Abstract

A noncontacting surface profiling technique with 1-nm height resolution is described. A feedback arrangement keeps in quadrature the two arms of a confocal interference microscope by modulating the reference beam using an electrooptic phase modulator.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C.-C. Huang, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometer,” Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).
  2. G. E. Sommargren, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. L. Jungerman, P. C. D. Hobbs, G. S. Kino, “Phase Sensitive Scanning Optical Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 846 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Hamilton, H. J. Matthews, “The Confocal Interference Microscope as a Surface Profilometer,” Optik 71, 31 (1985).
  5. D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “A Confocal Interference Microscope,” Opt. Acta 29, 1573 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Effects of High Angles of Convergence on V(2) in the Scanning Acoustic Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 341–342.
  8. D. C. Leiner, D. T. Moore, “Real-time Phase Microscopy using a Phase-locked Interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1702 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

D. K. Hamilton, H. J. Matthews, “The Confocal Interference Microscope as a Surface Profilometer,” Optik 71, 31 (1985).

1984 (2)

C.-C. Huang, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometer,” Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).

R. L. Jungerman, P. C. D. Hobbs, G. S. Kino, “Phase Sensitive Scanning Optical Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 846 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “A Confocal Interference Microscope,” Opt. Acta 29, 1573 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Effects of High Angles of Convergence on V(2) in the Scanning Acoustic Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Sommargren, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. C. Leiner, D. T. Moore, “Real-time Phase Microscopy using a Phase-locked Interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1702 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, D. K.

D. K. Hamilton, H. J. Matthews, “The Confocal Interference Microscope as a Surface Profilometer,” Optik 71, 31 (1985).

D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “A Confocal Interference Microscope,” Opt. Acta 29, 1573 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. C. D.

R. L. Jungerman, P. C. D. Hobbs, G. S. Kino, “Phase Sensitive Scanning Optical Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 846 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-C.

C.-C. Huang, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometer,” Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).

Jungerman, R. L.

R. L. Jungerman, P. C. D. Hobbs, G. S. Kino, “Phase Sensitive Scanning Optical Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 846 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

R. L. Jungerman, P. C. D. Hobbs, G. S. Kino, “Phase Sensitive Scanning Optical Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 846 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leiner, D. C.

D. C. Leiner, D. T. Moore, “Real-time Phase Microscopy using a Phase-locked Interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1702 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, H. J.

D. K. Hamilton, H. J. Matthews, “The Confocal Interference Microscope as a Surface Profilometer,” Optik 71, 31 (1985).

Moore, D. T.

D. C. Leiner, D. T. Moore, “Real-time Phase Microscopy using a Phase-locked Interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1702 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “A Confocal Interference Microscope,” Opt. Acta 29, 1573 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Effects of High Angles of Convergence on V(2) in the Scanning Acoustic Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

Wilson, T.

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Effects of High Angles of Convergence on V(2) in the Scanning Acoustic Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 341–342.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. L. Jungerman, P. C. D. Hobbs, G. S. Kino, “Phase Sensitive Scanning Optical Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 846 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Effects of High Angles of Convergence on V(2) in the Scanning Acoustic Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “A Confocal Interference Microscope,” Opt. Acta 29, 1573 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C.-C. Huang, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometer,” Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).

Optik (1)

D. K. Hamilton, H. J. Matthews, “The Confocal Interference Microscope as a Surface Profilometer,” Optik 71, 31 (1985).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. C. Leiner, D. T. Moore, “Real-time Phase Microscopy using a Phase-locked Interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1702 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 341–342.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General diagram of system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profile of SAW device—finger and bonding pad.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profile of SAW device—bonding pad.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I A , I B = S 2 + R 2 ± 2 Re ( S R * ) ,
I D = 4 Re ( S R * ) .
S = S 0 [ sin ( u / 2 ) ( u / 2 ) ] exp ( j u 2 - 2 j u sin 2 α ) ,
u = 2 π λ z sin 2 α ,
R = R 0 exp ( j ϕ ) ,
I D = 4 S 0 R 0 sin ( u / 2 ) ( u / 2 ) cos ( u 2 - 2 u sin 2 α - ϕ ) .
| 1 2 - 2 sin 2 α | 1 2 .
u ( 1 2 - 2 sin 2 α ) - ϕ = π 2 ± n π .
I D = 4 Re ( S R * ) + a R 2 ,

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