Abstract

A solar selective coating has been fabricated by capping black zinc oxide with a transparent zinc oxide heat mirror film. Deposition onto glass substrates was accomplished by reactive bias sputtering. The zinc oxide multilayer structure had a solar absorptance of 0.90 and an IR emittance of 0.26. Suggestions are made for significant improvement of solar selective performance.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. van der Leij, “The Possibility of Black Zinc Oxide as a Spectrally Selective Coating for Low Temperature Solar Collectors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1361 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. N. Patel, O. T. Inal, “Optimization and Microstructural Analysis of Black Zinc Coated Aluminum Solar Collectors,” Thin Solid Films 113, 47 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Stoichiometry Control Mechanisms for Bias Sputtered Zinc Oxide Thin Films,” Can. J. Phys. 63, 819 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Optical Properties of Nonstoichiometric Zinc Oxide Films Deposited by Bias Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.A4, in press (1986).
  5. A. B. Meinel, M. P. Meinel, Applied Solar Energy (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1976), p. 291.
  6. R. B. Goldner, H. M. Haskal, “Indium Tin Oxide Coated Silicon as a Selective Absorber,” App. Opt. 14, 2328 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. T. Inal, J. C. Mabon, C. V. Robino, “Thermal Degradation of Solar Collector Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 83, 399 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, “High Quality Transparent Heat Reflectors of Reactively Evaporated Indium Tin Oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Bendow, H. G. Lipson, S. S. Mitra, “Multiphonon Infrared Absorption in Highly Transparent MgF2,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1747 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Major, A. Banerjee, K. L. Chopra, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Zinc Oxide Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 125, 179 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Nanto, T. Minami, S. Shooji, S. Takata, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by rf Magnetron Sputtering for Transparent Electrode Applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1029 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1985

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Stoichiometry Control Mechanisms for Bias Sputtered Zinc Oxide Thin Films,” Can. J. Phys. 63, 819 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Major, A. Banerjee, K. L. Chopra, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Zinc Oxide Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 125, 179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

H. Nanto, T. Minami, S. Shooji, S. Takata, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by rf Magnetron Sputtering for Transparent Electrode Applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1029 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Patel, O. T. Inal, “Optimization and Microstructural Analysis of Black Zinc Coated Aluminum Solar Collectors,” Thin Solid Films 113, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, “High Quality Transparent Heat Reflectors of Reactively Evaporated Indium Tin Oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

O. T. Inal, J. C. Mabon, C. V. Robino, “Thermal Degradation of Solar Collector Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 83, 399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

B. Bendow, H. G. Lipson, S. S. Mitra, “Multiphonon Infrared Absorption in Highly Transparent MgF2,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1747 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

M. van der Leij, “The Possibility of Black Zinc Oxide as a Spectrally Selective Coating for Low Temperature Solar Collectors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1361 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. B. Goldner, H. M. Haskal, “Indium Tin Oxide Coated Silicon as a Selective Absorber,” App. Opt. 14, 2328 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

S. Major, A. Banerjee, K. L. Chopra, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Zinc Oxide Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 125, 179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bendow, B.

B. Bendow, H. G. Lipson, S. S. Mitra, “Multiphonon Infrared Absorption in Highly Transparent MgF2,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1747 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Stoichiometry Control Mechanisms for Bias Sputtered Zinc Oxide Thin Films,” Can. J. Phys. 63, 819 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Optical Properties of Nonstoichiometric Zinc Oxide Films Deposited by Bias Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.A4, in press (1986).

Chopra, K. L.

S. Major, A. Banerjee, K. L. Chopra, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Zinc Oxide Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 125, 179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, R. B.

R. B. Goldner, H. M. Haskal, “Indium Tin Oxide Coated Silicon as a Selective Absorber,” App. Opt. 14, 2328 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, “High Quality Transparent Heat Reflectors of Reactively Evaporated Indium Tin Oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, “High Quality Transparent Heat Reflectors of Reactively Evaporated Indium Tin Oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Haskal, H. M.

R. B. Goldner, H. M. Haskal, “Indium Tin Oxide Coated Silicon as a Selective Absorber,” App. Opt. 14, 2328 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hjortsberg, A.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, “High Quality Transparent Heat Reflectors of Reactively Evaporated Indium Tin Oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Inal, O. T.

S. N. Patel, O. T. Inal, “Optimization and Microstructural Analysis of Black Zinc Coated Aluminum Solar Collectors,” Thin Solid Films 113, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O. T. Inal, J. C. Mabon, C. V. Robino, “Thermal Degradation of Solar Collector Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 83, 399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, H. G.

B. Bendow, H. G. Lipson, S. S. Mitra, “Multiphonon Infrared Absorption in Highly Transparent MgF2,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1747 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mabon, J. C.

O. T. Inal, J. C. Mabon, C. V. Robino, “Thermal Degradation of Solar Collector Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 83, 399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Major, S.

S. Major, A. Banerjee, K. L. Chopra, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Zinc Oxide Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 125, 179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, A. B.

A. B. Meinel, M. P. Meinel, Applied Solar Energy (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1976), p. 291.

Meinel, M. P.

A. B. Meinel, M. P. Meinel, Applied Solar Energy (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1976), p. 291.

Minami, T.

H. Nanto, T. Minami, S. Shooji, S. Takata, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by rf Magnetron Sputtering for Transparent Electrode Applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1029 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S. S.

B. Bendow, H. G. Lipson, S. S. Mitra, “Multiphonon Infrared Absorption in Highly Transparent MgF2,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1747 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nanto, H.

H. Nanto, T. Minami, S. Shooji, S. Takata, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by rf Magnetron Sputtering for Transparent Electrode Applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1029 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, R. R.

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Stoichiometry Control Mechanisms for Bias Sputtered Zinc Oxide Thin Films,” Can. J. Phys. 63, 819 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Optical Properties of Nonstoichiometric Zinc Oxide Films Deposited by Bias Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.A4, in press (1986).

Patel, S. N.

S. N. Patel, O. T. Inal, “Optimization and Microstructural Analysis of Black Zinc Coated Aluminum Solar Collectors,” Thin Solid Films 113, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Robino, C. V.

O. T. Inal, J. C. Mabon, C. V. Robino, “Thermal Degradation of Solar Collector Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 83, 399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shooji, S.

H. Nanto, T. Minami, S. Shooji, S. Takata, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by rf Magnetron Sputtering for Transparent Electrode Applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1029 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Takata, S.

H. Nanto, T. Minami, S. Shooji, S. Takata, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by rf Magnetron Sputtering for Transparent Electrode Applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1029 (1984).
[CrossRef]

van der Leij, M.

M. van der Leij, “The Possibility of Black Zinc Oxide as a Spectrally Selective Coating for Low Temperature Solar Collectors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1361 (1978).
[CrossRef]

App. Opt.

R. B. Goldner, H. M. Haskal, “Indium Tin Oxide Coated Silicon as a Selective Absorber,” App. Opt. 14, 2328 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, C. G. Granqvist, “High Quality Transparent Heat Reflectors of Reactively Evaporated Indium Tin Oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Stoichiometry Control Mechanisms for Bias Sputtered Zinc Oxide Thin Films,” Can. J. Phys. 63, 819 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Nanto, T. Minami, S. Shooji, S. Takata, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by rf Magnetron Sputtering for Transparent Electrode Applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1029 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

M. van der Leij, “The Possibility of Black Zinc Oxide as a Spectrally Selective Coating for Low Temperature Solar Collectors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1361 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

B. Bendow, H. G. Lipson, S. S. Mitra, “Multiphonon Infrared Absorption in Highly Transparent MgF2,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 1747 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S. Major, A. Banerjee, K. L. Chopra, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Zinc Oxide Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 125, 179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O. T. Inal, J. C. Mabon, C. V. Robino, “Thermal Degradation of Solar Collector Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 83, 399 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Patel, O. T. Inal, “Optimization and Microstructural Analysis of Black Zinc Coated Aluminum Solar Collectors,” Thin Solid Films 113, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. J. Brett, R. R. Parsons, “Optical Properties of Nonstoichiometric Zinc Oxide Films Deposited by Bias Sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.A4, in press (1986).

A. B. Meinel, M. P. Meinel, Applied Solar Energy (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1976), p. 291.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the zinc oxide inverse tandem stack solar collector coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices n and extinction coefficients k of individual black zinc oxide and zinc oxide heat mirror films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivities of a zinc oxide heat mirror film and the zinc oxide inverse tandem stack.

Metrics