technologies, Inc.; unpublished data.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Depiction of the DIAL transmitter system: Si is the ith Stokes line; H2 is hydrogen, D2 is deuterium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total number of signal photoelectrons calculated by using the lidar system in Table I.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Uncertainty of ozone density measured by the DIAL system using for the KrF laser fundamental and SRS of H2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Uncertainty of ozone density measured by the DIAL system using for the KrF laser fundamental and SRS of D2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model extinction coefficients at a wavelength of 313.0 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Uncertainty of ozone density measured by DIAL for the three aerosol models in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temperature variations of absorption cross sections at seven wavelengths relative to 291 K.20

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature model and retrievals from backscatter measurements at 359.8 nm for two boundary conditions at 90 km: (1) Ts + 40 K, and (2) Ts − 60 K.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature accuracy measured at a wavelength of 359.8 nm for different laser output energies. The dotted line shows temperature accuracy for increasing quantum efficiency to 0.25 and the optical efficiency to 0.20 for a laser output energy of 0.4 J.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Shuttle Lidar Parameters Assumed for DIAL Measurement of Ozone

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ¯ ( z ) = 1 2 Δ σ Δ z ln [ P 1 ( z ) P 1 ( z ) / P 2 ( z ) P 2 ( z ) ] + B + E ,
B = 1 2 Δ σ Δ z ln [ β 1 ( z ) β 1 ( z ) / β 2 ( z ) β 2 ( z ) ] ,
E = 1 Δ σ Δ z z z ( α R 1 - α R 2 + α M 1 - α M 2 ) d z = 1 Δ σ ( α ¯ R 1 - α ¯ R 2 + α M 1 - α ¯ M 2 ) ,
ɛ 2 = ɛ 1 2 + ɛ 2 2 ,
ɛ 1 = 1 2 Δ σ n ¯ Δ z { i = 1 2 [ P i ( z ) + 2 P b P i 2 ( z ) + P i ( z ) + 2 P b P i 2 ( z ) ] } 1 / 2 ,
ɛ 2 = ( B + E ) / n ¯ .
ɛ 3 2 = ( Δ σ σ ) 2 = ( σ 1 σ ) 2 ( Δ σ 1 σ 1 ) 2 + ( σ 2 σ ) 2 ( Δ σ 2 σ 2 ) 2 .

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