Abstract

A new light scattering measurement system for optical fibers has been developed. It is intended for measuring 3-D scattered light intensity distribution from a short fiber segment. Using this system, it has been verified for the first time that ZrF4-based fluoride optical fiber exhibits a Rayleigh scattering characteristic and has lower scattering loss than silica fiber.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kanamori, S. Takahashi, “Crystallization Characteristics of ZrF4-Based Fluoride Glasses in Cooling and Reheating Processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L758 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Lu, “Scattering Mechanisms in Fluorozirconate Glasses,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).
  4. S. F. Carter, P. W. France, M. W. Moore, J. R. Williams, “Extrinsic Scatter Losses in ZrF4-Based Infrared Fibers,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).
  5. T. Kamanori, H. Hattori, S. Sakaguchi, Y. Ohishi, “Study on the Nature of Extrinsic Scattering Centers in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L203 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).
  7. D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, K. H. Levin, R. J. Ginther, “Rayleigh Scattering in ZrF4-Based Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1046 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, S. Mitachi, S. Takahashi, “Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Scattered Light from ZrF4-Based Fluoride Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3227 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Mitachi, T. Miyashita, T. Kanamori, “Fluoride-Glass Cladded Optical Fibers for Mid-Infrared Ray Transmission,” Electron. Lett. 17, 591 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), Chap. 6.

1986 (1)

T. Kamanori, H. Hattori, S. Sakaguchi, Y. Ohishi, “Study on the Nature of Extrinsic Scattering Centers in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L203 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

T. Kanamori, S. Takahashi, “Crystallization Characteristics of ZrF4-Based Fluoride Glasses in Cooling and Reheating Processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L758 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, S. Mitachi, S. Takahashi, “Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Scattered Light from ZrF4-Based Fluoride Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3227 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, K. H. Levin, R. J. Ginther, “Rayleigh Scattering in ZrF4-Based Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1046 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

S. Mitachi, T. Miyashita, T. Kanamori, “Fluoride-Glass Cladded Optical Fibers for Mid-Infrared Ray Transmission,” Electron. Lett. 17, 591 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, A. J.

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

Carter, S. F.

S. F. Carter, P. W. France, M. W. Moore, J. R. Williams, “Extrinsic Scatter Losses in ZrF4-Based Infrared Fibers,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).

Drexhage, M. G.

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

France, P. W.

S. F. Carter, P. W. France, M. W. Moore, J. R. Williams, “Extrinsic Scatter Losses in ZrF4-Based Infrared Fibers,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).

Ginther, R. J.

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, K. H. Levin, R. J. Ginther, “Rayleigh Scattering in ZrF4-Based Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1046 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, H.

T. Kamanori, H. Hattori, S. Sakaguchi, Y. Ohishi, “Study on the Nature of Extrinsic Scattering Centers in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L203 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, M.

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hutta, J. J.

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

Jinguji, K.

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kamanori, T.

T. Kamanori, H. Hattori, S. Sakaguchi, Y. Ohishi, “Study on the Nature of Extrinsic Scattering Centers in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L203 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, S. Mitachi, S. Takahashi, “Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Scattered Light from ZrF4-Based Fluoride Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3227 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kanamori, S. Takahashi, “Crystallization Characteristics of ZrF4-Based Fluoride Glasses in Cooling and Reheating Processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L758 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Mitachi, T. Miyashita, T. Kanamori, “Fluoride-Glass Cladded Optical Fibers for Mid-Infrared Ray Transmission,” Electron. Lett. 17, 591 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Levin, K. H.

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, K. H. Levin, R. J. Ginther, “Rayleigh Scattering in ZrF4-Based Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1046 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.

G. Lu, “Scattering Mechanisms in Fluorozirconate Glasses,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).

Manabe, T.

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mitachi, S.

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, S. Mitachi, S. Takahashi, “Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Scattered Light from ZrF4-Based Fluoride Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3227 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Mitachi, T. Miyashita, T. Kanamori, “Fluoride-Glass Cladded Optical Fibers for Mid-Infrared Ray Transmission,” Electron. Lett. 17, 591 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

S. Mitachi, T. Miyashita, T. Kanamori, “Fluoride-Glass Cladded Optical Fibers for Mid-Infrared Ray Transmission,” Electron. Lett. 17, 591 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Moore, M. W.

S. F. Carter, P. W. France, M. W. Moore, J. R. Williams, “Extrinsic Scatter Losses in ZrF4-Based Infrared Fibers,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).

Ohishi, Y.

T. Kamanori, H. Hattori, S. Sakaguchi, Y. Ohishi, “Study on the Nature of Extrinsic Scattering Centers in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L203 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, S. Mitachi, S. Takahashi, “Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Scattered Light from ZrF4-Based Fluoride Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3227 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaguchi, S.

T. Kamanori, H. Hattori, S. Sakaguchi, Y. Ohishi, “Study on the Nature of Extrinsic Scattering Centers in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L203 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

Shibata, S.

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, K. H. Levin, R. J. Ginther, “Rayleigh Scattering in ZrF4-Based Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1046 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Staller, C. O.

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

Suscavage, M. J.

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

Takahashi, S.

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, S. Mitachi, S. Takahashi, “Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Scattered Light from ZrF4-Based Fluoride Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3227 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kanamori, S. Takahashi, “Crystallization Characteristics of ZrF4-Based Fluoride Glasses in Cooling and Reheating Processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L758 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tran, D. C.

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, K. H. Levin, R. J. Ginther, “Rayleigh Scattering in ZrF4-Based Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1046 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tsoukala, V.

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), Chap. 6.

Williams, J. R.

S. F. Carter, P. W. France, M. W. Moore, J. R. Williams, “Extrinsic Scatter Losses in ZrF4-Based Infrared Fibers,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

S. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, K. Jinguji, S. Mitachi, T. Kanamori, T. Manabe, “Prediction of Loss Minima in Infra-Red Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, K. H. Levin, R. J. Ginther, “Rayleigh Scattering in ZrF4-Based Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1046 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Mitachi, T. Miyashita, T. Kanamori, “Fluoride-Glass Cladded Optical Fibers for Mid-Infrared Ray Transmission,” Electron. Lett. 17, 591 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Kamanori, H. Hattori, S. Sakaguchi, Y. Ohishi, “Study on the Nature of Extrinsic Scattering Centers in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L203 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanamori, S. Takahashi, “Crystallization Characteristics of ZrF4-Based Fluoride Glasses in Cooling and Reheating Processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L758 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Lu, “Scattering Mechanisms in Fluorozirconate Glasses,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).

S. F. Carter, P. W. France, M. W. Moore, J. R. Williams, “Extrinsic Scatter Losses in ZrF4-Based Infrared Fibers,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes (24–28 June 1985).

J. Schroeder, V. Tsoukala, A. J. Bruce, C. O. Staller, J. J. Hutta, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Composition and Structural Relaxation Effects on the Intrinsic Rayleigh Scattering of Halide Glasses: Annealing Studies,” in Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Rennes24–28 June 1985).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), Chap. 6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light scattering experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Definition of scattering angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional distribution of the scattered light intensities for ZBGA and silica fibers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering angle dependence of scattered light intensity: ●, experimental data for ZBGA; —, theoretical curve calculated using the Rayleigh formula.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattering loss spectrum for ZBGA and silica fibers.

Equations (3)

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I t = I ( θ , φ ) sin θ d θ d φ ,
= { I ( θ 2 , φ ) / [ 1 - R ( θ 2 ) ] sin θ 1 ( n 2 sin θ 2 / n 1 sin θ 1 ) d θ 2 d φ ,
α s c = 0.6 / λ 4 ,

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