Abstract

The twisting of polished cylinders beyond the elastic limit results in the formation of surface cracks in the smooth surface. These surface cracks scatter light in a characteristic way. For small plastic deformations, the light scattering properties of the surface depend linearly on the permanent twist angle. Therefore, light scattering may be used as a kind of strain gauge.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. F. Byars, R. D. Snyder, Engineering Mechanics of Deformable Bodies (International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA, 1969).
  2. W. S. Bickel, R. R. Zito, “Light Scattering from Metal Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. submitted.
  3. R. R. Zito, W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “The Physical and Optical Properties of Agglomerated Gold Films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 241 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Cloude, “Polarmetric Techniques in Radar Signal Processing,” Microwave J., 26(7), 119 (1983).
  5. W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes Vectors Mueller Matrices, and Polarized Scattered Light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, “Relationship Between Elements of the Stokes Matrix,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2811 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  8. W. S. Bickel, “The Mueller Scattering Matrix Elements for Rayleigh Spheres,” in Applications of Circularly Polarized Radiation Using Synchrotron and Ordinary Sources, F. Allen, C. Bustamante, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1985).

1985 (1)

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes Vectors Mueller Matrices, and Polarized Scattered Light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. R. Zito, W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “The Physical and Optical Properties of Agglomerated Gold Films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. R. Cloude, “Polarmetric Techniques in Radar Signal Processing,” Microwave J., 26(7), 119 (1983).

1981 (1)

Bailey, W. M.

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes Vectors Mueller Matrices, and Polarized Scattered Light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Zito, W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “The Physical and Optical Properties of Agglomerated Gold Films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bickel, W. S.

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes Vectors Mueller Matrices, and Polarized Scattered Light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Zito, W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “The Physical and Optical Properties of Agglomerated Gold Films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bickel, “The Mueller Scattering Matrix Elements for Rayleigh Spheres,” in Applications of Circularly Polarized Radiation Using Synchrotron and Ordinary Sources, F. Allen, C. Bustamante, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1985).

W. S. Bickel, R. R. Zito, “Light Scattering from Metal Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. submitted.

Byars, E. F.

E. F. Byars, R. D. Snyder, Engineering Mechanics of Deformable Bodies (International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA, 1969).

Cloude, S. R.

S. R. Cloude, “Polarmetric Techniques in Radar Signal Processing,” Microwave J., 26(7), 119 (1983).

Fry, E. S.

Kattawar, G. W.

Snyder, R. D.

E. F. Byars, R. D. Snyder, Engineering Mechanics of Deformable Bodies (International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA, 1969).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Zito, R. R.

R. R. Zito, W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “The Physical and Optical Properties of Agglomerated Gold Films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bickel, R. R. Zito, “Light Scattering from Metal Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. submitted.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes Vectors Mueller Matrices, and Polarized Scattered Light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Microwave J. (1)

S. R. Cloude, “Polarmetric Techniques in Radar Signal Processing,” Microwave J., 26(7), 119 (1983).

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. R. Zito, W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “The Physical and Optical Properties of Agglomerated Gold Films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

E. F. Byars, R. D. Snyder, Engineering Mechanics of Deformable Bodies (International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA, 1969).

W. S. Bickel, R. R. Zito, “Light Scattering from Metal Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. submitted.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

W. S. Bickel, “The Mueller Scattering Matrix Elements for Rayleigh Spheres,” in Applications of Circularly Polarized Radiation Using Synchrotron and Ordinary Sources, F. Allen, C. Bustamante, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the twist specimen. The angles γ and ϕ are coming out of the plane of the paper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Appearance of a specimen before and after twisting to 90°. These SEM micrographs were taken at magnifications of 15000× and 4000×, respectively. Before plastic deformation, only an occasional polishing remnant could be found. However, these generally had an exceedingly low profile. The before micrograph shows the worst of the remnants we found. After twisting, numerous surface cracks were formed. These latter features act as scattering centers for incident visible light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry for illumination and examination of the specimen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The S12 matrix element. The relative scattering efficiency (in percent) is graphed as a function of the scattering angle (θ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The S33 matrix element. The relative scattering efficiency (in percent) is graphed as a function of the scattering angle (θ).

Equations (4)

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ϕ = 2.67 E + 138 ,
γ p = 0.012 E + 0.602 ,
ϕ = 3.95 ( Δ E ) + 60.
γ p = 0.017 ( Δ E ) + 0.262 ,

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