Abstract

A reported correlation between defect-initiated pulsed laser damage and local predamage scatter in multilayer infrared mirror coatings has been analyzed in detail. Examination of a much larger data base confirms the previous result on dielectric-enhanced reflectors with polished substrates over a wide range of energy densities above the damage onset. Scatter signals from individual undamaged defects were detected using a focal spot that nearly coincides with the 150-μm- diam (D1/e2) focal spot of the He–Ne scatter probe with a damage frequency measurements (1-on-1) were made near normal or at damage-probe beam. Subsequent at 45° incidence with 100-ns pulses 2.7-μm wavelength. The correlation is characterized by an increase in damage frequency with increasing predamage scatter signal and by equivalence of the defect densities indicated by the two probes. Characteristics of the correlation are compared with a simple model based on focal spot intensity profiles. Conditions that limit correlation are discussed, including variable scatter from background scatter from defects and diamond-turned substrates. Results have implication for nondestructive defect detection and coating quality control.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. E. Newnam, “Damage Resistance of Dielectric Reflectors for Picosecond Pulses,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 414 (1974), pp. 39–47.
  2. B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, G. Faulkner, “Influence of Standing Wave Fields on the Laser Damage Resistance of Dielectric Films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 254–271.
  3. T. T. Saito, D. Milam, P. Baker, G. Murphy, “1.06 μm 150 psec Laser Damage Study of Diamond Turned, Diamond Turned/Polished and Polished Metal Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 29–40.
  4. C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Defect Damage Precursors in Visible-Wavelength Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 688 (1985), pp. 378–384.
    [Crossref]
  5. C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Nondestructive Defect Detection in Laser Optical Coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1719 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated Pulsed Testing Using a Scatter-Probe Damage Monitor,” in Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Material for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO, 15–17 Oct. 1984, to be published.
  7. J. O. Porteus, S. C. Seitel, “Absolute Onset of Optical Surface Damage Using Distributed Defect Ensembles,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3796 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Nondestructive Defect Detection in Laser Optical Coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1719 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Baker, P.

T. T. Saito, D. Milam, P. Baker, G. Murphy, “1.06 μm 150 psec Laser Damage Study of Diamond Turned, Diamond Turned/Polished and Polished Metal Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 29–40.

Faith, W. N.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated Pulsed Testing Using a Scatter-Probe Damage Monitor,” in Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Material for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO, 15–17 Oct. 1984, to be published.

Faulkner, G.

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, G. Faulkner, “Influence of Standing Wave Fields on the Laser Damage Resistance of Dielectric Films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 254–271.

Franck, J. B.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated Pulsed Testing Using a Scatter-Probe Damage Monitor,” in Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Material for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO, 15–17 Oct. 1984, to be published.

Gill, D. H.

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, G. Faulkner, “Influence of Standing Wave Fields on the Laser Damage Resistance of Dielectric Films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 254–271.

Hodgkin, V. A.

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated Pulsed Testing Using a Scatter-Probe Damage Monitor,” in Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Material for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO, 15–17 Oct. 1984, to be published.

Marrs, C. D.

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Nondestructive Defect Detection in Laser Optical Coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1719 (1985).
[Crossref]

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Defect Damage Precursors in Visible-Wavelength Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 688 (1985), pp. 378–384.
[Crossref]

Milam, D.

T. T. Saito, D. Milam, P. Baker, G. Murphy, “1.06 μm 150 psec Laser Damage Study of Diamond Turned, Diamond Turned/Polished and Polished Metal Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 29–40.

Murphy, G.

T. T. Saito, D. Milam, P. Baker, G. Murphy, “1.06 μm 150 psec Laser Damage Study of Diamond Turned, Diamond Turned/Polished and Polished Metal Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 29–40.

Newnam, B. E.

B. E. Newnam, “Damage Resistance of Dielectric Reflectors for Picosecond Pulses,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 414 (1974), pp. 39–47.

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, G. Faulkner, “Influence of Standing Wave Fields on the Laser Damage Resistance of Dielectric Films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 254–271.

Palmer, J. R.

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Nondestructive Defect Detection in Laser Optical Coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1719 (1985).
[Crossref]

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Defect Damage Precursors in Visible-Wavelength Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 688 (1985), pp. 378–384.
[Crossref]

Porteus, J. O.

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Nondestructive Defect Detection in Laser Optical Coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1719 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. O. Porteus, S. C. Seitel, “Absolute Onset of Optical Surface Damage Using Distributed Defect Ensembles,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3796 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated Pulsed Testing Using a Scatter-Probe Damage Monitor,” in Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Material for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO, 15–17 Oct. 1984, to be published.

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Defect Damage Precursors in Visible-Wavelength Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 688 (1985), pp. 378–384.
[Crossref]

Saito, T. T.

T. T. Saito, D. Milam, P. Baker, G. Murphy, “1.06 μm 150 psec Laser Damage Study of Diamond Turned, Diamond Turned/Polished and Polished Metal Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 29–40.

Seitel, S. C.

J. O. Porteus, S. C. Seitel, “Absolute Onset of Optical Surface Damage Using Distributed Defect Ensembles,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3796 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated Pulsed Testing Using a Scatter-Probe Damage Monitor,” in Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Material for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO, 15–17 Oct. 1984, to be published.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Nondestructive Defect Detection in Laser Optical Coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1719 (1985).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

J. B. Franck, S. C. Seitel, V. A. Hodgkin, W. N. Faith, J. O. Porteus, “Automated Pulsed Testing Using a Scatter-Probe Damage Monitor,” in Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Material for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO, 15–17 Oct. 1984, to be published.

B. E. Newnam, “Damage Resistance of Dielectric Reflectors for Picosecond Pulses,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 414 (1974), pp. 39–47.

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, G. Faulkner, “Influence of Standing Wave Fields on the Laser Damage Resistance of Dielectric Films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 254–271.

T. T. Saito, D. Milam, P. Baker, G. Murphy, “1.06 μm 150 psec Laser Damage Study of Diamond Turned, Diamond Turned/Polished and Polished Metal Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 435 (1976), pp. 29–40.

C. D. Marrs, J. O. Porteus, J. R. Palmer, “Defect Damage Precursors in Visible-Wavelength Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 688 (1985), pp. 378–384.
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of scatter- and damage-probe optics in the evacuated test chamber. The scatter-probe optical train runs from the He–Ne laser to the detector, incorporating optics L1–M2. The 2.7-μm damage-probe beam enters through the NaCl Brewster window and is focused on the SM by L3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometrical relationship of scatter- and damage-probe beams shown for the case of normal incidence damage testing. The scatter-probe beam is incident at angle θ. Defect positions in the x,y sample plane are designated by polar coordinates r,ϕ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the damage onset I0 and the corresponding scatter threshold for damage S0, as governed by the damage- and scatter-probe spatial profiles. The shaded area between the solid and dashed curves indicates the asymmetry of the latter profile in the sample plane, which leads to the shaded variation in S0. Symbols are identified in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Damage test results for mirror A. Data points with uncertainties give damage frequencies measured at the energy densities indicated in units of the damage onset. The solid curve represents the best-fit power-law model obtained as described in Ref. 7.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Distribution of damage frequency vs predamage scatter for mirror A at Ia/I0 = 1.38. Data points indicate damage frequencies at half-unit scatter intervals. Solid data points are those included in fitting the straight line representing the rising portion of the distribution. (b) Distribution similar to (a) for mirror A at I/I0 = 3.50.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Threshold scatter level S ¯ 0 vs energy density for mirror A. Squares represent experimental data and crosses represent values computed from Eq. (5). Dashed and solid lines are the respective linear least-squares fits (regression lines). Plotted scatter levels are relative values with S ¯ 0 at Ia/I0 = 3.5 as arbitrary reference.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Damage test results for mirror B presented in the manner of Fig. 4. Only the seven solid data points were used in fitting the power-law model.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Distribution of damage frequency vs predamage scatter for mirror B at Ia/I0 = 1.63, presented in the manner of Fig. 5. (b) Distribution similar to (a) for mirror B at Ia/I0 = 2.70.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Threshold scatter level S ¯ 0 vs energy density for mirror B presented in the manner of Fig. 6. The value of S ¯ 0 at Ia/I0 = 2.7 is used as a reference for plotting relative scatter levels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Damage test results for mirror C presented in the manner of Fig. 4. The defect density includes all defects that initiate damage at Ia = 2I0 in the nondegenerate ensemble (see Ref. 7).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Distribution of damage frequency vs predamage scatter for mirror C at Ia/I0 = 6.3 presented in the manner of Fig. 5. Data points represent damage frequencies of tenth-unit scatter intervals. The scatter scale differs significantly from that of mirrors A and B because of the different test configuration. (b) Distribution of damage frequency similar to (a) for mirror C at Ia/I0 = 11.7.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Principal Samples and Test Configurations

Tables Icon

Table II Mirror A Scatter Frequency Data

Tables Icon

Table III Mirror A Distribution Parameters

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Table IV Mirror B Scatter Frequency Data

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Table V Mirror B Distribution Parameters

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( r ) = I a exp [ - ( r w ) 2 ] ,
J ( r , ϕ , θ ) = J a exp [ - ( r v ) 2 ( 1 - cos 2 ϕ sin 2 θ ) ] ,
S ( r , ϕ , θ ) = σ J ( r , ϕ , θ )
S 0 ( ϕ ) = σ J a ( I a I 0 ) - ( w v ) 2 ( 1 - cos 2 ϕ sin 2 θ ) .
S ¯ 0 σ J a ( I a I 0 ) - ( w v ) 2 ( 1 - 1 2 sin 2 θ ) .
( Δ S 0 S ¯ 0 ) θ ( I a I 0 ) ( w 2 v ) sin 2 θ - 1 ( I a I 0 ) 1 2 ( w v ) 2 sin 2 θ .
( Δ S 0 S ¯ 0 ) I a ( w v ) 2 ( 1 - 1 2 sin 2 θ ) | 2 Δ I a I a | .
f ( S ) = { n π v 2 S - 1 ; S σ J a 0 ; S > σ J a .
f ( S ) = π v 2 S - 1 S / J a n ( σ ) d σ .

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