Abstract

The characteristics of lens systems for coupling InGaAsP laser diodes to single-mode (SM) fibers are studied. Two groups of lens systems are investigated. One group employs a combination of lenses and a SM fiber in a conventional configuration. The other group utilizes a combination of lenses and a virtual fiber, where the virtual fiber is formed by attaching a GRIN rod lens to the input endface of the SM fiber. The maximum coupling efficiency and misalignment tolerances for the optical circuit components in these lens systems are compared from the viewpoint of fabricating laser diode modules. It is confirmed that lens systems using virtual fibers offer better coupling characteristics than does the conventional coupling method.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, “Microlenses for Coupling Junction Lasers to Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 89 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Monomode Fibre with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fibre End,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt 19, 2578 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Design of a Miniature Lens for Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, QE-16, 1059 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TULL.
  7. G. Eisenstein, D. Vitello, “Chemically Etched Conical Microlenses for Coupling Single-Mode Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3470 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Saruwatari, K. Nawata, “Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1847 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J-I. Minowa, M. Saruwatari, N. Suzuki, “Optical Componentry Utilized in Field Trial of Single-Mode Fiber Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 705 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jp. J65-B, 374 (1982), in Japanese.
  15. K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fibre,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” in Proceedings, IEEE CHMT Symposium, Tokyo (1984), p. 198.
  18. H. Kogelnik, “Coupling and Conversion Coefficients for Optical Modes,” in Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series, Vol. 14, J. Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1964), p. 333.

1985 (2)

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fibre,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

G. Eisenstein, D. Vitello, “Chemically Etched Conical Microlenses for Coupling Single-Mode Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3470 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J-I. Minowa, M. Saruwatari, N. Suzuki, “Optical Componentry Utilized in Field Trial of Single-Mode Fiber Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 705 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jp. J65-B, 374 (1982), in Japanese.

1981 (1)

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt 19, 2578 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Design of a Miniature Lens for Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, “Microlenses for Coupling Junction Lasers to Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 89 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Monomode Fibre with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fibre End,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

de Vrieze, H. M.

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fibre,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” in Proceedings, IEEE CHMT Symposium, Tokyo (1984), p. 198.

Khoe, G. D.

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Design of a Miniature Lens for Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupling and Conversion Coefficients for Optical Modes,” in Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series, Vol. 14, J. Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1964), p. 333.

Kuwahara, H.

H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt 19, 2578 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minowa, J-I.

J-I. Minowa, M. Saruwatari, N. Suzuki, “Optical Componentry Utilized in Field Trial of Single-Mode Fiber Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 705 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, O.

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fibre,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” in Proceedings, IEEE CHMT Symposium, Tokyo (1984), p. 198.

Murakami, Y.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nawata, K.

Nozawa, T.

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” in Proceedings, IEEE CHMT Symposium, Tokyo (1984), p. 198.

Odagiri, Y.

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Poulissen, J.

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, H.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TULL.

Sakai, J.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Design of a Miniature Lens for Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fibre,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, O. Mitomi, M. Saruwatari, “Combination Lens Method for Coupling a Laser Diode to a Single-Mode Fiber,” Appl. Opt. 24, 984 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jp. J65-B, 374 (1982), in Japanese.

J-I. Minowa, M. Saruwatari, N. Suzuki, “Optical Componentry Utilized in Field Trial of Single-Mode Fiber Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 705 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Saruwatari, K. Nawata, “Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1847 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, M.

H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt 19, 2578 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, M. V.

Seki, N.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TULL.

Shikada, M.

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, T.

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jp. J65-B, 374 (1982), in Japanese.

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

J-I. Minowa, M. Saruwatari, N. Suzuki, “Optical Componentry Utilized in Field Trial of Single-Mode Fiber Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 705 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tokoyo, N.

H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt 19, 2578 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitello, D.

Weidel, E.

E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Monomode Fibre with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fibre End,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, J.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TULL.

Appl. Opt (1)

H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokoyo, “Efficient Coupling from Semiconductor Lasers into Single-Mode Fibers with Tapered Hemispherical Ends,” Appl. Opt 19, 2578 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (3)

G. D. Khoe, J. Poulissen, H. M. de Vrieze, “Efficient Coupling of Laser Diodes to Tapered Monomode Fibers with High Index End,” Electron. Lett. 19, 205 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidel, “New Coupling Method for GaAs-Laser-Fiber Coupling,” Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Y. Odagiri, M. Shikada, K. Kobayashi, “High-Efficiency Laser-to-Fiber Coupling Circuit Using a Combination of a Cylindrical Lens and a Selfoc Lens,” Electron. Lett. 13, 395 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Design of a Miniature Lens for Semiconductor Laser to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, “Characteristics of a Hemispherical Microlens for Coupling Between a Semiconductor Laser and Single-Mode Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J-I. Minowa, M. Saruwatari, N. Suzuki, “Optical Componentry Utilized in Field Trial of Single-Mode Fiber Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 705 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, “Efficient Laser Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling Using a Combination of Two Lenses in Confocal Condition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1021 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, “A New Confocal Combination Lens Method for a Laser Diode Module Using a Single-Mode Fibre,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Weidel, “Light Coupling from a Junction Laser into a Monomode Fibre with a Glass Cylindrical Lens on the Fibre End,” Opt. Commun. 12, 93 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Trans. IECE Jp. (1)

T. Sugie, M. Saruwatari, “Semiconductor Laser Module for Single-Mode Fiber Transmission System Using a Combination of Confocal Two Lenses,” Trans. IECE Jp. J65-B, 374 (1982), in Japanese.

Other (3)

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single-Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid-Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), paper TULL.

O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, K. Kawano, “Effect of Solder Creeps on Optical Component Reliability,” in Proceedings, IEEE CHMT Symposium, Tokyo (1984), p. 198.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupling and Conversion Coefficients for Optical Modes,” in Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series, Vol. 14, J. Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1964), p. 333.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sectional view of five coupling methods investigated for laser diode modules; (a)–(e) correspond to methods A–E, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power from a laser diode and SM fiber pigtail as a function of laser diode drive current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of (a) lateral offset, (b) angular misalignment, (c) axial misalignment for SM fiber and virtual fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of lateral offset for the lens in method A and lens 1 in methods B–E. Positions of lens 2 or lens 2–1 and SM fiber or virtual fiber are adjusted in the lateral direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of axial misalignment for (a) lens in method A, (b) lens 1 in methods B, C, and E, and (c) lens 1 in method D. Positions of SM fiber or virtual fiber are adjusted in the axial direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of lateral offset for lens 2 in method B and lens 2–1 in method E. Positions of SM fiber or virtual fiber are adjusted in the later direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of axial offset for lens 2 in method B and lens 2–1 in method E. Positions of SM fiber and virtual fiber are adjusted in the axial direction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of lateral offset for the lens in method A and lens 1 in methods B–E. No adjustment has been made.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of lateral offset for lens 2 in method B and lens 2–1 in method E. No adjustment has been made.

Equations (4)

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η = exp ( - x 2 w 2 ) ,
η = exp ( - π 2 w r θ 2 λ 2 ) ,
η = 1 1 + ( λ z 2 π w 2 ) 2 ,
η = exp ( - π 2 w 2 λ 2 · x 2 f 2 ) ,

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