Abstract

A narrow bandpass filter consisting of nineteen alternate layers of TiO2 and SiO2 was fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering without thickness monitoring. Analysis of the measured transmittance spectrum suggests that energy loss exists at interlayer boundaries. A digital thin film consisting of 182 alternate layers showed additional absorption in the visible to near-infrared range. The additional absorption disturbs fabrication of flip-flop digital thin films by rf sputtering, and it might be a cause of the laser-induced damage in optical coatings which has been a problem for a long time.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, “Laser-Induced Damage: an Introduction,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3741 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. W. H. Southwell, “Coating Design Using Very Thin High- and Low-Index Layers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 457 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Deitch, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, J. F. Weller, “Sputtered Thin Films for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Opt. 13, 712 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–29.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the rf magnetron sputtering apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectrum of a nineteen-layer narrow bandpass filter with 2H cavity. The dotted line shows the measured spectrum. The solid line shows the best-fit curve calculated using the parameters listed in Table I(a), row A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Digital thin film used to calculate the effect of transition layers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated n using the best-fit parameters listed in Table I.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated k using the best-fit parameters listed in Table I.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance and reflectance of a single TiO2 film. The dotted lines show the measured values. The solid lines show the best-fit curves calculated with the parameters listed in Table I(b), row D.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmittance spectrum of a digital thin film consisting of 182 alternate layers of TiO2 and SiO2. The dotted line shows the measured spectrum. The solid line shows the calculated curve using the parameters listed in Table I(b), row E.

Tables (1)

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Table I Best-Fit Values of Parameters

Equations (8)

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k = exp ( U 1 + U 2 λ ) , n 2 - 1 = U 3 λ 2 / ( λ 2 - U 4 2 ) + U 5 ,
n 2 - 1 = U 6 λ 2 / ( λ 2 - U 7 2 ) + f ( λ ) , f ( λ ) = 0.696 λ 2 / ( λ 2 - 68.4 2 ) + 0.897 λ 2 / ( λ 2 - 9896 2 ) ,
d H = [ λ 0 / 4 n H ( λ 0 ) ] · ( 1 + γ ) - δ , d L = [ λ 0 / 4 n L ( λ 0 ) ] · ( 1 - γ ) - δ ;
M i j = 1 t i j | 1 r i j - r j i G |             ( G = t i j t j i - r i j r j i ) , M j = | exp ( i ϕ j ) 0 0 exp ( - i ϕ j ) | .
| P 1 P 3 P 2 P 4 | = M 12 · M 2 · M 23 M ( m - 1 ) m ,
r = P 2 / P 1 ,             t = 1 / P 1 .
r i j = r i j exp [ - ( 2 k 0 n i σ i j ) 2 / 2 ] , t i j = t i j exp { - [ k 0 ( n i - n j ) σ i j ] 2 / 2 } ,
k = exp ( U 1 + U 2 λ ) + U 8 λ exp [ - λ 1 2 λ - 1 - λ 2 - 1 ) 2 ]

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