Abstract

Heavy metal fluoride glass materials are attractive for optical applications in the near UV through IR wavelength regions. However, many compositions are relatively soft and hygroscopic and possess low softening temperature (250–300°C). We have applied ion assisted deposition (IAD) techniques to deposit MgF2, SiO2, and A12O3/SiO2 thin filmstructures on fluorideglass substrates at ambient substrate temperature (~100°C). The coatings deposited using IAD improve the environmental durability of the fluoride glass and appear to have reasonably good optical characteristics; without application of IAD, the deposited coatingsare not durable and have poor adhesion.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, B. Bendow, “Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses and Fibers: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 566 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Simmons, S. A. Azali, J. H. Simmons, “Chemical Durability Studies of Heavy Metal Fluride Glasses,” in Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Troy, NY (1983).
  3. W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, “Ion Beam Applications for Optical Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 101 (1982).
  4. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. H. Allen, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Titania and Silica Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93 (1982).
  7. R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, “Effect of Ion Bombardment During Deposition of Thick Metal and Ceramic Deposits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, A5 (1986), in press.
  9. J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films—Recent Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 479 (1985).
  10. G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Surface Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).
  11. J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, K. C. Jungling, A. C. Barron, “Properties of TiO2 and SiO2 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 486 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Properties of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” to be published.

1985 (3)

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films—Recent Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 479 (1985).

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Surface Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, K. C. Jungling, A. C. Barron, “Properties of TiO2 and SiO2 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 486 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, B. Bendow, “Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses and Fibers: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 566 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

C. J. Simmons, S. A. Azali, J. H. Simmons, “Chemical Durability Studies of Heavy Metal Fluride Glasses,” in Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Troy, NY (1983).

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

T. H. Allen, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Titania and Silica Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93 (1982).

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, “Ion Beam Applications for Optical Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 101 (1982).

1974 (1)

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, “Effect of Ion Bombardment During Deposition of Thick Metal and Ceramic Deposits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Surface Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, K. C. Jungling, A. C. Barron, “Properties of TiO2 and SiO2 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 486 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films—Recent Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 479 (1985).

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, A5 (1986), in press.

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Properties of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” to be published.

Allen, T. H.

T. H. Allen, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Titania and Silica Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93 (1982).

Azali, S. A.

C. J. Simmons, S. A. Azali, J. H. Simmons, “Chemical Durability Studies of Heavy Metal Fluride Glasses,” in Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Troy, NY (1983).

Barron, A. C.

Bendow, B.

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, B. Bendow, “Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses and Fibers: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 566 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bland, R. D.

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, “Effect of Ion Bombardment During Deposition of Thick Metal and Ceramic Deposits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Clark, G. J.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, W. C.

J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, “Ion Beam Applications for Optical Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 101 (1982).

Jungling, K. C.

Kominiak, G. J.

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, “Effect of Ion Bombardment During Deposition of Thick Metal and Ceramic Deposits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lanford, W. A.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mattox, D. M.

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, “Effect of Ion Bombardment During Deposition of Thick Metal and Ceramic Deposits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McNally, J. J.

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films—Recent Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 479 (1985).

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Surface Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Properties of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” to be published.

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, A5 (1986), in press.

McNeil, J. R.

J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, K. C. Jungling, A. C. Barron, “Properties of TiO2 and SiO2 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 486 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films—Recent Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 479 (1985).

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Surface Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, “Ion Beam Applications for Optical Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 101 (1982).

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, A5 (1986), in press.

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Properties of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” to be published.

Netterfield, R. P.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacey, C. G.

Sainty, W. G.

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sie, S. H.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, B. Bendow, “Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses and Fibers: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 566 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, C. J.

C. J. Simmons, S. A. Azali, J. H. Simmons, “Chemical Durability Studies of Heavy Metal Fluride Glasses,” in Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Troy, NY (1983).

Simmons, J. H.

C. J. Simmons, S. A. Azali, J. H. Simmons, “Chemical Durability Studies of Heavy Metal Fluride Glasses,” in Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Troy, NY (1983).

Tran, D. C.

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, B. Bendow, “Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses and Fibers: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 566 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. R.

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films—Recent Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 479 (1985).

J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, G. J. Clark, W. A. Lanford, S. H. Sie, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Bulklike ZrO2 Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 711 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, B. Bendow, “Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses and Fibers: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 566 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (2)

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, “Effect of Ion Bombardment During Deposition of Thick Metal and Ceramic Deposits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, “Effect of Ion Assisted Deposition on Optical Scatter and Surface Microstructure of Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 651 (1985).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, “Ion Beam Applications for Optical Coatings,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 101 (1982).

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films—Recent Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 540, 479 (1985).

T. H. Allen, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Titania and Silica Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 93 (1982).

Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Troy, NY (1)

C. J. Simmons, S. A. Azali, J. H. Simmons, “Chemical Durability Studies of Heavy Metal Fluride Glasses,” in Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses, Troy, NY (1983).

Other (2)

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, A5 (1986), in press.

J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Properties of Ta2O5 and A12O3 Thin Films Deposited Using Ion Assisted Deposition,” to be published.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nomarski micrographs of (a) an uncoated HBLA glass sample and (b) a HBLA sample coated with 0.5-μm IAD MgF2 film after water drop test.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nomarski micrograph of a HBLA sample coated with 0.5-μm IAD SiO2 after water drop test.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nomarski micrograph of a HBLA sample after eraser rub test. The left side of the figure is the uncoated section, and the right side is the sectin coated with 0.5-μm IAD MgF2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nomarski micrograph of two MgF2 coatings after eraser rub test: (a) sample coated with 0.5-μm MgF2 deposited without ion bombardment; (b) sample coated with 0.5-μm IAD MgF2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance spectra for a two-layer A12O3/SiO2 AR coating deposited on a ZBLA sample.

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