Abstract

The photorefractive effect in BSO has been used to examine deep trapping levels. Observations of the decay dynamics of laser-induced phase gratings are consistent with the assumption of multiple shallow and deep trapping levels. A close correlation between diffraction intensities during write and read modes has been observed. The possibility of multiple phase-shifted gratings is suggested by these results. Electron and hole trapping effects appear to be simultaneously present with the hole traps exhibiting a long decay time constant.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Use of Dynamic Theory to Describe Experimental Results from Volume Holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 190 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Peltier, F.Micheron Micheron, “Volume Hologram Recording and Charge Transfer Process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. L. Hou, R. B. Lauer, R. E. Aldrich, “Transport Processes of Photoinduced Carriers in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2652 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Gunter, “Holography, Coherent Light Amplification and Optical Phase Conjugation with Photorefractive Materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth,” “Optical Measurement of the Photorefractive Parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Ochoa, L. Hesselink, J. W. Goodman, “Real-Time Intensity Inversion Using Two-Wave and Four-Wave Mixing in Photorefractive Bi2SiO20,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1826 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth,” “Optical Measurement of the Photorefractive Parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

E. Ochoa, L. Hesselink, J. W. Goodman, “Real-Time Intensity Inversion Using Two-Wave and Four-Wave Mixing in Photorefractive Bi2SiO20,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1826 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

P. Gunter, “Holography, Coherent Light Amplification and Optical Phase Conjugation with Photorefractive Materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

M. Peltier, F.Micheron Micheron, “Volume Hologram Recording and Charge Transfer Process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Use of Dynamic Theory to Describe Experimental Results from Volume Holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 190 (1976).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

S. L. Hou, R. B. Lauer, R. E. Aldrich, “Transport Processes of Photoinduced Carriers in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2652 (1973).
[Crossref]

Aldrich, R. E.

S. L. Hou, R. B. Lauer, R. E. Aldrich, “Transport Processes of Photoinduced Carriers in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2652 (1973).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Use of Dynamic Theory to Describe Experimental Results from Volume Holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 190 (1976).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter, “Holography, Coherent Light Amplification and Optical Phase Conjugation with Photorefractive Materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth,” “Optical Measurement of the Photorefractive Parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hesselink, L.

Hou, S. L.

S. L. Hou, R. B. Lauer, R. E. Aldrich, “Transport Processes of Photoinduced Carriers in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2652 (1973).
[Crossref]

Lauer, R. B.

S. L. Hou, R. B. Lauer, R. E. Aldrich, “Transport Processes of Photoinduced Carriers in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2652 (1973).
[Crossref]

Magnusson, R.

R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Use of Dynamic Theory to Describe Experimental Results from Volume Holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 190 (1976).
[Crossref]

Micheron, F.Micheron

M. Peltier, F.Micheron Micheron, “Volume Hologram Recording and Charge Transfer Process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683 (1977).
[Crossref]

Mullen, R. A.

R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth,” “Optical Measurement of the Photorefractive Parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ochoa, E.

Peltier, M.

M. Peltier, F.Micheron Micheron, “Volume Hologram Recording and Charge Transfer Process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683 (1977).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

R. A. Mullen, R. W. Hellwarth,” “Optical Measurement of the Photorefractive Parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[Crossref]

R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Use of Dynamic Theory to Describe Experimental Results from Volume Holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 190 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Peltier, F.Micheron Micheron, “Volume Hologram Recording and Charge Transfer Process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683 (1977).
[Crossref]

S. L. Hou, R. B. Lauer, R. E. Aldrich, “Transport Processes of Photoinduced Carriers in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2652 (1973).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Gunter, “Holography, Coherent Light Amplification and Optical Phase Conjugation with Photorefractive Materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of the BSO crystal and the write and read beams for two-wave mixing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity or the diffracted beam (in arbitrary units) as a function of time during the read mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of the diffracted beam as a function of time. The write beams are both off. At A the write beams are turned on for a brief moment. Note that the long time decay after the second excitation is a continuation of the decay after the first excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Display and conditions are similar to those of Fig. 3, except that the initial period of excitation was considerably longer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity of the diffracted beam (He–Ne) is plotted as a function of time as in Fig. 3 and 4. At point A the read beam (He–Ne) is turned off, and the write beam (He–Cd) is turned on briefly. At point B the He–Ne laser read light is turned back on. At point C, the events at point A are repeated. At point D, the He–Ne laser read light is turned back on.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

He–Ne diffraction intensity just before the write beams are removed is displayed as a function of the He–Ne diffraction just after removal of the write beams. The latter was obtained by backward projection from the longtime decay curve and thus represents the deep trapping levels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity of the diffracted beam as a function of the applied electric field is displayed here for several grating spacings.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffraction intensity is shown here as recorded on a strip chart in conditions where the diffraction intensity during the read mode is 3 times that during the write mode. The chart recording was started at point A. At points B,F,J the write light is removed. At points D,H the write light is restored. We note the diffraction intensity becomes vanishing small at points C,E,G,I,K which correspond to reversal of the internal field.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absolute magnitude of the relative charge density as calculated in Appendix A is displayed as a function of time for an exposure of 500 s (compare with Figs. 2 and 8).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Term (A + BC) is displayed against C as calculated for several exposure times. These terms represent the net charge density just before and the hole charge density just after removal of the write beams (compare with Fig. 6).

Equations (8)

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d N / d t = - λ N + G ,
N ( t ) = A exp ( - λ t ) + [ G / λ ] [ 1 - exp ( - λ t ) ] .
N ( t ) = N 1 ( t ) + N 2 ( t ) - N 3 ( t ) , N 1 ( t ) = A exp ( λ 1 t ) + ( G 1 / λ 1 ) [ 1 - exp ( λ 1 t ) ] , N 2 ( t ) = B exp ( λ 2 t ) + ( G 2 / λ 2 ) [ 1 - exp ( λ 2 t ) ] , N 3 ( t ) = C exp ( λ 3 t ) + ( G 3 / λ 3 ) [ 1 - exp ( λ 3 t ) ] ,
A = A 1 exp ( i k 1 * r ) a 1 + A 2 exp ( i k 2 * r ) a 2 .
I = AA * = I 0 ( 1 + m cos K * r ) ,
a 1 * a 2 = 1.
a 1 * a 2 = cos 2 θ .
a 1 * a 2 = 0.

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