Abstract

The optical properties of reactively sputtered TiN films 5–80 nm thick are reported. The stoichiometry and purity of the films were verified with x-ray diffraction and Auger spectroscopy, respectively. The optical constants have been determined by combined R and T measurements at oblique incidence. It is found that deposition onto 400°C substrates significantly improves the optical quality of the films. In particular, the optical selectivity for heat mirror applications is increased, the refractive index in the visible is lowered, and the thickness variation of the optical constants is reduced. It is argued that a low refractive index in the visible is a sensitive measure of film quality. The Drude relaxation time was ~25% longer for the films prepared on heated substrates. Electrical measurements confirm the high quality of the films.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. H. Bennet, A. J. McAlister, R. E. Watson, “Interstitial Compounds,” Phys. Today 30, 34 (Sept.1977).
  2. L. E. Toth, “Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides,” in Refractory Materials, Vol. 7 (Academic, New York, 1971).
  3. A. J. Perry, J. Schoenes, “Variations in the Colour of Group IV B Nitride Films,” in Proceedings, IPAT Fifth International Conference (Munich, 1985), p. 452.
  4. B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical Constants and Spectral Selectivity of Titanium Carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Roux, J. Hanus, J. C. Francois, M. Sigrist, “The Optical Properties of Titanium Nitrides and Carbides: Spectral Selectivity and Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 299 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Karlsson, R. P. Shimshock, B. O. Seraphin, J. C. Haygarth, “Optical Properties of CVD-coated TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 401 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Karlsson, C-G. Ribbing, “Optical Properties of Transparent Heat Mirrors Based on Thin Films of TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 52 (1982).
  8. E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.-O. Johansson, “Selective Transmission of Thin TiN-Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 373 (1983).
  9. U. Helmersson, J-E. Sundgren, J. E. Greene, “Microstructure Evolution in TiN Films Reactively Sputter Deposited on Multiphase Substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 500 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. e.g., in H. P. Klug, L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1974).
  11. J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, “Kinetics of Nitride Formation on Titanium Targets During Reactive Sputtering,” Surf. Sci. 128, 265 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Roos, E. Valkonen, C.-G. Ribbing, “Measurements of Transmittance at Oblique Incidence for Some Heat Mirror Systems,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U. UPTEC 83 31 R (1983).
  13. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Optical Properties of TiNx Produced By Reactive Evaporation and Reactive Ion-Beam Sputtering” Vacuum 32, 359 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. D. Mahan, D. T. F. Marple, “Infrared Absorption of Thin Metal Films: Pt on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 219 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Roos, “Determination of Total Hemispherical Emittance of Absorber Surfaces,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U., UPTEC 83 27 R (1983).
  16. J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. Nestell, R. W. Christy, “Derivation of Optical Constants and of Metals from Thin-Film Measurements at Oblique Incidence,” Appl. Opt. 11, 643 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Valkonen, “Optical Studies of Metal and Oxide Films for Selective Coatings,” Thesis, Uppsala U, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Faculty of Science, No. 12 (1985).
  19. A. Schlegel, P. Wachter, J. Nickl, H. Lingg, “Optical Properties of TiN and ZrN,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 10, 4889 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974), Chap. D.

1986 (1)

U. Helmersson, J-E. Sundgren, J. E. Greene, “Microstructure Evolution in TiN Films Reactively Sputter Deposited on Multiphase Substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1983 (4)

G. D. Mahan, D. T. F. Marple, “Infrared Absorption of Thin Metal Films: Pt on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, “Kinetics of Nitride Formation on Titanium Targets During Reactive Sputtering,” Surf. Sci. 128, 265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.-O. Johansson, “Selective Transmission of Thin TiN-Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 373 (1983).

B. Karlsson, R. P. Shimshock, B. O. Seraphin, J. C. Haygarth, “Optical Properties of CVD-coated TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 401 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (4)

B. Karlsson, C-G. Ribbing, “Optical Properties of Transparent Heat Mirrors Based on Thin Films of TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 52 (1982).

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical Constants and Spectral Selectivity of Titanium Carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. Roux, J. Hanus, J. C. Francois, M. Sigrist, “The Optical Properties of Titanium Nitrides and Carbides: Spectral Selectivity and Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 299 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Optical Properties of TiNx Produced By Reactive Evaporation and Reactive Ion-Beam Sputtering” Vacuum 32, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

L. H. Bennet, A. J. McAlister, R. E. Watson, “Interstitial Compounds,” Phys. Today 30, 34 (Sept.1977).

A. Schlegel, P. Wachter, J. Nickl, H. Lingg, “Optical Properties of TiN and ZrN,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 10, 4889 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Alexander, L. E.

e.g., in H. P. Klug, L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1974).

Bennet, L. H.

L. H. Bennet, A. J. McAlister, R. E. Watson, “Interstitial Compounds,” Phys. Today 30, 34 (Sept.1977).

Bohnen, K.-P.

J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

Crecelius, G.

J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Fink, J.

J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Francois, J. C.

L. Roux, J. Hanus, J. C. Francois, M. Sigrist, “The Optical Properties of Titanium Nitrides and Carbides: Spectral Selectivity and Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 299 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. E.

U. Helmersson, J-E. Sundgren, J. E. Greene, “Microstructure Evolution in TiN Films Reactively Sputter Deposited on Multiphase Substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hanus, J.

L. Roux, J. Hanus, J. C. Francois, M. Sigrist, “The Optical Properties of Titanium Nitrides and Carbides: Spectral Selectivity and Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 299 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Haygarth, J. C.

B. Karlsson, R. P. Shimshock, B. O. Seraphin, J. C. Haygarth, “Optical Properties of CVD-coated TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 401 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Helmersson, U.

U. Helmersson, J-E. Sundgren, J. E. Greene, “Microstructure Evolution in TiN Films Reactively Sputter Deposited on Multiphase Substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, B.-O.

E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.-O. Johansson, “Selective Transmission of Thin TiN-Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 373 (1983).

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, “Kinetics of Nitride Formation on Titanium Targets During Reactive Sputtering,” Surf. Sci. 128, 265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical Constants and Spectral Selectivity of Titanium Carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, B.

E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.-O. Johansson, “Selective Transmission of Thin TiN-Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 373 (1983).

B. Karlsson, R. P. Shimshock, B. O. Seraphin, J. C. Haygarth, “Optical Properties of CVD-coated TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 401 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical Constants and Spectral Selectivity of Titanium Carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, C-G. Ribbing, “Optical Properties of Transparent Heat Mirrors Based on Thin Films of TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 52 (1982).

Karlsson, S.-E.

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, “Kinetics of Nitride Formation on Titanium Targets During Reactive Sputtering,” Surf. Sci. 128, 265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, T.

E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.-O. Johansson, “Selective Transmission of Thin TiN-Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 373 (1983).

Klug, H. P.

e.g., in H. P. Klug, L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1974).

Lingg, H.

A. Schlegel, P. Wachter, J. Nickl, H. Lingg, “Optical Properties of TiN and ZrN,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 10, 4889 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mahan, G. D.

G. D. Mahan, D. T. F. Marple, “Infrared Absorption of Thin Metal Films: Pt on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marple, D. T. F.

G. D. Mahan, D. T. F. Marple, “Infrared Absorption of Thin Metal Films: Pt on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Optical Properties of TiNx Produced By Reactive Evaporation and Reactive Ion-Beam Sputtering” Vacuum 32, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, A. J.

L. H. Bennet, A. J. McAlister, R. E. Watson, “Interstitial Compounds,” Phys. Today 30, 34 (Sept.1977).

Nestell, J. E.

Netterfield, R. P.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Optical Properties of TiNx Produced By Reactive Evaporation and Reactive Ion-Beam Sputtering” Vacuum 32, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nickl, J.

A. Schlegel, P. Wachter, J. Nickl, H. Lingg, “Optical Properties of TiN and ZrN,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 10, 4889 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Perry, A. J.

A. J. Perry, J. Schoenes, “Variations in the Colour of Group IV B Nitride Films,” in Proceedings, IPAT Fifth International Conference (Munich, 1985), p. 452.

Pflüger, J. P.

J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ribbing, C.-G.

A. Roos, E. Valkonen, C.-G. Ribbing, “Measurements of Transmittance at Oblique Incidence for Some Heat Mirror Systems,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U. UPTEC 83 31 R (1983).

Ribbing, C-G.

B. Karlsson, C-G. Ribbing, “Optical Properties of Transparent Heat Mirrors Based on Thin Films of TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 52 (1982).

Roos, A.

A. Roos, E. Valkonen, C.-G. Ribbing, “Measurements of Transmittance at Oblique Incidence for Some Heat Mirror Systems,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U. UPTEC 83 31 R (1983).

A. Roos, “Determination of Total Hemispherical Emittance of Absorber Surfaces,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U., UPTEC 83 27 R (1983).

Roux, L.

L. Roux, J. Hanus, J. C. Francois, M. Sigrist, “The Optical Properties of Titanium Nitrides and Carbides: Spectral Selectivity and Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 299 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Optical Properties of TiNx Produced By Reactive Evaporation and Reactive Ion-Beam Sputtering” Vacuum 32, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schlegel, A.

A. Schlegel, P. Wachter, J. Nickl, H. Lingg, “Optical Properties of TiN and ZrN,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 10, 4889 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schoenes, J.

A. J. Perry, J. Schoenes, “Variations in the Colour of Group IV B Nitride Films,” in Proceedings, IPAT Fifth International Conference (Munich, 1985), p. 452.

Seraphin, B. O.

B. Karlsson, R. P. Shimshock, B. O. Seraphin, J. C. Haygarth, “Optical Properties of CVD-coated TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 401 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shimshock, R. P.

B. Karlsson, R. P. Shimshock, B. O. Seraphin, J. C. Haygarth, “Optical Properties of CVD-coated TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 401 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M.

L. Roux, J. Hanus, J. C. Francois, M. Sigrist, “The Optical Properties of Titanium Nitrides and Carbides: Spectral Selectivity and Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 299 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sundgren, J.-E.

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, “Kinetics of Nitride Formation on Titanium Targets During Reactive Sputtering,” Surf. Sci. 128, 265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical Constants and Spectral Selectivity of Titanium Carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sundgren, J-E.

U. Helmersson, J-E. Sundgren, J. E. Greene, “Microstructure Evolution in TiN Films Reactively Sputter Deposited on Multiphase Substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Toth, L. E.

L. E. Toth, “Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides,” in Refractory Materials, Vol. 7 (Academic, New York, 1971).

Valkonen, E.

E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.-O. Johansson, “Selective Transmission of Thin TiN-Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 373 (1983).

A. Roos, E. Valkonen, C.-G. Ribbing, “Measurements of Transmittance at Oblique Incidence for Some Heat Mirror Systems,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U. UPTEC 83 31 R (1983).

E. Valkonen, “Optical Studies of Metal and Oxide Films for Selective Coatings,” Thesis, Uppsala U, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Faculty of Science, No. 12 (1985).

Wachter, P.

A. Schlegel, P. Wachter, J. Nickl, H. Lingg, “Optical Properties of TiN and ZrN,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 10, 4889 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. E.

L. H. Bennet, A. J. McAlister, R. E. Watson, “Interstitial Compounds,” Phys. Today 30, 34 (Sept.1977).

Weber, W.

J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. D. Mahan, D. T. F. Marple, “Infrared Absorption of Thin Metal Films: Pt on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 219 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. (1)

A. Schlegel, P. Wachter, J. Nickl, H. Lingg, “Optical Properties of TiN and ZrN,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 10, 4889 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

U. Helmersson, J-E. Sundgren, J. E. Greene, “Microstructure Evolution in TiN Films Reactively Sputter Deposited on Multiphase Substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 500 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. P. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, G. Crecelius, K.-P. Bohnen, “Dielectric Properties of TiCx, TiNx, VCx and VNx from 1.5 to 40 eV Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1155 (1984); “Dielectric Properties of ZrN, NbC and NbN ad Determined by Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 1244 (1985) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

L. H. Bennet, A. J. McAlister, R. E. Watson, “Interstitial Compounds,” Phys. Today 30, 34 (Sept.1977).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.-O. Johansson, “Selective Transmission of Thin TiN-Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 373 (1983).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

B. Karlsson, C-G. Ribbing, “Optical Properties of Transparent Heat Mirrors Based on Thin Films of TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 324, 52 (1982).

Sol. Energy Mater. (2)

L. Roux, J. Hanus, J. C. Francois, M. Sigrist, “The Optical Properties of Titanium Nitrides and Carbides: Spectral Selectivity and Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 299 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, R. P. Shimshock, B. O. Seraphin, J. C. Haygarth, “Optical Properties of CVD-coated TiN, ZrN and HfN,” Sol. Energy Mater. 7, 401 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, “Kinetics of Nitride Formation on Titanium Targets During Reactive Sputtering,” Surf. Sci. 128, 265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical Constants and Spectral Selectivity of Titanium Carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Optical Properties of TiNx Produced By Reactive Evaporation and Reactive Ion-Beam Sputtering” Vacuum 32, 359 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. Roos, E. Valkonen, C.-G. Ribbing, “Measurements of Transmittance at Oblique Incidence for Some Heat Mirror Systems,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U. UPTEC 83 31 R (1983).

E. Valkonen, “Optical Studies of Metal and Oxide Films for Selective Coatings,” Thesis, Uppsala U, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Faculty of Science, No. 12 (1985).

A. Roos, “Determination of Total Hemispherical Emittance of Absorber Surfaces,” Internal Report, Department of Technology, Uppsala U., UPTEC 83 27 R (1983).

e.g., in H. P. Klug, L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1974).

L. E. Toth, “Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides,” in Refractory Materials, Vol. 7 (Academic, New York, 1971).

A. J. Perry, J. Schoenes, “Variations in the Colour of Group IV B Nitride Films,” in Proceedings, IPAT Fifth International Conference (Munich, 1985), p. 452.

R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1974), Chap. D.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the sputtering system used for reactive deposition of TiN films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction pattern for an 80-nm thick TiN film on glass showing the (200) peak.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Derivative Auger spectrum for the same sample as in Fig. 2, showing one nitrogen KLL and two titanium LMM peaks as well as weak signals from the impurities carbon and oxygen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance and reflectance spectra for semitransparent TiN films. Thicknesses: (a) ≈3 nm; (b) 5 nm; (c) 12.7 nm; (d) 21.3 nm; (e) 31 nm (see Table I).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorptance 1-R-T vs thickness for sputtered TiN films compared with values calculated from bulk optical constants.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RIR vs Teye for thin TiN films: —, calculated from bulk optical constants4; ■, films on room temperature substrates; △, films on 400°C substrates.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index vs wavelength for TiN films detailed in Table I.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Extinction coefficient vs wavelength for TiN films as specified in Table I.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function for thin TiN films detailed in Table I.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plots for determination of relaxation times for two TiN films, as detailed in Table I.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Plots for determination of plasma energies for TiN samples 1 and 6.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical and Electrical Data for Thin TiN Flmsa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ = V I π ln 2 d
1 ( ω ) = - ω p 2 τ 2 1 + ω 2 τ 2 ,
2 ( ω ) = ω p 2 τ ω ( 1 + ω 2 τ 2 ) ,
1 = - 1 2 ω .
1 ( ω ) = - ( ω p ) 2 E τ 2 + E 2 ,

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