Abstract

Ultraviolet-sensitive photodiodes have been made using the Schottky barrier formed in the contact layer between a thin sputtered layer of ZnO and Au. The sputtering parameters for the ZnO layer were optimized. The IV characteristics and the sensitivity spectra of the ZnO–Au photodiodes were investigated.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Larson, D. K. Winslow, L. T. Zitelli, “RF Diode Sputtered ZnO Transducers,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-23, 18 (1976).
  2. H. W. Lehmann, R. Widner, “Prefered Orientation in RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.Suppl. 2, 741 (1974).
  3. C. Rossington, A. G. Evans, “Measurements of Adherence of Residually Stressed Films by Indentation. II: Experiments with ZnO/Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2639 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Raimondi, E. Kay, “High Resistivity Transparent ZnO Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 96 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Properties of Transparent, Conducting ZnO Films Deposited by Reactive Bias Sputtering,” Solid State Commun. 54, 603 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Epitaxial Thin Films of ZnO on CdS and Sapphire,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 115 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. T. Khuri-Yakub, G. Kino, P. Galle, “Studies of the Optimum Conditions for Growth of RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3266 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. S. Hickernell, “ZnO Thin Film Surface Wave Transducers,” Proc. IEEE 64, 631 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. L. Pardis, A. J. Shuskus, “RF Sputtered Epitaxial ZnO Films on Sapphire for Integrated Optics,” Thin Solid Films 38, 131 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. C. Wulf, P. Eriksen, “Choosing the Proper Filter/Detector Combination for the Measurements of UVA and UVB Radiation from Various Light Sources,” Photodermatology 2, 264 (1985)
    [PubMed]
  11. G. Heiland, E. Mollwo, F. Stockman, “Electronic Processes in ZnO,” Solid State Phys. 8, 193 (1959); F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1959).
  12. G. Mandel, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Selfcompensation-Limited Conductivity in Binary Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 826 (1964).
  13. H. van Hove, A. Luyckx, “Photoconductivity Decay of ZnO Crystals in Oxygen,” Solid State Commun. 4, 603 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Eger, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, “Oxygen Chemisorption and Photodesorption Processes on ZnO Surfaces,” RCA Rev. 36, 508 (1975).
  15. O. Christensen, O. H. Olsen, N. E. Holm, J. Sorensen, “RF Diode Sputtering in Permanent Match Mode,” Thin Solid Films 100, 181 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. A. Mead, “Surface Barriers on ZnSe and ZnO,” Phys. Lett. 18, 218 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (2)

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Properties of Transparent, Conducting ZnO Films Deposited by Reactive Bias Sputtering,” Solid State Commun. 54, 603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wulf, P. Eriksen, “Choosing the Proper Filter/Detector Combination for the Measurements of UVA and UVB Radiation from Various Light Sources,” Photodermatology 2, 264 (1985)
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

C. Rossington, A. G. Evans, “Measurements of Adherence of Residually Stressed Films by Indentation. II: Experiments with ZnO/Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

O. Christensen, O. H. Olsen, N. E. Holm, J. Sorensen, “RF Diode Sputtering in Permanent Match Mode,” Thin Solid Films 100, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

J. D. Larson, D. K. Winslow, L. T. Zitelli, “RF Diode Sputtered ZnO Transducers,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-23, 18 (1976).

F. S. Hickernell, “ZnO Thin Film Surface Wave Transducers,” Proc. IEEE 64, 631 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Pardis, A. J. Shuskus, “RF Sputtered Epitaxial ZnO Films on Sapphire for Integrated Optics,” Thin Solid Films 38, 131 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

D. Eger, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, “Oxygen Chemisorption and Photodesorption Processes on ZnO Surfaces,” RCA Rev. 36, 508 (1975).

B. T. Khuri-Yakub, G. Kino, P. Galle, “Studies of the Optimum Conditions for Growth of RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

H. W. Lehmann, R. Widner, “Prefered Orientation in RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.Suppl. 2, 741 (1974).

1969 (2)

D. L. Raimondi, E. Kay, “High Resistivity Transparent ZnO Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 96 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Epitaxial Thin Films of ZnO on CdS and Sapphire,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 115 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

H. van Hove, A. Luyckx, “Photoconductivity Decay of ZnO Crystals in Oxygen,” Solid State Commun. 4, 603 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

C. A. Mead, “Surface Barriers on ZnSe and ZnO,” Phys. Lett. 18, 218 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

G. Mandel, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Selfcompensation-Limited Conductivity in Binary Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 826 (1964).

1959 (1)

G. Heiland, E. Mollwo, F. Stockman, “Electronic Processes in ZnO,” Solid State Phys. 8, 193 (1959); F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1959).

Brett, M. J.

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Properties of Transparent, Conducting ZnO Films Deposited by Reactive Bias Sputtering,” Solid State Commun. 54, 603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, O.

O. Christensen, O. H. Olsen, N. E. Holm, J. Sorensen, “RF Diode Sputtering in Permanent Match Mode,” Thin Solid Films 100, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eger, D.

D. Eger, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, “Oxygen Chemisorption and Photodesorption Processes on ZnO Surfaces,” RCA Rev. 36, 508 (1975).

Eriksen, P.

H. C. Wulf, P. Eriksen, “Choosing the Proper Filter/Detector Combination for the Measurements of UVA and UVB Radiation from Various Light Sources,” Photodermatology 2, 264 (1985)
[PubMed]

Evans, A. G.

C. Rossington, A. G. Evans, “Measurements of Adherence of Residually Stressed Films by Indentation. II: Experiments with ZnO/Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Galle, P.

B. T. Khuri-Yakub, G. Kino, P. Galle, “Studies of the Optimum Conditions for Growth of RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, Y.

D. Eger, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, “Oxygen Chemisorption and Photodesorption Processes on ZnO Surfaces,” RCA Rev. 36, 508 (1975).

Heiland, G.

G. Heiland, E. Mollwo, F. Stockman, “Electronic Processes in ZnO,” Solid State Phys. 8, 193 (1959); F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1959).

Hickernell, F. S.

F. S. Hickernell, “ZnO Thin Film Surface Wave Transducers,” Proc. IEEE 64, 631 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Holm, N. E.

O. Christensen, O. H. Olsen, N. E. Holm, J. Sorensen, “RF Diode Sputtering in Permanent Match Mode,” Thin Solid Films 100, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kay, E.

D. L. Raimondi, E. Kay, “High Resistivity Transparent ZnO Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 96 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

B. T. Khuri-Yakub, G. Kino, P. Galle, “Studies of the Optimum Conditions for Growth of RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

B. T. Khuri-Yakub, G. Kino, P. Galle, “Studies of the Optimum Conditions for Growth of RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Larson, J. D.

J. D. Larson, D. K. Winslow, L. T. Zitelli, “RF Diode Sputtered ZnO Transducers,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-23, 18 (1976).

Lehmann, H. W.

H. W. Lehmann, R. Widner, “Prefered Orientation in RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.Suppl. 2, 741 (1974).

Luyckx, A.

H. van Hove, A. Luyckx, “Photoconductivity Decay of ZnO Crystals in Oxygen,” Solid State Commun. 4, 603 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, G.

G. Mandel, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Selfcompensation-Limited Conductivity in Binary Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 826 (1964).

Many, A.

D. Eger, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, “Oxygen Chemisorption and Photodesorption Processes on ZnO Surfaces,” RCA Rev. 36, 508 (1975).

Mead, C. A.

C. A. Mead, “Surface Barriers on ZnSe and ZnO,” Phys. Lett. 18, 218 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mollwo, E.

G. Heiland, E. Mollwo, F. Stockman, “Electronic Processes in ZnO,” Solid State Phys. 8, 193 (1959); F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1959).

Morehead, F. F.

G. Mandel, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Selfcompensation-Limited Conductivity in Binary Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 826 (1964).

Olsen, O. H.

O. Christensen, O. H. Olsen, N. E. Holm, J. Sorensen, “RF Diode Sputtering in Permanent Match Mode,” Thin Solid Films 100, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pardis, E. L.

E. L. Pardis, A. J. Shuskus, “RF Sputtered Epitaxial ZnO Films on Sapphire for Integrated Optics,” Thin Solid Films 38, 131 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, R. R.

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Properties of Transparent, Conducting ZnO Films Deposited by Reactive Bias Sputtering,” Solid State Commun. 54, 603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Polito, W. J.

G. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Epitaxial Thin Films of ZnO on CdS and Sapphire,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 115 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Raimondi, D. L.

D. L. Raimondi, E. Kay, “High Resistivity Transparent ZnO Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 96 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rossington, C.

C. Rossington, A. G. Evans, “Measurements of Adherence of Residually Stressed Films by Indentation. II: Experiments with ZnO/Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rozgonyi, G.

G. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Epitaxial Thin Films of ZnO on CdS and Sapphire,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 115 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Shuskus, A. J.

E. L. Pardis, A. J. Shuskus, “RF Sputtered Epitaxial ZnO Films on Sapphire for Integrated Optics,” Thin Solid Films 38, 131 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, J.

O. Christensen, O. H. Olsen, N. E. Holm, J. Sorensen, “RF Diode Sputtering in Permanent Match Mode,” Thin Solid Films 100, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, F.

G. Heiland, E. Mollwo, F. Stockman, “Electronic Processes in ZnO,” Solid State Phys. 8, 193 (1959); F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1959).

van Hove, H.

H. van Hove, A. Luyckx, “Photoconductivity Decay of ZnO Crystals in Oxygen,” Solid State Commun. 4, 603 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, P. R.

G. Mandel, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Selfcompensation-Limited Conductivity in Binary Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 826 (1964).

Widner, R.

H. W. Lehmann, R. Widner, “Prefered Orientation in RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.Suppl. 2, 741 (1974).

Winslow, D. K.

J. D. Larson, D. K. Winslow, L. T. Zitelli, “RF Diode Sputtered ZnO Transducers,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-23, 18 (1976).

Wulf, H. C.

H. C. Wulf, P. Eriksen, “Choosing the Proper Filter/Detector Combination for the Measurements of UVA and UVB Radiation from Various Light Sources,” Photodermatology 2, 264 (1985)
[PubMed]

Zitelli, L. T.

J. D. Larson, D. K. Winslow, L. T. Zitelli, “RF Diode Sputtered ZnO Transducers,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-23, 18 (1976).

IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. (1)

J. D. Larson, D. K. Winslow, L. T. Zitelli, “RF Diode Sputtered ZnO Transducers,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-23, 18 (1976).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Rossington, A. G. Evans, “Measurements of Adherence of Residually Stressed Films by Indentation. II: Experiments with ZnO/Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Khuri-Yakub, G. Kino, P. Galle, “Studies of the Optimum Conditions for Growth of RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. L. Raimondi, E. Kay, “High Resistivity Transparent ZnO Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 96 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Rozgonyi, W. J. Polito, “Epitaxial Thin Films of ZnO on CdS and Sapphire,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 115 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. W. Lehmann, R. Widner, “Prefered Orientation in RF Sputtered ZnO Films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.Suppl. 2, 741 (1974).

Photodermatology (1)

H. C. Wulf, P. Eriksen, “Choosing the Proper Filter/Detector Combination for the Measurements of UVA and UVB Radiation from Various Light Sources,” Photodermatology 2, 264 (1985)
[PubMed]

Phys. Lett. (1)

C. A. Mead, “Surface Barriers on ZnSe and ZnO,” Phys. Lett. 18, 218 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Mandel, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Selfcompensation-Limited Conductivity in Binary Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 826 (1964).

Proc. IEEE (1)

F. S. Hickernell, “ZnO Thin Film Surface Wave Transducers,” Proc. IEEE 64, 631 (1976).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

D. Eger, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, “Oxygen Chemisorption and Photodesorption Processes on ZnO Surfaces,” RCA Rev. 36, 508 (1975).

Solid State Commun. (2)

H. van Hove, A. Luyckx, “Photoconductivity Decay of ZnO Crystals in Oxygen,” Solid State Commun. 4, 603 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Properties of Transparent, Conducting ZnO Films Deposited by Reactive Bias Sputtering,” Solid State Commun. 54, 603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Phys. (1)

G. Heiland, E. Mollwo, F. Stockman, “Electronic Processes in ZnO,” Solid State Phys. 8, 193 (1959); F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1959).

Thin Solid Films (2)

E. L. Pardis, A. J. Shuskus, “RF Sputtered Epitaxial ZnO Films on Sapphire for Integrated Optics,” Thin Solid Films 38, 131 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. Christensen, O. H. Olsen, N. E. Holm, J. Sorensen, “RF Diode Sputtering in Permanent Match Mode,” Thin Solid Films 100, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical transmission spectrum of a sputtered ZnO layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface of ZnO layer magnified ~15,000 times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Design of photodiode; (b) ohmic contact layer on glass substrate; (c) complete photodiode. ZnO layer is dotted while the contact materials are hatched. Wires can be connected to the points C1 and C2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical IV characteristic of a ZnO–Au photodiode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

IV characteristics for three diodes after corrections for series and leakage resistances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensitivity spectrum of ZnO–Au photodiode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sensitivity spectrum of ZnO–Au photodiode in a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical pulse response of ZnO–Au photodiode illuminated with 7-ns UV pulses from a nitrogen laser. Time scale: 10 μs/div.

Equations (1)

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I = I 0 [ exp ( eV / n k T ) - 1 ] ,

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