Abstract

The Australian laser airborne depth sounder WRELADS II was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of using airborne laser techniques for hydrographic survey. This paper describes the system, the experimental program used for its evaluation, and some results obtained by it. Development of the system over a five-year period involved 550 h of airborne evaluation, including the collection of data during 22 sorties over a calibrated test range. Analysis of these data has permitted development of an empirical depth bias model. It is shown that the system meets the requirements of the Royal Australian Navy Hydrographic Service for depth accuracy and provides an adequate data yield.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  2. Admiralty Manual of Hydrographic Surveying (Hydrographer of the Navy, Taunton, Somerset, 1969), Vol. 1.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Rattman, T. Smith, “Lasers for Depth Sounding and Underwater Viewing,” Hydrospace57 (Feb.1972).
  5. H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of an Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Tech. Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).
  6. H. H. Kim, “Airborne Bathymetric Charting Using Pulsed Blue-Green Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 16, 46 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. E. Hoge, R. H. Swift, E. B. Frederick, “Water Depth Measurement using an Airborne Pulsed Neon Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. B. Reid, S. E. Masry, A. J. Dow, J. R. Gibson, “System Concept and Results of the Canadian Aerial Hydrography Pilot Project,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 456–466.
  9. R. A. O’Neil, “Field Trials of a Lidar Bathymeter in the Magdalen Islands,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 56–84.
  10. O. Steinvall, H. Klevebrant, J. Lexander, A. Widen, “Laser Depth Sounding in the Baltic Sea,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3284 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. J. Casey, Ninth Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (Canadian Hydrographic Service, Ottawa, 1984).
  12. M. Calder, “WRELADS—the Australian Laser Depth Sounding System,” Int. Hydrographic Rev. Monaco 57, 31 (1980).
  13. J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, “Depth Sounding from the Air by Laser Beam,” J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).
  17. M. B. White, “Lasers for Hydrographic Applications,” Nav. Res. Rev. 33, 28 (1981).
  18. M. B. White, “Blue-Green Lasers for Ocean Optics,” Opt. Eng. 16, 145 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. D. M. Phillips, J. T. O. Kirk, “Study of Spectral Variation of Absorption and Scattering in some Australian Coastal Waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 35, 635 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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  26. D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, “An Aerial Survey of Water Turbidity and Laser Depth Sounding Performance along the Queensland Coast,” Tech. Report ERL-0192-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (Apr.1981).
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  28. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Rees, P. J. Wilsen, “Evaluation of the Performance of a Laser for Airborne Depth Sounding,” Tech. Report ERL-0190-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (May1981).
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  32. J. Richards, D. Rees, K. Fueloep, B. A. See, “Operation of Krypton-Filled Flashlamps at High Repetition Rates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1325 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. C. Guenther, “Effects of Detection Algorithm on Accuracy Degradation from Logarithmic and Difference Processing for Airborne Laser Bathymetry Returns,” NOAA Tech. Rep. OTES 6, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD (Feb.1982).
  34. P. B. Coates, “Origins of After Pulsing in Photomultipliers,” J. Phys. D. 6, 1159 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent Advances in Photomultipliers for Low Light Level Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
  40. B. Billard, “Estimation of a Mean Sea Surface Reference in the WRELADS Airborne Depth Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2067 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. B. Billard, P. J. Wilsen, “Sea Surface and Depth Detection in the WRELADS Airborne Depth Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2059 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. B. Billard, “Rogue Point Elimination in Airborne Laser Hydrography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2074 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, “Prediction and Correction of Propagation-induced Depth Measurement Biases plus Signal Attenuation and Beam Spreading for Airborne Laser Hydrography,” NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS-106 (1984).
  44. R. F. Lutomirski, “An Analytic Model for Optical Beam Propagation Through the Marine Boundary Layer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 110 (1978).
  45. W. H. Wilson, “Spreading of Light Beams in Ocean Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6, 64 (1979).
  46. D. Arnush, “Underwater Light-Beam Propagation in the Small-Angle-Scattering Approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1109 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  47. L. C. Bobb, G. Ferguson, M. Rankin, P. R. Manzo, “Ocean Surface Distortion Analysis and Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 148 (1978).
  48. B. Billard, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Modeling Depth Bias in an Airborne Laser Hydrograpic System,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2089 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of Airborne Oceanic Lidar: Effects of Multiple Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2996 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. D. M. Phillips, B. W. Koerber, “A Theoretical Study of an Airborne Laser Technique for Determining Sea Water Turbidity,” Aust. J. Phys. 37, 75 (1984).
  51. D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Remote Sensing of Sea Water Turbidity with an Airborne Laser System,” J. Phys. D 17, 1749 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  52. B. Billard, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Airborne Estimation of Sea Turbidity Parameters from the WRELADS Airborne Depth Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2080 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1984

D. M. Phillips, J. T. O. Kirk, “Study of Spectral Variation of Absorption and Scattering in some Australian Coastal Waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 35, 635 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Phillips, B. W. Koerber, “A Theoretical Study of an Airborne Laser Technique for Determining Sea Water Turbidity,” Aust. J. Phys. 37, 75 (1984).

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Remote Sensing of Sea Water Turbidity with an Airborne Laser System,” J. Phys. D 17, 1749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of Airborne Oceanic Lidar: Effects of Multiple Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2996 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Phillips, M. L. Scholz, “Measured Distribution of Water Turbidity in Gulf St. Vincent,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 33, 723 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

P. A. Forrester, K. F. Hulme, “Laser Rangefinders,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 259 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. B. White, “Lasers for Hydrographic Applications,” Nav. Res. Rev. 33, 28 (1981).

O. Steinvall, H. Klevebrant, J. Lexander, A. Widen, “Laser Depth Sounding in the Baltic Sea,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3284 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

F. E. Hoge, R. H. Swift, E. B. Frederick, “Water Depth Measurement using an Airborne Pulsed Neon Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Calder, “WRELADS—the Australian Laser Depth Sounding System,” Int. Hydrographic Rev. Monaco 57, 31 (1980).

1979

D. M. Phillips, “Effects of the Wavenumber Spectrum of a Sea Surface on Laser Beam Reflection,” Aust. J. Phys. 32, 469 (1979).

W. H. Wilson, “Spreading of Light Beams in Ocean Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6, 64 (1979).

R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent Advances in Photomultipliers for Low Light Level Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

L. C. Bobb, G. Ferguson, M. Rankin, P. R. Manzo, “Ocean Surface Distortion Analysis and Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 148 (1978).

R. F. Lutomirski, “An Analytic Model for Optical Beam Propagation Through the Marine Boundary Layer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 110 (1978).

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, “Depth Sounding from the Air by Laser Beam,” J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

1975

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of an Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Tech. Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 64, 150 (1975).

1973

P. B. Coates, “Origins of After Pulsing in Photomultipliers,” J. Phys. D. 6, 1159 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

W. Rattman, T. Smith, “Lasers for Depth Sounding and Underwater Viewing,” Hydrospace57 (Feb.1972).

D. Arnush, “Underwater Light-Beam Propagation in the Small-Angle-Scattering Approximation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Application of an Airborne Pulsed Laser for Near Shore Bathymetric Measurements,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 47 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abbot, R. H.

B. Billard, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Modeling Depth Bias in an Airborne Laser Hydrograpic System,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2089 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Billard, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Airborne Estimation of Sea Turbidity Parameters from the WRELADS Airborne Depth Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2080 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Remote Sensing of Sea Water Turbidity with an Airborne Laser System,” J. Phys. D 17, 1749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, “An Aerial Survey of Water Turbidity and Laser Depth Sounding Performance along the Queensland Coast,” Tech. Report ERL-0192-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (Apr.1981).

Arnush, D.

Billard, B.

Bobb, L. C.

L. C. Bobb, G. Ferguson, M. Rankin, P. R. Manzo, “Ocean Surface Distortion Analysis and Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 148 (1978).

Calder, M.

M. Calder, “WRELADS—the Australian Laser Depth Sounding System,” Int. Hydrographic Rev. Monaco 57, 31 (1980).

Casey, M. J.

M. J. Casey, Ninth Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (Canadian Hydrographic Service, Ottawa, 1984).

Cervenka, P. O.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of an Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Tech. Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

Clegg, J. E.

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, “Depth Sounding from the Air by Laser Beam,” J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Coates, P. B.

P. B. Coates, “Origins of After Pulsing in Photomultipliers,” J. Phys. D. 6, 1159 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dow, A. J.

D. B. Reid, S. E. Masry, A. J. Dow, J. R. Gibson, “System Concept and Results of the Canadian Aerial Hydrography Pilot Project,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 456–466.

Ferguson, G.

L. C. Bobb, G. Ferguson, M. Rankin, P. R. Manzo, “Ocean Surface Distortion Analysis and Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 148 (1978).

Ferguson, G. D.

G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 64, 150 (1975).

Forrester, P. A.

P. A. Forrester, K. F. Hulme, “Laser Rangefinders,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 259 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, E. B.

Fueloep, K.

Gibson, J. R.

D. B. Reid, S. E. Masry, A. J. Dow, J. R. Gibson, “System Concept and Results of the Canadian Aerial Hydrography Pilot Project,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 456–466.

Gordon, H. R.

Guenther, G. C.

G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, “Prediction and Correction of Propagation-induced Depth Measurement Biases plus Signal Attenuation and Beam Spreading for Airborne Laser Hydrography,” NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS-106 (1984).

G. C. Guenther, “Effects of Detection Algorithm on Accuracy Degradation from Logarithmic and Difference Processing for Airborne Laser Bathymetry Returns,” NOAA Tech. Rep. OTES 6, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD (Feb.1982).

Hearing, R.

R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent Advances in Photomultipliers for Low Light Level Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, G. D.

G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Application of an Airborne Pulsed Laser for Near Shore Bathymetric Measurements,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 47 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hoffer, R. M.

R. M. Hoffer, in Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach, P. H. Swain, S. M. Davis, Eds. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 255–258.

Hoge, F. E.

Hogg, J. E.

G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Application of an Airborne Pulsed Laser for Near Shore Bathymetric Measurements,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 47 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hulme, K. F.

P. A. Forrester, K. F. Hulme, “Laser Rangefinders,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 259 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

Kim, H. H.

H. H. Kim, “Airborne Bathymetric Charting Using Pulsed Blue-Green Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 16, 46 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of an Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Tech. Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

Kirk, J. T. O.

D. M. Phillips, J. T. O. Kirk, “Study of Spectral Variation of Absorption and Scattering in some Australian Coastal Waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 35, 635 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klevebrant, H.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976).

Koerber, B. W.

D. M. Phillips, B. W. Koerber, “A Theoretical Study of an Airborne Laser Technique for Determining Sea Water Turbidity,” Aust. J. Phys. 37, 75 (1984).

Lankford, C. B.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of an Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Tech. Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

Lexander, J.

Lutomirski, R. F.

R. F. Lutomirski, “An Analytic Model for Optical Beam Propagation Through the Marine Boundary Layer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 110 (1978).

Macmillan, D. H.

D. H. Macmillan, Tides (C. R. Books, London, 1966).

Manzo, P. R.

L. C. Bobb, G. Ferguson, M. Rankin, P. R. Manzo, “Ocean Surface Distortion Analysis and Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 148 (1978).

Masry, S. E.

D. B. Reid, S. E. Masry, A. J. Dow, J. R. Gibson, “System Concept and Results of the Canadian Aerial Hydrography Pilot Project,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 456–466.

O’Neil, R. A.

R. A. O’Neil, “Field Trials of a Lidar Bathymeter in the Magdalen Islands,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 56–84.

Penny, M. F.

B. Billard, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Airborne Estimation of Sea Turbidity Parameters from the WRELADS Airborne Depth Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2080 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Billard, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Modeling Depth Bias in an Airborne Laser Hydrograpic System,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2089 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Remote Sensing of Sea Water Turbidity with an Airborne Laser System,” J. Phys. D 17, 1749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, “Depth Sounding from the Air by Laser Beam,” J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Penny, “Laser Hydrography in Australia,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers ’81 (STS Press, McLean, VA, 1981), pp. 1029–1042.

Phillips, D. M.

D. M. Phillips, B. W. Koerber, “A Theoretical Study of an Airborne Laser Technique for Determining Sea Water Turbidity,” Aust. J. Phys. 37, 75 (1984).

D. M. Phillips, J. T. O. Kirk, “Study of Spectral Variation of Absorption and Scattering in some Australian Coastal Waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 35, 635 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Remote Sensing of Sea Water Turbidity with an Airborne Laser System,” J. Phys. D 17, 1749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Phillips, M. L. Scholz, “Measured Distribution of Water Turbidity in Gulf St. Vincent,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 33, 723 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Phillips, “Effects of the Wavenumber Spectrum of a Sea Surface on Laser Beam Reflection,” Aust. J. Phys. 32, 469 (1979).

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, “An Aerial Survey of Water Turbidity and Laser Depth Sounding Performance along the Queensland Coast,” Tech. Report ERL-0192-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (Apr.1981).

Rankin, M.

L. C. Bobb, G. Ferguson, M. Rankin, P. R. Manzo, “Ocean Surface Distortion Analysis and Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 148 (1978).

Rattman, W.

W. Rattman, T. Smith, “Lasers for Depth Sounding and Underwater Viewing,” Hydrospace57 (Feb.1972).

Rees, D.

J. Richards, D. Rees, K. Fueloep, B. A. See, “Operation of Krypton-Filled Flashlamps at High Repetition Rates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1325 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Richards, D. Rees, “The Choice of a Laser for Airborne Depth Sounding,” Tech. Rep. ERL-0126-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (Sept.1981).

D. Rees, P. J. Wilsen, “Evaluation of the Performance of a Laser for Airborne Depth Sounding,” Tech. Report ERL-0190-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (May1981).

Reid, D. B.

D. B. Reid, S. E. Masry, A. J. Dow, J. R. Gibson, “System Concept and Results of the Canadian Aerial Hydrography Pilot Project,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 456–466.

Richards, J.

J. Richards, D. Rees, K. Fueloep, B. A. See, “Operation of Krypton-Filled Flashlamps at High Repetition Rates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1325 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Richards, D. Rees, “The Choice of a Laser for Airborne Depth Sounding,” Tech. Rep. ERL-0126-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (Sept.1981).

Scholz, M. L.

D. M. Phillips, M. L. Scholz, “Measured Distribution of Water Turbidity in Gulf St. Vincent,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 33, 723 (1982).
[CrossRef]

See, B. A.

Smith, T.

W. Rattman, T. Smith, “Lasers for Depth Sounding and Underwater Viewing,” Hydrospace57 (Feb.1972).

Steinvall, O.

Swift, R. H.

Thomas, R. W. L.

G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, “Prediction and Correction of Propagation-induced Depth Measurement Biases plus Signal Attenuation and Beam Spreading for Airborne Laser Hydrography,” NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS-106 (1984).

Urick, R. J.

R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

Vine, A. C.

A. C. Vine, “Oceanographic Data,” in American Institute of Physics Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 2-119–2-132.

White, M. B.

M. B. White, “Lasers for Hydrographic Applications,” Nav. Res. Rev. 33, 28 (1981).

M. B. White, “Blue-Green Lasers for Ocean Optics,” Opt. Eng. 16, 145 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Widen, A.

Wilsen, P. J.

B. Billard, P. J. Wilsen, “Sea Surface and Depth Detection in the WRELADS Airborne Depth Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2059 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, P. J. Wilsen, “Evaluation of the Performance of a Laser for Airborne Depth Sounding,” Tech. Report ERL-0190-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (May1981).

Wilson, W. H.

W. H. Wilson, “Spreading of Light Beams in Ocean Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6, 64 (1979).

Wright, A. G.

R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent Advances in Photomultipliers for Low Light Level Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res.

D. M. Phillips, J. T. O. Kirk, “Study of Spectral Variation of Absorption and Scattering in some Australian Coastal Waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 35, 635 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Phillips, M. L. Scholz, “Measured Distribution of Water Turbidity in Gulf St. Vincent,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 33, 723 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aust. J. Phys.

D. M. Phillips, “Effects of the Wavenumber Spectrum of a Sea Surface on Laser Beam Reflection,” Aust. J. Phys. 32, 469 (1979).

D. M. Phillips, B. W. Koerber, “A Theoretical Study of an Airborne Laser Technique for Determining Sea Water Turbidity,” Aust. J. Phys. 37, 75 (1984).

Hydrospace

W. Rattman, T. Smith, “Lasers for Depth Sounding and Underwater Viewing,” Hydrospace57 (Feb.1972).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent Advances in Photomultipliers for Low Light Level Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Int. Hydrographic Rev. Monaco

M. Calder, “WRELADS—the Australian Laser Depth Sounding System,” Int. Hydrographic Rev. Monaco 57, 31 (1980).

J. Navigation

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, “Depth Sounding from the Air by Laser Beam,” J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. D

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Remote Sensing of Sea Water Turbidity with an Airborne Laser System,” J. Phys. D 17, 1749 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D.

P. B. Coates, “Origins of After Pulsing in Photomultipliers,” J. Phys. D. 6, 1159 (1973).
[CrossRef]

NASA Tech. Note TND-8079

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of an Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Tech. Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

Nav. Res. Rev.

M. B. White, “Lasers for Hydrographic Applications,” Nav. Res. Rev. 33, 28 (1981).

Opt. Eng.

M. B. White, “Blue-Green Lasers for Ocean Optics,” Opt. Eng. 16, 145 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

P. A. Forrester, K. F. Hulme, “Laser Rangefinders,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 259 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 64, 150 (1975).

R. F. Lutomirski, “An Analytic Model for Optical Beam Propagation Through the Marine Boundary Layer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 110 (1978).

W. H. Wilson, “Spreading of Light Beams in Ocean Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6, 64 (1979).

L. C. Bobb, G. Ferguson, M. Rankin, P. R. Manzo, “Ocean Surface Distortion Analysis and Experiment,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 5, 148 (1978).

Remote Sensing Environ.

G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Application of an Airborne Pulsed Laser for Near Shore Bathymetric Measurements,” Remote Sensing Environ. 1, 47 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

Admiralty Manual of Hydrographic Surveying (Hydrographer of the Navy, Taunton, Somerset, 1969), Vol. 1.

D. B. Reid, S. E. Masry, A. J. Dow, J. R. Gibson, “System Concept and Results of the Canadian Aerial Hydrography Pilot Project,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 456–466.

R. A. O’Neil, “Field Trials of a Lidar Bathymeter in the Magdalen Islands,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium (Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia, 1980), ERL-0193-SD, pp. 56–84.

G. C. Guenther, R. W. L. Thomas, “Prediction and Correction of Propagation-induced Depth Measurement Biases plus Signal Attenuation and Beam Spreading for Airborne Laser Hydrography,” NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS-106 (1984).

M. J. Casey, Ninth Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (Canadian Hydrographic Service, Ottawa, 1984).

“ARGO Application Notes,” in Operator’s Manual DM-54 (ARGO) Positioning System (Cubic Western Data, San Diego, 1979), Appendix C.

The Australian Map Grid Technical Manual, National Mapping Council of Australia, Spec. Publ. 7 (AGPS, Canberra, 1972).

“Laser Safety: Australian Standard 2211-1981,” Standards Association of Australia, Sydney NSW (1981).

D. Rees, P. J. Wilsen, “Evaluation of the Performance of a Laser for Airborne Depth Sounding,” Tech. Report ERL-0190-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (May1981).

J. Richards, D. Rees, “The Choice of a Laser for Airborne Depth Sounding,” Tech. Rep. ERL-0126-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (Sept.1981).

G. C. Guenther, “Effects of Detection Algorithm on Accuracy Degradation from Logarithmic and Difference Processing for Airborne Laser Bathymetry Returns,” NOAA Tech. Rep. OTES 6, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD (Feb.1982).

M. F. Penny, “Laser Hydrography in Australia,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers ’81 (STS Press, McLean, VA, 1981), pp. 1029–1042.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

R. W. Fairbridge, Ed., The Encyclopedia of Oceanography (Reinhold, New York, 1966), pp. 913–923.

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R. W. Fairbridge, Ed., The Encyclopedia of Oceanography (Reinhold, New York, 1966), pp. 758–763.

D. M. Phillips, R. H. Abbot, “An Aerial Survey of Water Turbidity and Laser Depth Sounding Performance along the Queensland Coast,” Tech. Report ERL-0192-TR, Electronics Research Laboratory, Salisbury, South Australia (Apr.1981).

R. M. Hoffer, in Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach, P. H. Swain, S. M. Davis, Eds. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 255–258.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

WRELADS data recording, power supply, and depth sounder subsystems installed in Dakota aircraft.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

WRELADS position fixing and navigation subsystem installed in Dakota aircraft.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of WRELADS airborne system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

WRELADS laser beam geometry and sounding pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration range in the Gulf of St. Vincent, South Australia.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Set of typical green return signals from one scan.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationship between sea surface levels determined from IR and green reflections and the mean sea surface level.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Marginal waveforms presenting some difficulties of interpretation. Algorithm assigned surface S, most probable bottom 1 and second most probable 2 are shown.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of the influence of depth, scan angle, sea turbidity, and sea surface waves on apparent depth.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of detection probability for green surface pulse on sea state and scan angle. Total number of pulses = 700. Smooth seas, ●; rough seas, ○.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Bottom profile recorded during one survey run off Fremantle, Western Australia in Sept. 1983.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of depth bias error on depth for near-nadir scan angles. Each point represents the mean bias error for each pass over a calibration site.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dependence of depth bias coefficient on beam scan angle.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dependence of residual depth errors (about model) on scan angle: (a) standard deviation about model; (b) percentage of residual errors >1 m.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Determinations of the position of the Orontes Light (Gulf of St. Vincent, S. Australia) using the ARGO position fixing system.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Propagation of Sound and Light in Water

Tables Icon

Table II Track Keeping Errors

Metrics