Abstract

The throughput and imaging properties of one of a new class of grazing incidence spectroscopic telescope are examined with a Monte Carlo ray tracing technique. The results are compared with Wolter Schwarzschild type II telescopes of similar size. The image quality of this telescope is comparable, and the control of the off-axis light is superior to the Wolter Schwarzschild design.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Grazing Incidence Telescopes: A New Class for Soft X-Ray and EUV Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3732 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Variable Line-Space Gratings: New Designs for use in Grazing Incidence Spectrometers,” Appl. Opt., 22, 3921 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Peformance,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Workshop, Annapolis, MD (1985).
  4. J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Optical Properties of Metals, Vols. 1 and 2, DESY F41 Hasylab 81/01 and 81/05 (1981).
  5. D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “An Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope with no Soft X-Ray Response,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 628, 23 (1986) forthcoming.
  6. R. C. Chase, A. S. Kreuger, J. H. Underwood, “Grazing Incidence Relay Optics,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4446 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “An Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope with no Soft X-Ray Response,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 628, 23 (1986) forthcoming.

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Optical Properties of Metals, Vols. 1 and 2, DESY F41 Hasylab 81/01 and 81/05 (1981).

Bowyer, S.

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “An Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope with no Soft X-Ray Response,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 628, 23 (1986) forthcoming.

M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Grazing Incidence Telescopes: A New Class for Soft X-Ray and EUV Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3732 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Variable Line-Space Gratings: New Designs for use in Grazing Incidence Spectrometers,” Appl. Opt., 22, 3921 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Peformance,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Workshop, Annapolis, MD (1985).

Chase, R. C.

Finley, D.

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Peformance,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Workshop, Annapolis, MD (1985).

Finley, D. S.

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “An Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope with no Soft X-Ray Response,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 628, 23 (1986) forthcoming.

Green, J.

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Peformance,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Workshop, Annapolis, MD (1985).

Hettrick, M. C.

Jelinsky, P.

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “An Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope with no Soft X-Ray Response,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 628, 23 (1986) forthcoming.

Koch, E. E.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Optical Properties of Metals, Vols. 1 and 2, DESY F41 Hasylab 81/01 and 81/05 (1981).

Krafka, C.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Optical Properties of Metals, Vols. 1 and 2, DESY F41 Hasylab 81/01 and 81/05 (1981).

Kreuger, A. S.

Lynch, D. W.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Optical Properties of Metals, Vols. 1 and 2, DESY F41 Hasylab 81/01 and 81/05 (1981).

Malina, R. F.

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “An Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope with no Soft X-Ray Response,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 628, 23 (1986) forthcoming.

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Peformance,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Workshop, Annapolis, MD (1985).

Underwood, J. H.

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Optical Properties of Metals, Vols. 1 and 2, DESY F41 Hasylab 81/01 and 81/05 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Optical Properties of Metals (1)

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Optical Properties of Metals, Vols. 1 and 2, DESY F41 Hasylab 81/01 and 81/05 (1981).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “An Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope with no Soft X-Ray Response,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 628, 23 (1986) forthcoming.

Other (1)

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Peformance,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Workshop, Annapolis, MD (1985).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cutaway view of the HB-I telescope indicating the quantities used in the surface equations. The mirror surfaces closely approximate a parabola and an ellipse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized throughput of telescope HB-Ib as a function of off-axis angle. Three different field stops have been inserted at the initial focus of the telescope: A represents the mirror throughput with a 1-mm field stop; B has a 2-mm field stop; and C has a 3-mm field stop.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overall throughput as a function of wavelength for telescopes HB-Ib (solid line), WS-IIa (dashed line), and WS-IIb (dotted line). It is assumed that the telescopes are employed in a mode which requires strict control of off-axis light. Hence 60% transmission collimators have been included in the WS-II telescope throughputs. Note the much sharper short wavelength cutoff concurrent with high throughput for the HB-I design. The variations in throughput at a wavelength longer than the cutoff are primarily the result of the gold coating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaging capabilities of the HB-I telescopes. Blur sizes are calculated by ray tracing. The HB-I telescope can be seen to be coma-free by the slope of the lines in this plot. The slight bending of the lines is due to the presence of a 2-mm aperture at the initial focus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the imaging capabilities of the HB-I and WS-II telescopes. Throughput maximized HB-I and WS-II telescopes exhibit very similar imaging performances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Field of focus for the HB-I and WS-II telescopes. The field of focus is the field of view within which the image blur is less than or equal to the on-axis blur. Note that all telescopes can provide better than 1-sec of arc imaging over a 3-min of arc field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Resolution of the HB-I telescope in the Gaussian focal plane. A 2-mm aperture is located at the initial focus of each telescope. Resolution is not given for small off-axis angles where fabrication limitations dominate the performance characteristics.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the resolutions of the HB-I and WI-II telescopes. As before, throughput maximized HB-I and WS-II telescope provide almost identical imaging performance.

Tables (2)

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Table I Effective Areas of Telescopes Discussed in this Paper

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Table II Field of Focus for a Blur Size of 1 sec of arc

Equations (9)

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r 1 = f sin β ,
z 1 = - f c + f c 4 sin 2 β + f e ( 1 + c sin 2 β 2 ) 2 + c 1 + c cos ( β 2 ) 2 c 1 + c ,
z 2 = d cos β ,
r 2 = d sin β ,
1 d = c f sin 2 β 2 + e f ( 1 + c sin 2 β 2 ) c 1 + c cos ( β 2 ) 2 1 + c ,
I F = f e ( 1 - e c ( 1 + e ) + e ) f e ,
E C = [ 1 + 2 e c ( 1 + e ) ] - 1 1 - 2 c .
tan ( 2 G 1 ) = R + δ L 1 , G 2 = G 1 + π 4 - 1 2 tan - 1 ( L 2 δ ) .
tan ( 2 G 1 ) = R - δ L 1 , G 2 = G 1 - 1 2 tan - 1 ( δ L 2 ) .

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