Abstract

Deposition of 0.1–1.0-μm thick metal on a CaF2 coated Si wafer causes a reduction in optical scatter and related microroughness. This effect is not observed when the coated surfaces are examined using a surface profilometer (Talystep). Scanning electron micrographs indicate that coated surfaces are smoother than uncoated surfaces.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Beam Applications for Precision Infrared Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. R. McNeil, L. J. Wei, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. Shakir, J. McIver, “Surface Smoothing Effects of Thin Films?,” Appl. Opt. 24, 480 (1985); see also J. R. McNeil, L. J. Wei, J. Casstevens, W. C. Herrmann, J. C. Stover, “Light Scattering Characteristics of Some Metal Surface—A Smoothing Effect?,” in Proceedings, Fifteenth Annual Symposium for Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Nov. 1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effects of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Related Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).
  4. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Relation Between the Angular Dependence of Scattering and the Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Stylus Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1785 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, “Verification of the Anamalous-Skin-Effect Theory for Silver in the Infrared,” Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Namba, T. Mori, “Cross-sectional Structure of Bi Films and Its Phenominological Analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1159 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “A Comparison of the Frequency Response of a Mechanical Profilometer and an Optical Scatterometer,” in stray Radiation V, R. P. Breault, Ed., Proc. SPIE 675.

1985 (2)

1982 (1)

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Beam Applications for Precision Infrared Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1979 (2)

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Relation Between the Angular Dependence of Scattering and the Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[Crossref]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

Y. Namba, T. Mori, “Cross-sectional Structure of Bi Films and Its Phenominological Analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1159 (1975).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, “Verification of the Anamalous-Skin-Effect Theory for Silver in the Infrared,” Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[Crossref]

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effects of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Related Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, L. J. Wei, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. Shakir, J. McIver, “Surface Smoothing Effects of Thin Films?,” Appl. Opt. 24, 480 (1985); see also J. R. McNeil, L. J. Wei, J. Casstevens, W. C. Herrmann, J. C. Stover, “Light Scattering Characteristics of Some Metal Surface—A Smoothing Effect?,” in Proceedings, Fifteenth Annual Symposium for Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Nov. 1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “A Comparison of the Frequency Response of a Mechanical Profilometer and an Optical Scatterometer,” in stray Radiation V, R. P. Breault, Ed., Proc. SPIE 675.

Ashley, E. J.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, “Verification of the Anamalous-Skin-Effect Theory for Silver in the Infrared,” Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, “Verification of the Anamalous-Skin-Effect Theory for Silver in the Infrared,” Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bennett, J. M.

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[Crossref]

Dancy, J. H.

Elson, J. M.

Herrmann, W. C.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effects of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Related Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Beam Applications for Precision Infrared Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[Crossref]

McIver, J.

McNally, J. J.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effects of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Related Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

McNeil, J. R.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effects of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Related Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, L. J. Wei, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. Shakir, J. McIver, “Surface Smoothing Effects of Thin Films?,” Appl. Opt. 24, 480 (1985); see also J. R. McNeil, L. J. Wei, J. Casstevens, W. C. Herrmann, J. C. Stover, “Light Scattering Characteristics of Some Metal Surface—A Smoothing Effect?,” in Proceedings, Fifteenth Annual Symposium for Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Nov. 1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Beam Applications for Precision Infrared Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[Crossref]

G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “A Comparison of the Frequency Response of a Mechanical Profilometer and an Optical Scatterometer,” in stray Radiation V, R. P. Breault, Ed., Proc. SPIE 675.

Mori, T.

Y. Namba, T. Mori, “Cross-sectional Structure of Bi Films and Its Phenominological Analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1159 (1975).
[Crossref]

Motyka, R. J.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, “Verification of the Anamalous-Skin-Effect Theory for Silver in the Infrared,” Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[Crossref]

Namba, Y.

Y. Namba, T. Mori, “Cross-sectional Structure of Bi Films and Its Phenominological Analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1159 (1975).
[Crossref]

Shakir, S.

Wei, L. J.

Wilson, S. R.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “A Comparison of the Frequency Response of a Mechanical Profilometer and an Optical Scatterometer,” in stray Radiation V, R. P. Breault, Ed., Proc. SPIE 675.

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Namba, T. Mori, “Cross-sectional Structure of Bi Films and Its Phenominological Analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1159 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (2)

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effects of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Related Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Beam Applications for Precision Infrared Optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, “Verification of the Anamalous-Skin-Effect Theory for Silver in the Infrared,” Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “A Comparison of the Frequency Response of a Mechanical Profilometer and an Optical Scatterometer,” in stray Radiation V, R. P. Breault, Ed., Proc. SPIE 675.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Curves representing the PSD of the initial surface; the surface coated with 0.5 μm of evaporated Cu; the surface coated with 0.5 μm of sputtered Cu; and the surface coated with 0.5 μm of sputtered IAD Cu. Values of the rms roughness for the four surfaces are listed in Table I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral reflectance of the initial surface (Si wafer coated with 0.3 μm of evaporated CaF2 and overcoated with 0.2 μm of evaporated Cu); the surface coated with 0.5 μm of evaporated Cu; the surface coated with 0.5 μm of sputtered Cu; the surface coated with 0.5 μm of sputtered IAD Cu.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Talystep surface profiles for the four surfaces. Corresponding rms roughnesses are listed in Table I.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM micrographs of (a) the initial surface and (b) the surface coated with 0.5μm thick sputtered IAD Cu film. The CaF2 film (0.3 μm thick) was evaporated at ambient substrate temperature. (Bar length is 0.1 μm.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM micrographs of (a) the initial surface and (b) the initial surface coated with a 0.5 pm thick sputtered IAD Cu film. The CaF2 film (0.6 μm thick) was evaporated at ~200°C substrate temperature. (Bar length is 0.5 μm.)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Values of Root-Mean-Square Roughness Calculated from Three Measurement Techniques

Equations (2)

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f = d - 1 = sin ϕ s - sin ϕ i λ ,
d > 2 π a r .

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