Abstract

Measurements of signal amplitude distributions with a FM-cw CO2 laser radar have various targets in both imaging and staring modes. Data show good agreement with theoretical distributions. From the measurements conclusions are drawn about the atmospheric- as well as target-induced effects. Beam wandering effects are shown to be of importance in the staring mode.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Shapiro, “Target-Reflectivity Theory for Coherent Laser Radars,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3398 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Leader, “Analysis and Prediction of Laser Scattering from Rough-Surface Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 610 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. K. Jao, M. Elbaum, “Probability Distribution of Optical Amplitudes Scattered from a Rough Object Containing Multiple Glints,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1266 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Y. Wang, “Statistical Properties of Multiple-Glint Targets Under Laser Illumination,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2950 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. H. Shapiro, “Correlation Scales of Laser Speckle in Heterodyne Detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1883 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Propagation Effects on Coherent Laser Radars,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 86 (1982).
  7. V. S. R. Gudimetla, J. F. Holmes, “Probability Density Function of the Intensity for a Laser-Generated Speckle Field After Propagation Through the Turbulent Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1213 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Shapiro, B. A. Capron, R. C. Harney, “Imaging and Target Detection with a Heterodyne-Reception Optical Radar,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3292 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Y. Wang, “Heterodyne Laser Radar SNR from a Diffuse Target Containing Multiple Glints,” Appl. Opt. 21, 464 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, “Experimental Comparison of Heterodyne and Direct Detection for Pulsed Differential Absorption CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 682 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. H. Flamant, R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, “Evidence for Speckle Effects on Pulsed CO2 Lidar Signal Returns from Remote Targets,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1412 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, S. T. Lau, “Measured Turbulence and Speckle Effects in Laser Radar Target Returns,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 166 (1983).
  13. O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).
  14. I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).
  15. J. Y. Wang, B. J. Bartholomew, M. L. Streiff, E. F. Starr, “Imaging CO2 Laser Radar Field Tests,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2565 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 105.
  17. J. W. Strohbehn, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 98–101.
  18. J. R. Kerr, “Turbulence Effects on Target Illumination by Cases Transmitter: Unified Analysis and Experimental Verification,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183, Lyngby, Denmark (Oct. 1975).
  19. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), Chap. 2.
  20. See, e.g., R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. G. Van Damm, M. J. Amoruso, J. W. McGarvey, “Reflectivity Measurements with 10.6-μm Infrared Radiation,” Army Weapons Laboratory, Rock Island (1972), AD 746238.
  22. M. D. Blue, G. R. Loefer, “Active/Passive Long Wavelength Infrared Laser Guidance,” Battelle Columbus Laboratories (1979), AD-A 082509.
  23. D. G. Eanby, J. A. Smith, “Target Signature Analyses Center, Data Compilation,” Utah U. (1966), AD 489968.
  24. D. Letalick, I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, “Target and Atmospheric Influence on Coherent CO2 Laser Radar Performance,” Appl. Opt. 25, 0000 (1986), this issue.

1986

D. Letalick, I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, “Target and Atmospheric Influence on Coherent CO2 Laser Radar Performance,” Appl. Opt. 25, 0000 (1986), this issue.

1985

1984

1983

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, S. T. Lau, “Measured Turbulence and Speckle Effects in Laser Radar Target Returns,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 166 (1983).

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

1982

1981

J. H. Shapiro, B. A. Capron, R. C. Harney, “Imaging and Target Detection with a Heterodyne-Reception Optical Radar,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3292 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).

1979

J. C. Leader, “Analysis and Prediction of Laser Scattering from Rough-Surface Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 610 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Blue, G. R. Loefer, “Active/Passive Long Wavelength Infrared Laser Guidance,” Battelle Columbus Laboratories (1979), AD-A 082509.

1977

1975

See, e.g., R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Amoruso, M. J.

G. G. Van Damm, M. J. Amoruso, J. W. McGarvey, “Reflectivity Measurements with 10.6-μm Infrared Radiation,” Army Weapons Laboratory, Rock Island (1972), AD 746238.

Bartholomew, B. J.

Blue, M. D.

M. D. Blue, G. R. Loefer, “Active/Passive Long Wavelength Infrared Laser Guidance,” Battelle Columbus Laboratories (1979), AD-A 082509.

Bolander, G.

O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).

Capron, B. A.

Claesson, T.

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

DeFeo, W. E.

Eanby, D. G.

D. G. Eanby, J. A. Smith, “Target Signature Analyses Center, Data Compilation,” Utah U. (1966), AD 489968.

Elbaum, M.

Fante, R. L.

See, e.g., R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), Chap. 2.

Gudimetla, V. S. R.

Gullberg, K.

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).

Harney, R. C.

Holmes, J. F.

Jao, J. K.

Kavaya, M. J.

Kerr, J. R.

J. R. Kerr, “Turbulence Effects on Target Illumination by Cases Transmitter: Unified Analysis and Experimental Verification,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183, Lyngby, Denmark (Oct. 1975).

Killinger, D. K.

Lau, S. T.

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, S. T. Lau, “Measured Turbulence and Speckle Effects in Laser Radar Target Returns,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 166 (1983).

Leader, J. C.

Letalick, D.

D. Letalick, I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, “Target and Atmospheric Influence on Coherent CO2 Laser Radar Performance,” Appl. Opt. 25, 0000 (1986), this issue.

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

Loefer, G. R.

M. D. Blue, G. R. Loefer, “Active/Passive Long Wavelength Infrared Laser Guidance,” Battelle Columbus Laboratories (1979), AD-A 082509.

McGarvey, J. W.

G. G. Van Damm, M. J. Amoruso, J. W. McGarvey, “Reflectivity Measurements with 10.6-μm Infrared Radiation,” Army Weapons Laboratory, Rock Island (1972), AD 746238.

Menyuk, N.

Menzies, R. T.

Papurt, D. M.

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, S. T. Lau, “Measured Turbulence and Speckle Effects in Laser Radar Target Returns,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 166 (1983).

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Propagation Effects on Coherent Laser Radars,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 86 (1982).

Renhorn, I.

D. Letalick, I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, “Target and Atmospheric Influence on Coherent CO2 Laser Radar Performance,” Appl. Opt. 25, 0000 (1986), this issue.

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).

Shapiro, J. H.

J. H. Shapiro, “Correlation Scales of Laser Speckle in Heterodyne Detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1883 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, S. T. Lau, “Measured Turbulence and Speckle Effects in Laser Radar Target Returns,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 166 (1983).

J. H. Shapiro, “Target-Reflectivity Theory for Coherent Laser Radars,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3398 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Propagation Effects on Coherent Laser Radars,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 86 (1982).

J. H. Shapiro, B. A. Capron, R. C. Harney, “Imaging and Target Detection with a Heterodyne-Reception Optical Radar,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3292 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. A.

D. G. Eanby, J. A. Smith, “Target Signature Analyses Center, Data Compilation,” Utah U. (1966), AD 489968.

Starr, E. F.

Steinvall, O.

D. Letalick, I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, “Target and Atmospheric Influence on Coherent CO2 Laser Radar Performance,” Appl. Opt. 25, 0000 (1986), this issue.

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).

Streiff, M. L.

Strohbehn, J. W.

J. W. Strohbehn, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 98–101.

Van Damm, G. G.

G. G. Van Damm, M. J. Amoruso, J. W. McGarvey, “Reflectivity Measurements with 10.6-μm Infrared Radiation,” Army Weapons Laboratory, Rock Island (1972), AD 746238.

Wang, J. Y.

Whalen, A. D.

A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 105.

Widén, A.

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).

Appl. Opt.

Battelle Columbus Laboratories

M. D. Blue, G. R. Loefer, “Active/Passive Long Wavelength Infrared Laser Guidance,” Battelle Columbus Laboratories (1979), AD-A 082509.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Proc. IEEE

See, e.g., R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in Turbulent Media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, S. T. Lau, “Measured Turbulence and Speckle Effects in Laser Radar Target Returns,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 166 (1983).

O. Steinvall, G. Bolander, K. Gullberg, I. Renhorn, A. Widén, “Experimental Studies with a Coherent CO2 Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 100 (1981).

I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, D. Letalick, K. Gullberg, T. Claesson, A. Widén, “Performance Study of a Coherent Laser Radar,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 39 (1983).

D. M. Papurt, J. H. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Propagation Effects on Coherent Laser Radars,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 86 (1982).

Other

G. G. Van Damm, M. J. Amoruso, J. W. McGarvey, “Reflectivity Measurements with 10.6-μm Infrared Radiation,” Army Weapons Laboratory, Rock Island (1972), AD 746238.

D. G. Eanby, J. A. Smith, “Target Signature Analyses Center, Data Compilation,” Utah U. (1966), AD 489968.

A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 105.

J. W. Strohbehn, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 98–101.

J. R. Kerr, “Turbulence Effects on Target Illumination by Cases Transmitter: Unified Analysis and Experimental Verification,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183, Lyngby, Denmark (Oct. 1975).

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), Chap. 2.

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