Abstract

A radial gradient-index aplanatic singlet pickup objective lens for the compact disk (CD) system has been designed, manufactured, and evaluated. A plano-convex aplanatic singlet was designed by optimizing the refractive-index coefficients of the gradient-index medium, lens thickness, and one curvature. The necessary ion exchange technology and surface fabrication technology have been developed to successfully fabricate the objective lens. The gradient-index singlet was mounted in a CD player, and tests confirmed that the lens meets the system requirements.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Shintani, S. Kubota, “Evaluation of a Diffraction-Limited Plastic Biaspheric Objective Lens,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washingon, DC, 1984), paper WB2.
  2. T. Kiriki, N. Izumiya, K. Sakurai, T. Kojima, “Plastic Aspheric Lens for the Compact Disc System,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1984), paper WB3.
  3. R. O. Maschmeyer, R. M. Hujar, L. L. Carpenter, B. W. Nicholson, E. F. Vozenilek, “Optical Performance of a Diffraction-Limited Molded-Glass Biaspheric Lens,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2413 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. M. Braat, A. Smid, M. M. B. Wignakker, “Design and Production Technology of Replicated Aspheric Objective Lenses for Optical Disk Systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1853 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Fujii, H. Ueno, T. Yamagishi, “New Gradient-Index Rod Lenses with Low Aberration,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper E4.
  6. H. Nishi, M. Toyama, T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, H. Ueno, “Plano–Convex Gradient-Index Singlet,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper C2.
  7. Y. Aono, “Optical Design of Pick-Up Objectives with Gradient Index Elements,” Micro Opt. News 1, 126 (1984).
  8. K. Kikuchi, S. Ishihara, H. Shimizu, J. Shimada, “Design of Gradient-Index Spherical Lenses for Optical Pickup System,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1076 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Sharma, D. V. Kumar, A. K. Ghatak, “Tracing Rays Through Gradient-Index Media: a New Method,” Appl. Opt. 21, 984 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Toyama, H. Nishi, I. Kitano, “Gradient Index Objective for the Compact Disk,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Palermo, Italy (1985), paper F1.
  11. H. Nishi, M. Toyama, “Design of an Aplanatic GRIN Singlet for the Compact Disk System,” in Technical Digest International, Lens Design Conference (1985), paper TuB5.

1985

1984

Y. Aono, “Optical Design of Pick-Up Objectives with Gradient Index Elements,” Micro Opt. News 1, 126 (1984).

1983

1982

1980

Aono, Y.

Y. Aono, “Optical Design of Pick-Up Objectives with Gradient Index Elements,” Micro Opt. News 1, 126 (1984).

Braat, J. J. M.

Carpenter, L. L.

Fujii, K.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, H. Ueno, “Plano–Convex Gradient-Index Singlet,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper C2.

K. Fujii, H. Ueno, T. Yamagishi, “New Gradient-Index Rod Lenses with Low Aberration,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper E4.

Ghatak, A. K.

Hujar, R. M.

Ishihara, S.

Izumiya, N.

T. Kiriki, N. Izumiya, K. Sakurai, T. Kojima, “Plastic Aspheric Lens for the Compact Disc System,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1984), paper WB3.

Kikuchi, K.

Kiriki, T.

T. Kiriki, N. Izumiya, K. Sakurai, T. Kojima, “Plastic Aspheric Lens for the Compact Disc System,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1984), paper WB3.

Kitano, I.

M. Toyama, H. Nishi, I. Kitano, “Gradient Index Objective for the Compact Disk,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Palermo, Italy (1985), paper F1.

Kojima, T.

T. Kiriki, N. Izumiya, K. Sakurai, T. Kojima, “Plastic Aspheric Lens for the Compact Disc System,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1984), paper WB3.

Kubota, S.

K. Shintani, S. Kubota, “Evaluation of a Diffraction-Limited Plastic Biaspheric Objective Lens,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washingon, DC, 1984), paper WB2.

Kumar, D. V.

Maschmeyer, R. O.

Nicholson, B. W.

Nishi, H.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, H. Ueno, “Plano–Convex Gradient-Index Singlet,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper C2.

M. Toyama, H. Nishi, I. Kitano, “Gradient Index Objective for the Compact Disk,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Palermo, Italy (1985), paper F1.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, “Design of an Aplanatic GRIN Singlet for the Compact Disk System,” in Technical Digest International, Lens Design Conference (1985), paper TuB5.

Sakurai, K.

T. Kiriki, N. Izumiya, K. Sakurai, T. Kojima, “Plastic Aspheric Lens for the Compact Disc System,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1984), paper WB3.

Sharma, A.

Shimada, J.

Shimizu, H.

Shintani, K.

K. Shintani, S. Kubota, “Evaluation of a Diffraction-Limited Plastic Biaspheric Objective Lens,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washingon, DC, 1984), paper WB2.

Smid, A.

Toyama, M.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, “Design of an Aplanatic GRIN Singlet for the Compact Disk System,” in Technical Digest International, Lens Design Conference (1985), paper TuB5.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, H. Ueno, “Plano–Convex Gradient-Index Singlet,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper C2.

M. Toyama, H. Nishi, I. Kitano, “Gradient Index Objective for the Compact Disk,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Palermo, Italy (1985), paper F1.

Ueno, H.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, H. Ueno, “Plano–Convex Gradient-Index Singlet,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper C2.

K. Fujii, H. Ueno, T. Yamagishi, “New Gradient-Index Rod Lenses with Low Aberration,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper E4.

Vozenilek, E. F.

Wignakker, M. M. B.

Yamagishi, T.

K. Fujii, H. Ueno, T. Yamagishi, “New Gradient-Index Rod Lenses with Low Aberration,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper E4.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, H. Ueno, “Plano–Convex Gradient-Index Singlet,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper C2.

Appl. Opt.

Micro Opt. News

Y. Aono, “Optical Design of Pick-Up Objectives with Gradient Index Elements,” Micro Opt. News 1, 126 (1984).

Other

M. Toyama, H. Nishi, I. Kitano, “Gradient Index Objective for the Compact Disk,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Palermo, Italy (1985), paper F1.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, “Design of an Aplanatic GRIN Singlet for the Compact Disk System,” in Technical Digest International, Lens Design Conference (1985), paper TuB5.

K. Shintani, S. Kubota, “Evaluation of a Diffraction-Limited Plastic Biaspheric Objective Lens,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washingon, DC, 1984), paper WB2.

T. Kiriki, N. Izumiya, K. Sakurai, T. Kojima, “Plastic Aspheric Lens for the Compact Disc System,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1984), paper WB3.

K. Fujii, H. Ueno, T. Yamagishi, “New Gradient-Index Rod Lenses with Low Aberration,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper E4.

H. Nishi, M. Toyama, T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, H. Ueno, “Plano–Convex Gradient-Index Singlet,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, Kobe, Japan (1983), paper C2.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plano–convex radial GI lens for the CD system (type B).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plano–plano radial GI lens for the CD system (type A).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Type A lens: (a) longitudinal spherical aberration and (b), (c) ray intercept vs normalized entrance pupil coordinate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Type B lens: (a) longitudinal spherical aberration and (b), (c) ray intercept vs normalized entrance pupil coordinate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavefront error: (a) type A lens: (b) type B lens; and (c) homogeneous triplet.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tolerance of surface tilt. Solid curve shows before recentering, and dashed curve shows after recentering.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavefront interferograms by Fizeau interferometry.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between calculated and measured values of wavefront error.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Point image and its intensity profile at λ = 633 nm: (a) point image and (b) normalized intensity profile.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Optimized Design of Type B Lensa

Tables Icon

Table II Zernike Coefficients of Plano–Convex Radial GI Singlet (Type B) at GIH = 0.1 mma

Tables Icon

Table III Tolerance of Refractive-Index Coefficients Expressed by the Index Change at the Peripherya

Tables Icon

Table IV Specifications of Piano–Convex Radial GI Singlet (Type B)

Equations (2)

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d d S [ n ( r ) d r d S ] = n ( r ) ,
n 2 ( r ) = n 0 2 [ 1 - ( g r ) 2 + h 4 ( g r ) 4 + h 6 ( g r ) 6 + ] ,

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