Abstract

The topography of vacuum-deposited aluminum films with different morphologies has been characterized by the angular distribution of the intensity of the diffusely scattered light. The results of these measurements are compared with morphological data obtained by the stylus technique and the SEM. It is shown that light scattering is a suitable technique for the characterization of such surfaces. The scattering spectrum is a fingerprint of the surface, and quantitative data can be obtained.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. V. Vorburger, E. C. Teague, “Optical Techniques for On-Line Measurement of Surface Topography,” Precis. Eng. 3, 61 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Birkebak, “Optical and Mechanical RMS Surface Roughness Comparison,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1970 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Elson, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Scattering from Optical Surfaces,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 7, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 7.
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces by Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Bennett, “Measurement of the rms Roughness, Autocovariance Function and Other Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces Using a FECO Scanning Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2705 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Stylus Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1785 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. L. Gauler, “Comparison of Two Common Methods of Surface Topography Evalation,” Opt. Eng. 21, 991 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 266 (1983).
  9. E. L. Church, J. M. Zavada, “Residual Surface Roughness of Diamond-Turned Optics,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1788 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Relation Between the Angular Dependence of Scattering and the Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low-Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. L. Church, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision-Machined Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 429, 105 (1983).
  15. M. J. Verkerk, I. J. M. M. Raaymakers, “Topographic Characterization of Vacuum-Deposited Films by Optical Methods,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Thin Films, Stockholm, Sweden (13–17 Aug. 1984); Thin Solid Films124, 271 (1985).
  16. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. E. Wierenga, A. J. J. Franken, “Ultramicroindentation Apparatus for the Mechanical Characterization of Thin Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4244 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. Verkerk, W. A. M. C. Brankaert, “Effects of Water on the Growth of Aluminium Films Deposited by Vacuum Evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 13g.77 (1986), submitted.
    [CrossRef]

1984

P. E. Wierenga, A. J. J. Franken, “Ultramicroindentation Apparatus for the Mechanical Characterization of Thin Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low-Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

E. L. Church, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision-Machined Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 429, 105 (1983).

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 266 (1983).

1982

A. L. Gauler, “Comparison of Two Common Methods of Surface Topography Evalation,” Opt. Eng. 21, 991 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Stylus Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1785 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Vorburger, E. C. Teague, “Optical Techniques for On-Line Measurement of Surface Topography,” Precis. Eng. 3, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Relation Between the Angular Dependence of Scattering and the Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces by Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1975

1971

Bennett, H. E.

J. M. Elson, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Scattering from Optical Surfaces,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 7, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Birkebak, R. C.

Brankaert, W. A. M. C.

M. J. Verkerk, W. A. M. C. Brankaert, “Effects of Water on the Growth of Aluminium Films Deposited by Vacuum Evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 13g.77 (1986), submitted.
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision-Machined Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 429, 105 (1983).

E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces by Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, J. M. Zavada, “Residual Surface Roughness of Diamond-Turned Optics,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1788 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dancy, J. H.

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Relation Between the Angular Dependence of Scattering and the Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Scattering from Optical Surfaces,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 7, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Franken, A. J. J.

P. E. Wierenga, A. J. J. Franken, “Ultramicroindentation Apparatus for the Mechanical Characterization of Thin Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gauler, A. L.

A. L. Gauler, “Comparison of Two Common Methods of Surface Topography Evalation,” Opt. Eng. 21, 991 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low-Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 266 (1983).

Jankinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces by Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Raaymakers, I. J. M. M.

M. J. Verkerk, I. J. M. M. Raaymakers, “Topographic Characterization of Vacuum-Deposited Films by Optical Methods,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Thin Films, Stockholm, Sweden (13–17 Aug. 1984); Thin Solid Films124, 271 (1985).

Teague, E. C.

T. V. Vorburger, E. C. Teague, “Optical Techniques for On-Line Measurement of Surface Topography,” Precis. Eng. 3, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Verkerk, M. J.

M. J. Verkerk, I. J. M. M. Raaymakers, “Topographic Characterization of Vacuum-Deposited Films by Optical Methods,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Thin Films, Stockholm, Sweden (13–17 Aug. 1984); Thin Solid Films124, 271 (1985).

M. J. Verkerk, W. A. M. C. Brankaert, “Effects of Water on the Growth of Aluminium Films Deposited by Vacuum Evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 13g.77 (1986), submitted.
[CrossRef]

Vorburger, T. V.

T. V. Vorburger, E. C. Teague, “Optical Techniques for On-Line Measurement of Surface Topography,” Precis. Eng. 3, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wierenga, P. E.

P. E. Wierenga, A. J. J. Franken, “Ultramicroindentation Apparatus for the Mechanical Characterization of Thin Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, P. G.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low-Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 266 (1983).

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces by Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, J. M. Zavada, “Residual Surface Roughness of Diamond-Turned Optics,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1788 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

P. E. Wierenga, A. J. J. Franken, “Ultramicroindentation Apparatus for the Mechanical Characterization of Thin Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Eng.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gauler, “Comparison of Two Common Methods of Surface Topography Evalation,” Opt. Eng. 21, 991 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jankinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces by Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng.

T. V. Vorburger, E. C. Teague, “Optical Techniques for On-Line Measurement of Surface Topography,” Precis. Eng. 3, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 401, 266 (1983).

E. L. Church, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision-Machined Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 429, 105 (1983).

Wear

E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. J. Verkerk, W. A. M. C. Brankaert, “Effects of Water on the Growth of Aluminium Films Deposited by Vacuum Evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 13g.77 (1986), submitted.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Verkerk, I. J. M. M. Raaymakers, “Topographic Characterization of Vacuum-Deposited Films by Optical Methods,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Thin Films, Stockholm, Sweden (13–17 Aug. 1984); Thin Solid Films124, 271 (1985).

J. M. Elson, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Scattering from Optical Surfaces,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 7, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM photographs of the samples evaporated at a rate of 0.25 nm/s at (a) 20°C, (b) 200°C, (c) 300°C, and (d) 400°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grain size distribution of samples evaporated at substrate temperatures of 250 and 400°C (rate 0.25 nm/s).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distribution of scattered light for samples evaporated at a rate of 0.25 nm/s at substrate temperatures of (1) 400°C, (2) 350°C, (3) 300°C, (4) 250°C, (5) 200°C, (6) 100°C, and (7) 20°C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distribution of scattered light for samples evaporated at 300°C at rates of (1) 0.25 nm/s, (2) 0.5 nm/s, (3) 1 nm/s, (4) 2 nm/s, and (5) 4 nm/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Autocorrelation length T vs the autocorrelation length calculated from the broad peak in the Tm spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of the stylus radius on the traced profile of a triangular surface: broken line, traced profile; (a) Rst < Rc; (b) Rst = Rc; (c) Rst > Rc.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized roughness (calculated roughness as measured with a stylus with tip radius Rst divided by the real roughness) of a triangular profile (height is 0.5 μm) as a function of the correlation length and the radius of the stylus Rst. The real rms roughness is 0.1443 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The rms roughness measured with the microindentation apparatus (Rst = 0.1 μm), a (microind.), vs the roughness measured from the angular distribution of the scattered light, σ (ang. distr.). The wavelength of the light is 0.6328 μm (○) and 0.441 μm (●).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean grain size vs T and Tm. The broken line represents the case where Dg equals T and the dot–dash line that for T = 0.8 × Dg (see text).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) SEM photographs and (b) angular distribution functions of samples A and B containing hillocks. The arrows indicate the position of the broad peak.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Topographic Data Calculated from the Angular Distribution of the Diffusely Scattered Light for Wavelengths of 0.6328 and 0.441 μma

Tables Icon

Table II Topographic Data Calculated from the Angular Distribution of Diffusely Scattered Light, λ = 0.6328 μma

Tables Icon

TABLE III Roughness Measured by Mechanical Methods

Tables Icon

Table IV Numerical Data of Samples A and B with Hillocks on the Surfaces

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 I i ( d I d ω ) s d ω s = 4 k 4 cos θ i · cos 2 θ s · Q · W ( p , q ) d ω s ,
sin ξ N = ± ( N / 2 ) ( λ / d ) .
σ 2 = π k 2 W ( r ) sin ( 2 ξ ) d ξ ,
m 2 = 2 π k 4 W ( r ) sin ( 2 ξ ) sin 2 ξ d ξ .
T = k t · ( σ / m ) ;

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