Abstract

With the recent application of frequency modulation techniques to tunable dye laser spectroscopy, the detection of small concentrations of weakly absorbing atomic and molecular species has been made possible. Here we report measurement of the fourth overtone of X1+ HF in a single pass through a 25.5-cm cell at 1-Torr pressure. Pressure-dependent line shape profiles were obtained with ±0.0002-cm−1 resolution for the R4 transition centered at 18225.2 cm−1. Analysis of the data yielded the broadening coefficient, the Einstein A coefficient, as well as the Doppler linewidth and a system sensitivity of ΔI/I0 ≅ 8 × 10−7.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurty, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed Frequency Stabilization of the FM Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy: A New Method for Measuring Weak Absorptions and Dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, in Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston (June1980) (unpublished).
  4. G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, “Sub-Doppler Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy of I2,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 166 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, J. Baer, H. G. Robinson, “Optical Heterodyne Saturation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, G. C. Bjorklund, “Pulsed Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy as a Means for Fast Absorption Measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 351 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. G. Devoe, R. G. Brewer, “Coherence Phenomena in Phase-Modulation Laser Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 705 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Zapka, P. Pokrowsky, F. M. Schellenberg, G. C. Bjorklund, “Measurement of Time Dependent Optical Gain Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 44, 117 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. F. Gallagher, R. Kachru, F. Gounard, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, “Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy with a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, 28 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Pokrowsky, E. A. Whittaker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Determination of Offset Between a Fixed Wavelength Laser and an Absorption Line Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 45, 196 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. C. Bjorklund, M. P. Levenson, W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy, Theory of Lineshapes and Signal-to-Noise Analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. Hollberg, Ma Long-sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, “Precision Measurements by Optical Heterodyne Techniques,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983).
  14. E. A. Whittaker, H. R. Wendt, H. E. Hunziker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Laser FM Spectroscopy with Photochemical Modulation, A Sensitive, High Resolution Technique for Chemical Intermediates,” Appl. Phys. B 35, 105 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. S. Penner, R. W. Kavanagh, “Nomogram for the Evaluation of Blackbody Radiancy and of Peak and Total Intensities for Spectral Lines with Doppler Contour,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 380 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Martin, J. Puerta, “Generalized Lorentzian Approximations for the Voigt Line Shape,” Appl. Opt. 20, 259 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Puerta, P. Martin, “Three and Four Generalized Lorentzian Approximations for the Voigt Line Shape,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3923 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Puerta, P. Martin, “Three and Four Generalized Lorentzian Approximations for the Voigt Line Shape: Errata,” Appl. Opt. 22, 19 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. H. E. Salzer, “Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation,” National Research Council (Apr.1951).
  20. K. Halbach, “Modulation-Effect Corrections for Moments of Magnetic Resonance Line Shapes,” Phys. Rev. 119, 1230 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. R. Andrew, “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Modulation Correction,” Phys. Rev. 91, 425 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, W. E. Morrell, “The Polymerization of Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Fluorides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 182 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. A. Mason, A. H. Nielsen, “Rotational Spectrum of Hydrogen Fluoride: Frequencies and Linewidths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1464 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. A. Cleis, W. B. Roh, L. P. Goss, “Raman Linewidths of Hydrogen Fluoride Determined by Using Low-Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 774 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. F. Herget, W. E. Deeds, N. M. Gailar, R. J. Lovell, A. H. Nielsen, “Infrared Spectrum of Hydrogen Fluoride: Line Positions and Line Shapes. Part II. Treatment of Data and Results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1113 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. E. Meredith, “Strengths and Widths in the First Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Quant. Spectosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 485 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. L. Spellicy, R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Strengths and Collision Broadened Widths in the Second Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5119 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Investigation of Fundamental Laser Processes,” Vol. 2, contract DAHC-15-67-C-0062 (Nov.1971).
  29. J. J. Hinchen, “Determination of Vibrational-Rotational Line Strengths for HF and DF by Use of an HF/DF Laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1162 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. S. Fishburne, K. N. Rao, “Vibration Rotation Bands of HF,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 290 (1966).
    [Crossref]

1984 (2)

E. A. Whittaker, H. R. Wendt, H. E. Hunziker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Laser FM Spectroscopy with Photochemical Modulation, A Sensitive, High Resolution Technique for Chemical Intermediates,” Appl. Phys. B 35, 105 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. A. Cleis, W. B. Roh, L. P. Goss, “Raman Linewidths of Hydrogen Fluoride Determined by Using Low-Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 774 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (5)

J. Puerta, P. Martin, “Three and Four Generalized Lorentzian Approximations for the Voigt Line Shape: Errata,” Appl. Opt. 22, 19 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
[Crossref]

P. Pokrowsky, E. A. Whittaker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Determination of Offset Between a Fixed Wavelength Laser and an Absorption Line Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 45, 196 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. P. Levenson, W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy, Theory of Lineshapes and Signal-to-Noise Analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[Crossref]

L. Hollberg, Ma Long-sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, “Precision Measurements by Optical Heterodyne Techniques,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983).

1982 (3)

R. G. Devoe, R. G. Brewer, “Coherence Phenomena in Phase-Modulation Laser Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 705 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. Zapka, P. Pokrowsky, F. M. Schellenberg, G. C. Bjorklund, “Measurement of Time Dependent Optical Gain Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 44, 117 (1982).
[Crossref]

T. F. Gallagher, R. Kachru, F. Gounard, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, “Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy with a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, 28 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (5)

1980 (1)

1974 (1)

1972 (2)

R. E. Meredith, “Strengths and Widths in the First Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Quant. Spectosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 485 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. L. Spellicy, R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Strengths and Collision Broadened Widths in the Second Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5119 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Investigation of Fundamental Laser Processes,” Vol. 2, contract DAHC-15-67-C-0062 (Nov.1971).

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

E. S. Fishburne, K. N. Rao, “Vibration Rotation Bands of HF,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 290 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurty, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed Frequency Stabilization of the FM Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

1960 (1)

K. Halbach, “Modulation-Effect Corrections for Moments of Magnetic Resonance Line Shapes,” Phys. Rev. 119, 1230 (1960).
[Crossref]

1953 (2)

1943 (1)

R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, W. E. Morrell, “The Polymerization of Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Fluorides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 182 (1943).
[Crossref]

Ammann, E. O.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurty, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed Frequency Stabilization of the FM Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[Crossref]

Andrew, E. R.

E. R. Andrew, “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Modulation Correction,” Phys. Rev. 91, 425 (1953).
[Crossref]

Baer, J.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, J. Baer, H. G. Robinson, “Optical Heterodyne Saturation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

E. A. Whittaker, H. R. Wendt, H. E. Hunziker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Laser FM Spectroscopy with Photochemical Modulation, A Sensitive, High Resolution Technique for Chemical Intermediates,” Appl. Phys. B 35, 105 (1984).
[Crossref]

P. Pokrowsky, E. A. Whittaker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Determination of Offset Between a Fixed Wavelength Laser and an Absorption Line Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 45, 196 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. P. Levenson, W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy, Theory of Lineshapes and Signal-to-Noise Analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[Crossref]

E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Zapka, P. Pokrowsky, F. M. Schellenberg, G. C. Bjorklund, “Measurement of Time Dependent Optical Gain Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 44, 117 (1982).
[Crossref]

T. F. Gallagher, R. Kachru, F. Gounard, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, “Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy with a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Lett. 7, 28 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, G. C. Bjorklund, “Pulsed Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy as a Means for Fast Absorption Measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 351 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, “Sub-Doppler Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy of I2,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 166 (1981).
[Crossref]

G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy: A New Method for Measuring Weak Absorptions and Dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, in Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston (June1980) (unpublished).

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. Devoe, R. G. Brewer, “Coherence Phenomena in Phase-Modulation Laser Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 705 (1982).
[Crossref]

Cleis, R. A.

Deeds, W. E.

Devoe, R. G.

R. G. Devoe, R. G. Brewer, “Coherence Phenomena in Phase-Modulation Laser Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 705 (1982).
[Crossref]

Fishburne, E. S.

E. S. Fishburne, K. N. Rao, “Vibration Rotation Bands of HF,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 290 (1966).
[Crossref]

Gailar, N. M.

Gallagher, T. F.

Goss, L. P.

Gounard, F.

Halbach, K.

K. Halbach, “Modulation-Effect Corrections for Moments of Magnetic Resonance Line Shapes,” Phys. Rev. 119, 1230 (1960).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

L. Hollberg, Ma Long-sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, “Precision Measurements by Optical Heterodyne Techniques,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983).

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, J. Baer, H. G. Robinson, “Optical Heterodyne Saturation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[Crossref]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurty, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed Frequency Stabilization of the FM Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[Crossref]

Herget, W. F.

Hildebrand, J. H.

R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, W. E. Morrell, “The Polymerization of Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Fluorides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 182 (1943).
[Crossref]

Hinchen, J. J.

Hohenstatt, M.

L. Hollberg, Ma Long-sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, “Precision Measurements by Optical Heterodyne Techniques,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983).

Hollberg, L.

L. Hollberg, Ma Long-sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, “Precision Measurements by Optical Heterodyne Techniques,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983).

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, J. Baer, H. G. Robinson, “Optical Heterodyne Saturation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hunziker, H. E.

E. A. Whittaker, H. R. Wendt, H. E. Hunziker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Laser FM Spectroscopy with Photochemical Modulation, A Sensitive, High Resolution Technique for Chemical Intermediates,” Appl. Phys. B 35, 105 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kachru, R.

Kavanagh, R. W.

Lenth, W.

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, “Sub-Doppler Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy of I2,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 166 (1981).
[Crossref]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, in Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston (June1980) (unpublished).

Levenson, M. P.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. P. Levenson, W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy, Theory of Lineshapes and Signal-to-Noise Analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[Crossref]

Long, R. W.

R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, W. E. Morrell, “The Polymerization of Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Fluorides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 182 (1943).
[Crossref]

Long-sheng, Ma

L. Hollberg, Ma Long-sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, “Precision Measurements by Optical Heterodyne Techniques,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983).

Lovell, R. J.

Martin, P.

Mason, A. A.

McMurty, B. J.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurty, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed Frequency Stabilization of the FM Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[Crossref]

Meredith, R. E.

R. E. Meredith, “Strengths and Widths in the First Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Quant. Spectosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 485 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. L. Spellicy, R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Strengths and Collision Broadened Widths in the Second Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5119 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Investigation of Fundamental Laser Processes,” Vol. 2, contract DAHC-15-67-C-0062 (Nov.1971).

Morrell, W. E.

R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, W. E. Morrell, “The Polymerization of Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Fluorides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 182 (1943).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, A. H.

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. P. Levenson, W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy, Theory of Lineshapes and Signal-to-Noise Analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, G. C. Bjorklund, “Pulsed Frequency-Modulation Spectroscopy as a Means for Fast Absorption Measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 351 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oshman, M. K.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurty, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed Frequency Stabilization of the FM Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[Crossref]

Penner, S. S.

Pokrowsky, P.

P. Pokrowsky, E. A. Whittaker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Determination of Offset Between a Fixed Wavelength Laser and an Absorption Line Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 45, 196 (1983).
[Crossref]

E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Zapka, P. Pokrowsky, F. M. Schellenberg, G. C. Bjorklund, “Measurement of Time Dependent Optical Gain Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 44, 117 (1982).
[Crossref]

Puerta, J.

Rao, K. N.

E. S. Fishburne, K. N. Rao, “Vibration Rotation Bands of HF,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 290 (1966).
[Crossref]

Robinson, H. G.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, J. Baer, H. G. Robinson, “Optical Heterodyne Saturation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[Crossref]

Roche, K.

E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
[Crossref]

Roh, W. B.

Salzer, H. E.

H. E. Salzer, “Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation,” National Research Council (Apr.1951).

Schellenberg, F. M.

W. Zapka, P. Pokrowsky, F. M. Schellenberg, G. C. Bjorklund, “Measurement of Time Dependent Optical Gain Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 44, 117 (1982).
[Crossref]

Smith, F. G.

R. L. Spellicy, R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Strengths and Collision Broadened Widths in the Second Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5119 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Investigation of Fundamental Laser Processes,” Vol. 2, contract DAHC-15-67-C-0062 (Nov.1971).

Spellicy, R. L.

R. L. Spellicy, R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Strengths and Collision Broadened Widths in the Second Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5119 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wendt, H. R.

E. A. Whittaker, H. R. Wendt, H. E. Hunziker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Laser FM Spectroscopy with Photochemical Modulation, A Sensitive, High Resolution Technique for Chemical Intermediates,” Appl. Phys. B 35, 105 (1984).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, E. A.

E. A. Whittaker, H. R. Wendt, H. E. Hunziker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Laser FM Spectroscopy with Photochemical Modulation, A Sensitive, High Resolution Technique for Chemical Intermediates,” Appl. Phys. B 35, 105 (1984).
[Crossref]

P. Pokrowsky, E. A. Whittaker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Determination of Offset Between a Fixed Wavelength Laser and an Absorption Line Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 45, 196 (1983).
[Crossref]

E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
[Crossref]

Zapka, W.

E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Zapka, P. Pokrowsky, F. M. Schellenberg, G. C. Bjorklund, “Measurement of Time Dependent Optical Gain Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 44, 117 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. P. Levenson, W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, “Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy, Theory of Lineshapes and Signal-to-Noise Analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[Crossref]

E. A. Whittaker, H. R. Wendt, H. E. Hunziker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Laser FM Spectroscopy with Photochemical Modulation, A Sensitive, High Resolution Technique for Chemical Intermediates,” Appl. Phys. B 35, 105 (1984).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurty, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed Frequency Stabilization of the FM Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, J. Baer, H. G. Robinson, “Optical Heterodyne Saturation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[Crossref]

contract DAHC-15-67-C-0062 (1)

R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Investigation of Fundamental Laser Processes,” Vol. 2, contract DAHC-15-67-C-0062 (Nov.1971).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. W. Long, J. H. Hildebrand, W. E. Morrell, “The Polymerization of Gaseous Hydrogen and Deuterium Fluorides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 182 (1943).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. L. Spellicy, R. E. Meredith, F. G. Smith, “Strengths and Collision Broadened Widths in the Second Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5119 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

E. S. Fishburne, K. N. Rao, “Vibration Rotation Bands of HF,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 290 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

R. E. Meredith, “Strengths and Widths in the First Overtone Band of Hydrogen Fluoride,” J. Quant. Spectosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 485 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

E. A. Whittaker, P. Pokrowsky, W. Zapka, K. Roche, G. C. Bjorklund, “Improved Laser Technique for High Sensitivity Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 4 (1983).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Zapka, P. Pokrowsky, F. M. Schellenberg, G. C. Bjorklund, “Measurement of Time Dependent Optical Gain Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 44, 117 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. Pokrowsky, E. A. Whittaker, G. C. Bjorklund, “Determination of Offset Between a Fixed Wavelength Laser and an Absorption Line Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 45, 196 (1983).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (2)

K. Halbach, “Modulation-Effect Corrections for Moments of Magnetic Resonance Line Shapes,” Phys. Rev. 119, 1230 (1960).
[Crossref]

E. R. Andrew, “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Modulation Correction,” Phys. Rev. 91, 425 (1953).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, “Sub-Doppler Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy of I2,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 166 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. G. Devoe, R. G. Brewer, “Coherence Phenomena in Phase-Modulation Laser Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 705 (1982).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

L. Hollberg, Ma Long-sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, “Precision Measurements by Optical Heterodyne Techniques,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983).

Other (2)

H. E. Salzer, “Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation,” National Research Council (Apr.1951).

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, in Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston (June1980) (unpublished).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Iodine absorption. Vapor pressure is 0.023 Torr, and the absorption path length is 20 cm. (b) FM spectroscopy signal of (a). Vapor pressure is 0.023 Torr, and the path length is 0.1 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FM signal for HF X1+ (V = 0, J = 4 → V = 5, J = 5). Vapor pressure is 3.5 Torr, the absorption path length is 25.5 cm, and ν0 = 18225.2 cm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pressure broadening. FM signal for the HF X1+ (V = 0, J = 4 → V = 5, J = 5) transition as a function of total pressure (scales kept constant).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Self-broadening of the HF X1+ (V = 0, J = 4 → V = 5, J = 5) transition. Linewidth (FWHH, cm−1) vs monomeric HF pressure (torr): Peak-to-peak separation corrected for modulation effect, ○; solid curves, FWHH, and peak-to-peak are derived from a simple collision theoretical model utilizing Eqs. (5), (6), and (7).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pressure dependence of the HF X1+ (V = 0, J = 4 → V = 5, J = 5) absorption coefficient k0 (cm−1).

Tables (1)

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Table I HF Self-broadening Coefficients

Equations (9)

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P 0 = 2 k T ω c R g 2 e 2 η 5 mW
Δ δ min = 2 [ η M 2 ( P 0 ω c ) τ ] - 1 / 2 ,
k ( ν ) k 0 = a π - [ a 2 + ( x - y ) 2 ] - 1 [ exp ( - y 2 ) ] d y ,
a = [ ( b n + b c ) b d ] ( ln2 ) 1 / 2 , x = [ ν - ν 0 b d ] ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 .
k ( x , a ) k 0 ( a ) = V ( x , a ) = Re V ( z ) = 2 π Re [ exp ( z 2 ) erfc z ] .
V ( x , a ) = exp ( a 2 - x 2 ) { [ cos ( 2 a x ) ] ( erfc a ) - exp ( - a 2 ) 2 π a [ 1 - cos ( 2 a x ) ] - 2 exp ( - a 2 ) π n = 1 exp ( - a 2 ) n 2 + a 2 [ 2 a cos ( 2 a x ) - 2 a cosh ( n y ) cos ( 4 a x ) + n sinh ( n y ) sin ( 4 a x ) ] } .
V n ( x , a ) = j = 1 n γ i ( a - a j ) + δ j ( x - β j ) ( a - a j ) 2 + ( x - β j ) 2 ,
Δ S = S 0 [ V ( x + x m , a ) - V ( x - x m , a ) ] ,
k ( x , a , N i ) = c 2 8 π ν 0 2 A j i ( g i g j ) N i V ( x , a ) ,

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