Abstract

Plano–convex gradient-index lens coupling a laser diode to single-mode fiber was designed and fabricated by the ion exchange technique. A low coupling loss (2 dB) was achieved.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High N.A.,” Appl. Opt. 22, 400 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Sharma, D. V. Kumar, A. K. Ghatak, “Tracing Rays through Graded-Index Media: a New Method,” Appl. Opt. 21, 984 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Kitano, M. Toyama, H. Nishi, “Spherical Aberration of Gradient-Index Rod Lenses,” Appl. Opt. 22, 396 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Finite conjugate for coupling LD to SMF by a plano–convex gradient-index lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow chart of lens design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimum radius of curvature R and h4 as a function of LD to lens distance L1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimum higher-order distribution coefficients of index gradient as a function of LD to lens distance L1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Tolerance region for testing the gradient-index profile of specimens with flat end surfaces at infinite conjugate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LSA (solid curve) and OSC (dotted curve) of a plano–convex GI lens (3M-18-3).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Wavefront aberration measured on-axis; (b) wavefront aberration measured at image height of 200 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Coupling loss between LD and SMF through a plano–convex GI lens as a function of the lens position.

Equations (6)

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n 2 ( r ) = n 0 2 [ 1 - ( g r ) 2 + h 4 ( g r ) 4 + h 6 ( g r ) 6 + h 8 ( g r ) 8 ] ,
N ( r ) = N 00 + N 10 r 2 + N 20 r 4 + N 30 r 6 + N 40 r 8 + .
N 00 = n 0 , N 10 = - n 0 2 g 2 , N 20 = n 0 2 ( h 4 - 1 4 ) g 4 , N 30 = n 0 2 ( h 6 + h 4 2 - 1 8 ) g 6 , N 40 = n 0 2 [ h 8 + h 6 2 + h 4 8 ( 3 - 2 h 4 ) - 5 64 ] g 8 . ]
1 M = cos ( g Z 0 ) - L 1 [ ( n 0 - 1 ) R cos ( g Z 0 ) + n 0 g sin ( g Z 0 ) ] ,
L 2 = - M { L 1 [ cos ( g Z 0 ) - ( n 0 - 1 ) n 0 g R sin ( g Z 0 ) ] + 1 n 0 g sin ( g Z 0 ) } ,
1 f = ( n 0 - 1 ) R cos ( g Z 0 ) + n 0 g sin ( g Z 0 ) .

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