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  1. W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.
  2. R. D. Hudson, E. I. Reed, Eds., NASA Ref. Publ. 1049 (1979).
  3. H. Roscoe, “A Tentative Observation of Stratospheric N2O5,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 901 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.
  5. S. Solomon, G. H. Mount, J. M. Zawodny, “Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 from the Solar Mesophere Explorer Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 7317 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Noxon, R. B. Norton, W. Henderson, “Observations of Atmospheric NO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 675 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Brasseur, S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984), p. 250.
  8. W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, J. C. McConnell, “Simulation of Nitrogen Constituent Measurements from the August 28, 1976, Stratoprobe II Flight,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 12060 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. A. Ridley et al., “Stratospheric Odd Nitrogen: Measurements of HNO3, NO, NO2 and O3 near 54°N in Winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4797 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. A. Galbally, “The Conversion of N2O5 in the Polar Winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 825 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. F. J. Evans, C. I. Lin, C. Midwinter, “The Altitude Distribution of Nitric Acid at Churchill,” Atmosphere 14, 171 (1976).
  12. R. A. Graham, H. S. Johnston, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 254 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. King, I. R. McKinnon, J. G. Matheson, I. R. Wilson, “Upper Limit to Stratospheric N2O5 Abundance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1657 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (1)

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. A. Galbally, “The Conversion of N2O5 in the Polar Winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 825 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

S. Solomon, G. H. Mount, J. M. Zawodny, “Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 from the Solar Mesophere Explorer Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 7317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ridley et al., “Stratospheric Odd Nitrogen: Measurements of HNO3, NO, NO2 and O3 near 54°N in Winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4797 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. Roscoe, “A Tentative Observation of Stratospheric N2O5,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 901 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, J. C. McConnell, “Simulation of Nitrogen Constituent Measurements from the August 28, 1976, Stratoprobe II Flight,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 12060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

J. F. Noxon, R. B. Norton, W. Henderson, “Observations of Atmospheric NO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 675 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Graham, H. S. Johnston, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 254 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

P. King, I. R. McKinnon, J. G. Matheson, I. R. Wilson, “Upper Limit to Stratospheric N2O5 Abundance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1657 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, C. I. Lin, C. Midwinter, “The Altitude Distribution of Nitric Acid at Churchill,” Atmosphere 14, 171 (1976).

Barker, D. B.

D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.

Bradford, C.

D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.

Brasseur, G.

G. Brasseur, S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984), p. 250.

Cook, G.

D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.

Evans, W. F. J.

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. A. Galbally, “The Conversion of N2O5 in the Polar Winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 825 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, J. C. McConnell, “Simulation of Nitrogen Constituent Measurements from the August 28, 1976, Stratoprobe II Flight,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 12060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, C. I. Lin, C. Midwinter, “The Altitude Distribution of Nitric Acid at Churchill,” Atmosphere 14, 171 (1976).

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

Fast, H.

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

Galbally, J. A.

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. A. Galbally, “The Conversion of N2O5 in the Polar Winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 825 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.

Graham, R. A.

R. A. Graham, H. S. Johnston, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 254 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, W.

J. F. Noxon, R. B. Norton, W. Henderson, “Observations of Atmospheric NO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 675 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, H. S.

R. A. Graham, H. S. Johnston, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 254 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, J. C. McConnell, “Simulation of Nitrogen Constituent Measurements from the August 28, 1976, Stratoprobe II Flight,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 12060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

King, P.

P. King, I. R. McKinnon, J. G. Matheson, I. R. Wilson, “Upper Limit to Stratospheric N2O5 Abundance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1657 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. I.

W. F. J. Evans, C. I. Lin, C. Midwinter, “The Altitude Distribution of Nitric Acid at Churchill,” Atmosphere 14, 171 (1976).

Matheson, J. G.

P. King, I. R. McKinnon, J. G. Matheson, I. R. Wilson, “Upper Limit to Stratospheric N2O5 Abundance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1657 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, J. C.

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, J. C. McConnell, “Simulation of Nitrogen Constituent Measurements from the August 28, 1976, Stratoprobe II Flight,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 12060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

McElroy, C. T.

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. A. Galbally, “The Conversion of N2O5 in the Polar Winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 825 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, J. C. McConnell, “Simulation of Nitrogen Constituent Measurements from the August 28, 1976, Stratoprobe II Flight,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 12060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

McKinnon, I. R.

P. King, I. R. McKinnon, J. G. Matheson, I. R. Wilson, “Upper Limit to Stratospheric N2O5 Abundance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1657 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Midwinter, C.

W. F. J. Evans, C. I. Lin, C. Midwinter, “The Altitude Distribution of Nitric Acid at Churchill,” Atmosphere 14, 171 (1976).

Mount, G. H.

S. Solomon, G. H. Mount, J. M. Zawodny, “Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 from the Solar Mesophere Explorer Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 7317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, D. G.

D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.

Norton, R. B.

J. F. Noxon, R. B. Norton, W. Henderson, “Observations of Atmospheric NO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 675 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, R. B. Norton, W. Henderson, “Observations of Atmospheric NO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 675 (1978).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, R. S.

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

Ridley, B. A.

B. A. Ridley et al., “Stratospheric Odd Nitrogen: Measurements of HNO3, NO, NO2 and O3 near 54°N in Winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4797 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

Roscoe, H.

H. Roscoe, “A Tentative Observation of Stratospheric N2O5,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 901 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, G. H. Mount, J. M. Zawodny, “Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 from the Solar Mesophere Explorer Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 7317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Brasseur, S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984), p. 250.

Wardle, D. I.

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

Williams, J. W.

D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.

Wilson, I. R.

P. King, I. R. McKinnon, J. G. Matheson, I. R. Wilson, “Upper Limit to Stratospheric N2O5 Abundance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1657 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zawodny, J. M.

S. Solomon, G. H. Mount, J. M. Zawodny, “Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 from the Solar Mesophere Explorer Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 7317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Atmosphere (1)

W. F. J. Evans, C. I. Lin, C. Midwinter, “The Altitude Distribution of Nitric Acid at Churchill,” Atmosphere 14, 171 (1976).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. A. Galbally, “The Conversion of N2O5 in the Polar Winter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 825 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Roscoe, “A Tentative Observation of Stratospheric N2O5,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 901 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, R. B. Norton, W. Henderson, “Observations of Atmospheric NO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 675 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

P. King, I. R. McKinnon, J. G. Matheson, I. R. Wilson, “Upper Limit to Stratospheric N2O5 Abundance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1657 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

S. Solomon, G. H. Mount, J. M. Zawodny, “Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 from the Solar Mesophere Explorer Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 7317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. F. J. Evans, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, J. C. McConnell, “Simulation of Nitrogen Constituent Measurements from the August 28, 1976, Stratoprobe II Flight,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 12060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ridley et al., “Stratospheric Odd Nitrogen: Measurements of HNO3, NO, NO2 and O3 near 54°N in Winter,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4797 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. A. Graham, H. S. Johnston, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 254 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Brasseur, S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984), p. 250.

D. G. Murcray, J. W. Williams, D. B. Barker, A. Goldman, C. Bradford, G. Cook, “Measurements of Constituents of Interest in the Photochemistry of the Ozone Layer Using Infrared Techniques,” Proc. WMO Symp.TorontoWMO 011 (1978), p. 61.

W. F. J. Evans, H. Fast, J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. S. O’Brien, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, in WMO Symposium on the Geophysical Aspects and Consequences of Changes in the Composition of the Stratosphere, TorontoWMD 011 (1978), p. 55.

R. D. Hudson, E. I. Reed, Eds., NASA Ref. Publ. 1049 (1979).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal emission spectra from 6.5 to 8.5 μm at 30 km from a balloon platform at 31°N: curve [A], predawn spectrum taken 2 h before sunrise on 19 May 1985; curve [B], daytime spectrum taken at 2 p.m. on 20 June 1983; curve [C], a large feature at 8.0 μm is obviously present at night compared to day. Radiance units are in μW/cm2 sr μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference between the night spectrum and day spectrum of Fig. 1 showing the N2O5 emission feature: curve [A], difference spectrum between predawn and day; curve [B], simulated spectrum of N2O5 for the instrument bandpass; curve [C], laboratory spectrum of N2O5; feature [1], N2O5 feature at 8.0 μm; feature [2], identified feature at 6.7 μm; feature [3], identified feature at 7.1 μm; feature [4], unidentified feature at 8.25 μm. Radiance units are in μW/cm2 sr μm.

Equations (6)

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NO 2 + O 3 NO 3 + O 2 k 1 ,
NO 2 + NO 3 M N 2 O 5 k 2 ,
N 2 O 5 M NO 2 + NO 3 k 3 ,
N 3 O 5 + h v NO 2 + NO 3 J 1 ,
NO 3 + h v NO + O 2 J 2.
[ NO 3 ] = k 1 k 2 [ O 3 ] + [ N 2 O 5 ] [ NO 2 ] k 3 k 2 .

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