Abstract

Dichromated gelatin films present sensitivity to red light without any special sensitization. This sensitivity is due to an absorption appearing in dichromated gelatin films and attributed mainly to a charge–transfer transition which results in an electron transfer from gelatin to chromium. To characterize holographically this recording material, both reflection and transmission gratings have been obtained using the 632.8-nm radiation from a He–Ne laser.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,”; Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).
  4. T. Kubota, T. Ose, “Methods of Increasing the Sensitivity of Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2538 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).
  6. D. A. Marcroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).
  7. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Boulonna, R. Beels, F. H. Claes, “The Penetration of Aqueous Solutions in Dry Gelatin Layer,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 4 (1980).
  9. N. K. Belskii, Ch.K. Mukhtarov, “The Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Some Dichromates at Low Temperatures I,” Opt. Spectros. 14, 78 (1969).
  10. B. Butowiez, “Contribution à l'étude de l'absorption à basse température des ions chromate et bichromate,” J. Phys. 31, 477 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. K. Brandon, “An Accurate Determination of the Crystal Structure of Triclinic Potassium Dichromate K2Cr2O7,” Can. J. Chem. 46, 933 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Nissen, L. Natkaniec, B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “The Electronic Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of the Cr2O72− Ion,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Tech. 25, 203 (1977).
  14. J. B. Birks, Photophysics of Aromatic Molecules (Wiley-Inter-science, New York, 1970), p. 412.

1984 (1)

W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Boulonna, R. Beels, F. H. Claes, “The Penetration of Aqueous Solutions in Dry Gelatin Layer,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 4 (1980).

1979 (3)

1977 (1)

B. Nissen, L. Natkaniec, B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “The Electronic Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of the Cr2O72− Ion,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Tech. 25, 203 (1977).

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).

1973 (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,”; Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

B. Butowiez, “Contribution à l'étude de l'absorption à basse température des ions chromate et bichromate,” J. Phys. 31, 477 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

N. K. Belskii, Ch.K. Mukhtarov, “The Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Some Dichromates at Low Temperatures I,” Opt. Spectros. 14, 78 (1969).

1968 (1)

J. K. Brandon, “An Accurate Determination of the Crystal Structure of Triclinic Potassium Dichromate K2Cr2O7,” Can. J. Chem. 46, 933 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Akagi, M.

M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).

Beels, R.

A. Boulonna, R. Beels, F. H. Claes, “The Penetration of Aqueous Solutions in Dry Gelatin Layer,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 4 (1980).

Belskii, N. K.

N. K. Belskii, Ch.K. Mukhtarov, “The Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Some Dichromates at Low Temperatures I,” Opt. Spectros. 14, 78 (1969).

Birks, J. B.

J. B. Birks, Photophysics of Aromatic Molecules (Wiley-Inter-science, New York, 1970), p. 412.

Boulonna, A.

A. Boulonna, R. Beels, F. H. Claes, “The Penetration of Aqueous Solutions in Dry Gelatin Layer,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 4 (1980).

Brandon, J. K.

J. K. Brandon, “An Accurate Determination of the Crystal Structure of Triclinic Potassium Dichromate K2Cr2O7,” Can. J. Chem. 46, 933 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Butowiez, B.

B. Butowiez, “Contribution à l'étude de l'absorption à basse température des ions chromate et bichromate,” J. Phys. 31, 477 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).

Claes, F. H.

A. Boulonna, R. Beels, F. H. Claes, “The Penetration of Aqueous Solutions in Dry Gelatin Layer,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 4 (1980).

Coremans, C. J. M.

W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,”; Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Herbich, J.

W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Honda, K.

Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B.

B. Nissen, L. Natkaniec, B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “The Electronic Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of the Cr2O72− Ion,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Tech. 25, 203 (1977).

Kubota, T.

Leonard, C. D.

Marcroft, D. A.

D. A. Marcroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).

Mukhtarov, Ch.K.

N. K. Belskii, Ch.K. Mukhtarov, “The Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Some Dichromates at Low Temperatures I,” Opt. Spectros. 14, 78 (1969).

Natkaniec, L.

B. Nissen, L. Natkaniec, B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “The Electronic Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of the Cr2O72− Ion,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Tech. 25, 203 (1977).

Nissen, B.

B. Nissen, L. Natkaniec, B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “The Electronic Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of the Cr2O72− Ion,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Tech. 25, 203 (1977).

Noort, M.

W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ose, T.

Sasaki, M.

van der Poel, W. A.

W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
[CrossRef]

van der Waals, J. H.

W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Tech. (1)

B. Nissen, L. Natkaniec, B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “The Electronic Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of the Cr2O72− Ion,” Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Tech. 25, 203 (1977).

Can. J. Chem. (1)

J. K. Brandon, “An Accurate Determination of the Crystal Structure of Triclinic Potassium Dichromate K2Cr2O7,” Can. J. Chem. 46, 933 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. A. van der Poel, M. Noort, J. Herbich, C. J. M. Coremans, J. H. van der Waals, “The Lowest Triplet State of K2Cr2O7 Optical Spectra and Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance at 1.2 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 245 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

B. Butowiez, “Contribution à l'étude de l'absorption à basse température des ions chromate et bichromate,” J. Phys. 31, 477 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,”; Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectros. (1)

N. K. Belskii, Ch.K. Mukhtarov, “The Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Some Dichromates at Low Temperatures I,” Opt. Spectros. 14, 78 (1969).

Photogr. Sci. Eng. (2)

M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).

A. Boulonna, R. Beels, F. H. Claes, “The Penetration of Aqueous Solutions in Dry Gelatin Layer,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 4 (1980).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).

Other (2)

D. A. Marcroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).

J. B. Birks, Photophysics of Aromatic Molecules (Wiley-Inter-science, New York, 1970), p. 412.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement used to record reflection gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement used to record transmission gratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Curves of the transmittance vs wavelengths for a 0.03-mol/liter aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate (A) and for a 10-μm thick gelatin film sensitized with ammonium dichromate (B).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of the dichromate ion ( Cr 2 O 7 2 ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of aqueous solutions of ammonium dichromate (all 0.03 mol/liter) containing different amounts of gelatin: 2%, 10%, and 15% by weight.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorbance at different wavelengths as a function of the gelatin concentration of aqueous 0.03-mol/liter ammonium dichromate solutions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiency vs exposure energy for reflection gratings. K is the intensity ratio between the light beams and the grating frequency is 4760 lines/mm. The (△), (□), and + refer to the biphotonic absorption experiment with K = 0.8, where Δ corresponds to the diffraction efficiency of the gratings registered with the unattenuated beam, intensity I0, □ corresponds to the ones registered with an intensity I = 0.48 I0, and + corresponds to I = 0.19 I0 (see text).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffraction efficiency vs exposure energy for the transmission gratings for two different thicknesses of the DCG film: 12 and 30 μm.

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