Abstract

Speckle interferometry when used for NDT suffers from overcrowding of fringes even for small loads, thereby making defect detection impossible. A fringe compensation technique is presented in this paper. The technique employs two objects, identical except for the defect in one, that are loaded in the same way resulting in full compensation except in the neighborhood of the defect. Theory and experimental results are presented.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  2. D. A. Gregory, “Topical Speckle and Structures Inspection,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 183.
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. K. Erf, “Specialized Metrological Applications of Speckle,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 225.
    [CrossRef]
  4. Chandrashakher, “Laser Speckle Photography Used for NDT of Diaphragms,” Appl. Opt. 21, 367 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 15, 329 (1982).
  6. D. K. Sharma, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Non-Destructive Testing of a Diaphragm of Multi-Aperture Speckle Shearing Technique,” Optik 66, 133 (1984).
  7. R. Krishnamurthy, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Radial Speckle Shearing Interferometer and Its Engineering Applications,” Optik 67, 5 (1984).
  8. R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Shear Interferometry by Double Dove Prisms,” Opt. Commun. 47, 27 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “NDT by θ Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 18, 203 (1985).
  10. E. B. Champagne, “Quantitative Data Reduction with the Use of Fringe Control Techniques in Conjunction with Holographic Interferometry,” in Engineering Applications of Holography Proceedings, Catalog No. 2016751 (U. Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI, 1972).
  11. W. Schuman, M. Dubas, “On the Motion of Holographic Images Caused by Movements of the Reconstruction Light Source with the Aim of Application to Deformation Analysis,” Optik 46, 377 (1976).
  12. Chandra Shakher, R. S. Sirohi, “Fringe Control Techniques Applied to Holographic Non-Destructive Testing (HNDT),” Can. J. Phys. 57, 2155 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. K. Rastogi, “Comparative Holographic Interferometry—a Tool for Non-Destructive Inspection,” J. Phys. E 17, 1094 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. C. DeBacker, “In Plane Displacement Measurements by Speckle Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 8, 177 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Interferometric Methods of Measuring Small Out-of-Plane Displacements,” Opt. Lett. 9, 475 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Joenathan, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, “Hololens in Speckle and Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1294 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “NDT by θ Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 18, 203 (1985).

C. Joenathan, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, “Hololens in Speckle and Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1294 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (4)

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Interferometric Methods of Measuring Small Out-of-Plane Displacements,” Opt. Lett. 9, 475 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Rastogi, “Comparative Holographic Interferometry—a Tool for Non-Destructive Inspection,” J. Phys. E 17, 1094 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sharma, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Non-Destructive Testing of a Diaphragm of Multi-Aperture Speckle Shearing Technique,” Optik 66, 133 (1984).

R. Krishnamurthy, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Radial Speckle Shearing Interferometer and Its Engineering Applications,” Optik 67, 5 (1984).

1983 (1)

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Shear Interferometry by Double Dove Prisms,” Opt. Commun. 47, 27 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

Chandrashakher, “Laser Speckle Photography Used for NDT of Diaphragms,” Appl. Opt. 21, 367 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 15, 329 (1982).

1979 (1)

Chandra Shakher, R. S. Sirohi, “Fringe Control Techniques Applied to Holographic Non-Destructive Testing (HNDT),” Can. J. Phys. 57, 2155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. Schuman, M. Dubas, “On the Motion of Holographic Images Caused by Movements of the Reconstruction Light Source with the Aim of Application to Deformation Analysis,” Optik 46, 377 (1976).

1975 (1)

L. C. DeBacker, “In Plane Displacement Measurements by Speckle Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 8, 177 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Champagne, E. B.

E. B. Champagne, “Quantitative Data Reduction with the Use of Fringe Control Techniques in Conjunction with Holographic Interferometry,” in Engineering Applications of Holography Proceedings, Catalog No. 2016751 (U. Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI, 1972).

Chandrashakher,

DeBacker, L. C.

L. C. DeBacker, “In Plane Displacement Measurements by Speckle Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 8, 177 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dubas, M.

W. Schuman, M. Dubas, “On the Motion of Holographic Images Caused by Movements of the Reconstruction Light Source with the Aim of Application to Deformation Analysis,” Optik 46, 377 (1976).

Erf, R. K.

R. K. Erf, “Specialized Metrological Applications of Speckle,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 225.
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

D. A. Gregory, “Topical Speckle and Structures Inspection,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 183.
[CrossRef]

Joenathan, C.

C. Joenathan, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, “Hololens in Speckle and Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1294 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “NDT by θ Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 18, 203 (1985).

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Interferometric Methods of Measuring Small Out-of-Plane Displacements,” Opt. Lett. 9, 475 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Shear Interferometry by Double Dove Prisms,” Opt. Commun. 47, 27 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kothiyal, M. P.

R. Krishnamurthy, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Radial Speckle Shearing Interferometer and Its Engineering Applications,” Optik 67, 5 (1984).

D. K. Sharma, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Non-Destructive Testing of a Diaphragm of Multi-Aperture Speckle Shearing Technique,” Optik 66, 133 (1984).

R. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 15, 329 (1982).

Krishnamurthy, R.

R. Krishnamurthy, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Radial Speckle Shearing Interferometer and Its Engineering Applications,” Optik 67, 5 (1984).

R. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 15, 329 (1982).

Mohanty, R. K.

C. Joenathan, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, “Hololens in Speckle and Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1294 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “NDT by θ Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 18, 203 (1985).

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Interferometric Methods of Measuring Small Out-of-Plane Displacements,” Opt. Lett. 9, 475 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Krishnamurthy, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Radial Speckle Shearing Interferometer and Its Engineering Applications,” Optik 67, 5 (1984).

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Shear Interferometry by Double Dove Prisms,” Opt. Commun. 47, 27 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P. K.

P. K. Rastogi, “Comparative Holographic Interferometry—a Tool for Non-Destructive Inspection,” J. Phys. E 17, 1094 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, W.

W. Schuman, M. Dubas, “On the Motion of Holographic Images Caused by Movements of the Reconstruction Light Source with the Aim of Application to Deformation Analysis,” Optik 46, 377 (1976).

Shakher, Chandra

Chandra Shakher, R. S. Sirohi, “Fringe Control Techniques Applied to Holographic Non-Destructive Testing (HNDT),” Can. J. Phys. 57, 2155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, D. K.

D. K. Sharma, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Non-Destructive Testing of a Diaphragm of Multi-Aperture Speckle Shearing Technique,” Optik 66, 133 (1984).

Sirohi, R. S.

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “NDT by θ Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 18, 203 (1985).

C. Joenathan, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, “Hololens in Speckle and Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1294 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Interferometric Methods of Measuring Small Out-of-Plane Displacements,” Opt. Lett. 9, 475 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Sharma, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Non-Destructive Testing of a Diaphragm of Multi-Aperture Speckle Shearing Technique,” Optik 66, 133 (1984).

R. Krishnamurthy, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Radial Speckle Shearing Interferometer and Its Engineering Applications,” Optik 67, 5 (1984).

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Shear Interferometry by Double Dove Prisms,” Opt. Commun. 47, 27 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 15, 329 (1982).

Chandra Shakher, R. S. Sirohi, “Fringe Control Techniques Applied to Holographic Non-Destructive Testing (HNDT),” Can. J. Phys. 57, 2155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

Chandra Shakher, R. S. Sirohi, “Fringe Control Techniques Applied to Holographic Non-Destructive Testing (HNDT),” Can. J. Phys. 57, 2155 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

P. K. Rastogi, “Comparative Holographic Interferometry—a Tool for Non-Destructive Inspection,” J. Phys. E 17, 1094 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. (1)

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “NDT by θ Speckle Shear Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 18, 203 (1985).

Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. (1)

L. C. DeBacker, “In Plane Displacement Measurements by Speckle Interferometry,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 8, 177 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. (1)

R. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms,” Non-Destr. Test. Guilford Engl. 15, 329 (1982).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. K. Mohanty, C. Joenathan, R. S. Sirohi, “Speckle Shear Interferometry by Double Dove Prisms,” Opt. Commun. 47, 27 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (3)

W. Schuman, M. Dubas, “On the Motion of Holographic Images Caused by Movements of the Reconstruction Light Source with the Aim of Application to Deformation Analysis,” Optik 46, 377 (1976).

D. K. Sharma, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Non-Destructive Testing of a Diaphragm of Multi-Aperture Speckle Shearing Technique,” Optik 66, 133 (1984).

R. Krishnamurthy, R. K. Mohanty, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Radial Speckle Shearing Interferometer and Its Engineering Applications,” Optik 67, 5 (1984).

Other (4)

E. B. Champagne, “Quantitative Data Reduction with the Use of Fringe Control Techniques in Conjunction with Holographic Interferometry,” in Engineering Applications of Holography Proceedings, Catalog No. 2016751 (U. Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI, 1972).

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

D. A. Gregory, “Topical Speckle and Structures Inspection,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 183.
[CrossRef]

R. K. Erf, “Specialized Metrological Applications of Speckle,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 225.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the split-lens assembly for comparing two diffuse objects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the Fourier filtering arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram for calculating the path length variation when large objects are illuminated by a diverging beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the compensation obtained with our technique. The objects were loaded to 15 and 17 μm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the fringes obtained when the application points of concentrated loading on the objects do not coincide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of the fringes obtained with a 50% defect on diaphragm B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photographs of fringes on a diaphragm with a 10% defect: (a) defective diaphragm loaded to 10-μm central deflection; (b) both diaphragms loaded to 30- and 33-μm central deflections, respectively; (c) both diaphragms loaded to 50 μm; (d) both diaphragms loaded to 80 μm; (e) a small variation in sensitivity due to defocus caused by heavy loading (80 μm).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I T = 2 ( a 1 2 + a 2 2 ) + 4 a 1 a 2 cos ( ϕ 12 + 2 π G x + δ 12 / 2 ) cos ( δ 12 / 2 ) ,
δ 1 = 4 π λ w 1 and δ 2 = 4 π λ w 2 ,
δ 12 = 4 π λ ( w 1 - w 2 ) .
I T = 2 ( a 1 2 + a 2 2 ) + 4 a 1 a 2 { cos [ ϕ 12 + 2 π G x + δ d ( x , y ) / 2 ] × cos [ δ d ( x , y / 2 ) ] } .
δ 12 = ( k ¯ 1 - k ¯ 1 ) · L ¯ 1 - ( k ¯ 2 - k ¯ 2 ) · L ¯ 2 ,
δ 12 = 2 π λ [ ( sin θ 1 + sin θ 1 ) u 1 + ( cos θ 1 + cos θ 1 ) w 1 - ( sin θ 2 - sin θ 2 ) u - ( cos θ 2 + cos θ 2 ) w 2 ] ,
δ 12 = 2 π λ [ ( w 1 - w 2 ) cos θ + ( w 1 cos θ 1 - w 2 cos θ 2 ) ] ,
δ 12 = 2 π λ [ ( cos θ + cos θ ) ( w 1 - w 2 ) ] ,

Metrics