Abstract

Airborne measurements of atmospheric-path transmission and atmospheric-path (upwelled) radiance in the 8–14-μm band were obtained by applying a multiple altitude and a dual-view angle calibration technique to thermal IR line scanner data. A spectrally corrected lowtran code was used to generate path transmission and upwelled radiance values corresponding to the empirical measurements. Using lowtran and the multiple-altitude method, calibration of thermograms to account for atmospheric effects yields computed surface temperatures within 0.7°C of concurrent kinetic temperature readings. The angular calibration method results in similar computed surface temperature errors for 304.8-m (1000-ft) altitude data and increasing by 1.2°C/304.8-m up to a 1828.8-m (6000-ft) altitude. This paper contains results of a comparative analysis of these approaches for atmospheric calibration.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Pickett, “Environmental Corrections for an Airborne Radiation Thermometer,” in Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1966, pp. 259–262.
  2. D. Lorenz, “Temperature Measurements of Natural Surfaces Using Infrared Radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1705 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. M. Saunders, “Corrections for Airborne Radiation Thermometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 7596 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. L. Scarpace, T. Green, “Dynamic Surface Temperature of Thermal Plumes,” Water Resources Res. 9, 138 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Prabhakara et al., “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing in the 11–13 Micron Window Region,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 5039 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. M. McMillin, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperatures from Two Infrared Window Measurements with Different Absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5113 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Chedin et al., “A Single-Channel, Double-Viewing Angle Method for Sea Surface Temperature Determination from Coincident METEOSAT and TIROS-N Radiometric Measurement,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 613 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. Franklin, “Computer Processing of Airborne IR Scanner Data for Investigations into Physical and Thermal Characteristics of a Small Lake Basin,” M.A. Thesis, U. Waterloo, ON (1982), 275 pp.
    [PubMed]
  9. J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, “Comparison of Modelled and Empirical Atmospheric Propagation Data,” in Proceedings SPIE Twenty-seventh Annual International Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA (1983).
  10. I. D. Macleod, “An Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing Calibration Technique,” M.S. Thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY (1983).
  11. J. R. Schott, “Temperature Measurement of Cooling Water Discharged from Power Plants,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 753 (1979).
  12. P. M. Saunders, “Aerial Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature in the Infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4109 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. N. Slater, Remote Sensing—Optics and Optical Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1980, pp. 310–311.
  14. J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, I. Macleod, “A Comparison of Techniques for Radiometric Calibration of Aerial Infrared Thermal Images,” in Proceedings, Joint SPSE, ASP Conference on Techniques for Extraction of Information from Remotely Sensed Images, Rochester, NY (1983), pp. 53–58.
  15. J. R. Schott, “Target and Background Infrared Calculations for Tactical Space-Based Sensor Applications,” R.I.T.-PSI-82/83-51-3, prepared for Naval Research Laboratories, Washington, DC (1983), p. 85.
  16. F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: Computer Code: lowtran 5,” Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, MA, Report AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1980).
  17. R. A. McClatchey et al., “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” Hanscomb AFB, MA, Report AFGL-72-0497 (1972).
  18. T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Wiley, New York, 1979), p. 400.

1982 (1)

A. Chedin et al., “A Single-Channel, Double-Viewing Angle Method for Sea Surface Temperature Determination from Coincident METEOSAT and TIROS-N Radiometric Measurement,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 613 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. R. Schott, “Temperature Measurement of Cooling Water Discharged from Power Plants,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 753 (1979).

1975 (1)

L. M. McMillin, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperatures from Two Infrared Window Measurements with Different Absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5113 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

C. Prabhakara et al., “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing in the 11–13 Micron Window Region,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 5039 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

F. L. Scarpace, T. Green, “Dynamic Surface Temperature of Thermal Plumes,” Water Resources Res. 9, 138 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. M. Saunders, “Corrections for Airborne Radiation Thermometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 7596 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

P. M. Saunders, “Aerial Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature in the Infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4109 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Biegel, J. D.

J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, “Comparison of Modelled and Empirical Atmospheric Propagation Data,” in Proceedings SPIE Twenty-seventh Annual International Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA (1983).

J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, I. Macleod, “A Comparison of Techniques for Radiometric Calibration of Aerial Infrared Thermal Images,” in Proceedings, Joint SPSE, ASP Conference on Techniques for Extraction of Information from Remotely Sensed Images, Rochester, NY (1983), pp. 53–58.

Chedin, A.

A. Chedin et al., “A Single-Channel, Double-Viewing Angle Method for Sea Surface Temperature Determination from Coincident METEOSAT and TIROS-N Radiometric Measurement,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 613 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, S. E.

S. E. Franklin, “Computer Processing of Airborne IR Scanner Data for Investigations into Physical and Thermal Characteristics of a Small Lake Basin,” M.A. Thesis, U. Waterloo, ON (1982), 275 pp.
[PubMed]

Green, T.

F. L. Scarpace, T. Green, “Dynamic Surface Temperature of Thermal Plumes,” Water Resources Res. 9, 138 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, R. W.

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Wiley, New York, 1979), p. 400.

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: Computer Code: lowtran 5,” Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, MA, Report AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1980).

Lillesand, T. M.

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Wiley, New York, 1979), p. 400.

Lorenz, D.

Macleod, I.

J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, I. Macleod, “A Comparison of Techniques for Radiometric Calibration of Aerial Infrared Thermal Images,” in Proceedings, Joint SPSE, ASP Conference on Techniques for Extraction of Information from Remotely Sensed Images, Rochester, NY (1983), pp. 53–58.

Macleod, I. D.

I. D. Macleod, “An Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing Calibration Technique,” M.S. Thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY (1983).

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey et al., “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” Hanscomb AFB, MA, Report AFGL-72-0497 (1972).

McMillin, L. M.

L. M. McMillin, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperatures from Two Infrared Window Measurements with Different Absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5113 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, R. L.

R. L. Pickett, “Environmental Corrections for an Airborne Radiation Thermometer,” in Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1966, pp. 259–262.

Prabhakara, C.

C. Prabhakara et al., “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing in the 11–13 Micron Window Region,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 5039 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, P. M.

P. M. Saunders, “Corrections for Airborne Radiation Thermometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 7596 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Saunders, “Aerial Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature in the Infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4109 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Scarpace, F. L.

F. L. Scarpace, T. Green, “Dynamic Surface Temperature of Thermal Plumes,” Water Resources Res. 9, 138 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schott, J. R.

J. R. Schott, “Temperature Measurement of Cooling Water Discharged from Power Plants,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 753 (1979).

J. R. Schott, “Target and Background Infrared Calculations for Tactical Space-Based Sensor Applications,” R.I.T.-PSI-82/83-51-3, prepared for Naval Research Laboratories, Washington, DC (1983), p. 85.

J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, “Comparison of Modelled and Empirical Atmospheric Propagation Data,” in Proceedings SPIE Twenty-seventh Annual International Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA (1983).

J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, I. Macleod, “A Comparison of Techniques for Radiometric Calibration of Aerial Infrared Thermal Images,” in Proceedings, Joint SPSE, ASP Conference on Techniques for Extraction of Information from Remotely Sensed Images, Rochester, NY (1983), pp. 53–58.

Slater, P. N.

P. N. Slater, Remote Sensing—Optics and Optical Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1980, pp. 310–311.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

A. Chedin et al., “A Single-Channel, Double-Viewing Angle Method for Sea Surface Temperature Determination from Coincident METEOSAT and TIROS-N Radiometric Measurement,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 613 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

P. M. Saunders, “Corrections for Airborne Radiation Thermometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 7596 (1970).
[CrossRef]

C. Prabhakara et al., “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing in the 11–13 Micron Window Region,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 5039 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. M. McMillin, “Estimation of Sea Surface Temperatures from Two Infrared Window Measurements with Different Absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 5113 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Saunders, “Aerial Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature in the Infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4109 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing (1)

J. R. Schott, “Temperature Measurement of Cooling Water Discharged from Power Plants,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 753 (1979).

Water Resources Res. (1)

F. L. Scarpace, T. Green, “Dynamic Surface Temperature of Thermal Plumes,” Water Resources Res. 9, 138 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

S. E. Franklin, “Computer Processing of Airborne IR Scanner Data for Investigations into Physical and Thermal Characteristics of a Small Lake Basin,” M.A. Thesis, U. Waterloo, ON (1982), 275 pp.
[PubMed]

J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, “Comparison of Modelled and Empirical Atmospheric Propagation Data,” in Proceedings SPIE Twenty-seventh Annual International Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA (1983).

I. D. Macleod, “An Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing Calibration Technique,” M.S. Thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY (1983).

R. L. Pickett, “Environmental Corrections for an Airborne Radiation Thermometer,” in Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1966, pp. 259–262.

P. N. Slater, Remote Sensing—Optics and Optical Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1980, pp. 310–311.

J. R. Schott, J. D. Biegel, I. Macleod, “A Comparison of Techniques for Radiometric Calibration of Aerial Infrared Thermal Images,” in Proceedings, Joint SPSE, ASP Conference on Techniques for Extraction of Information from Remotely Sensed Images, Rochester, NY (1983), pp. 53–58.

J. R. Schott, “Target and Background Infrared Calculations for Tactical Space-Based Sensor Applications,” R.I.T.-PSI-82/83-51-3, prepared for Naval Research Laboratories, Washington, DC (1983), p. 85.

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: Computer Code: lowtran 5,” Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, MA, Report AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1980).

R. A. McClatchey et al., “Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” Hanscomb AFB, MA, Report AFGL-72-0497 (1972).

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (Wiley, New York, 1979), p. 400.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radiometry of airborne remote sensing of the earth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response function of the TIR linescanner with filter used to collect thermograms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration of thermograms for quantitative data extraction. The sensor alternately detects the target radiance L and the blackbody radiance Lbb. These radiances stimulate the sensor to output a proportional voltage V, which in turn drives a film writer. This device exposes the film with exposure E, and the film is subsequently developed to an image. The film density D can be correlated to the detected target radiance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile calibration. The radiance recorded by the TIR linescanner for each ground feature is plotted at each observed altitude and then extrapolated to ground altitude. This figure illustrates the altitude/radiance curves representative of nine different site conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Thermogram of thermal plume being discharged into Lake Ontario from the Russel Power Station via Little Pond. Site features are outlined for clarity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TIR linescanner was flown over the experiment site in the flight format illustrated in this figure. The site coverage provided by the left series of repetitive flights represents the profile calibration. Each of these overflights, combined with the same altitude offset overflight on the right, is used for a single angular calibration. The angular calibration angle is θ. The TIR linescanner contains a rotating mirror assembly that moves the IFOV β of a photon detector along scan lines that run perpendicular to the direction of flight (after Lillesand and Kiefer18).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Atmosphere sounding data collected on the day of the experiment.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Atmospheric-path transmittance as a function of altitude.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Upwelled radiance as a function of altitude.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Root mean square error in predicted surface temperatures of ground truth features. One-sigma error bars are indicated.

Equations (12)

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L ( h , θ ) = ( θ ) τ ( h , θ ) L T + R ( θ ) τ ( h , θ ) L d + L u ( h , θ ) ,
τ L T = λ 1 λ 2 2 h c 2 τ λ 5 ( h e c / λ k T - 1 ) d λ
L i ( h , 0 ) = τ ( h , 0 ) L i ( 0 , 0 ) + L u ( h , 0 ) ,
τ ( h , θ ) = τ ( h , 0 ) sec ( θ ) .
τ i = exp ( - τ i ) ,
L u i ( θ ) L u 1 ( 0 ) = L T ( 1 - τ i sec θ ) · τ j sec θ L T ( 1 - τ i ) · τ j ,
L u ( h , θ ) L u ( h , 0 ) sec ( θ ) τ ( h , 0 ) ( sec θ - 1 ) .
L i ( 0 , θ ) = L i ( h , θ ) - L u ( h , θ ) τ ( h , θ ) .
L i ( h , θ ) = L i ( h , 0 ) τ ( h , 0 ) sec ( θ ) - 1 + L u ( h , 0 ) τ ( h , 0 ) sec ( θ ) - 1 [ sec ( θ ) - 1 ] .
L λ = λ 1 λ 2 L LOWTRAN ( λ ) β ( λ ) d λ λ 1 λ 2 β ( λ ) d λ ,
L Ti ( 0 , θ ) = L i ( 0 , θ ) - L d · R ( θ ) ( θ ) .
L d = D L d ( θ ) · d Ω π ,

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