Abstract

Wax models were made of three basic types of lovebug, Plecia neartica Hardy, antenna sensillum. Polar plots of amplified guided radiation at 3.1 cm are given. Highly directional beamwidths of 20 and 30° and 4× amplification are demonstrated by two of the configurations and a circular pattern 3× amplification by the third steeply curved model. All three radiation patterns correlate very well with the known behavior of the lovebug. This exact model is evidence for an IR-dielectric antenna (scent) system of sensillum insect communication.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Imago of the Corn Earworm Heliothis zea (Boddie), to Various Wavelengths of Light.” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50, 444 (1957).
  2. V. G. Dethier, Chemical Insect Attractants and Repellents (The Blakiston Co., Philadelphia, 1947).
  3. A. T. Young, “Rayleigh Scattering,” Phys. Today (Jan.1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Peterson, G. H. Haussler, “Response of the Oriental Peach Moth and Codling Moth to Colored Lights,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 21, 353 (1928).
  5. P. S. Callahan, “Solid State (Pheromone-Beeswax) Far Infrared Maser,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1557 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. S. Callahan, H. A. Denmark, “Attraction of the ‘Lovebug’, Plecia nearctica (Diptera: Bibionidae), to Exhaust Fumes,” Fla. Entomol. 56, 113 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. S. Callahan, “Moth and Candle: the Candle Flame as a Sexual Mimic of the Coded Infrared Wavelengths from a Moth Sex Scent (Pheromone),” Appl. Opt. 16, 3089 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. S. Callahan, “Tapping Modulation of the Far Infrared (17-μm Region) Emission from the Cabbage Looper Moth Pheromone (Sex Scent),” Appl. Opt. 16, 3098 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. S. Callahan, T. C. Carlysle, H. A. Denmark, “Mechanism of Attraction of the Lovebug, Plecia nearctica, to Southern Highways: Further Evidence for the IR-Dielectric Waveguide Theory of Insect Olfaction,” Appl. Opt. 24, 000 (15Apr.1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. S. Callahan, “Intermediate and Far Infrared Sensing of Nocturnal Insects. Part 1. Evidences for a Far Infrared (FIR) Electromagnetic Theory of Communication and Sensing in Moths and Its Relationship to the Limiting Biosphere of the Corn Earworm,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58, 727 (1965).
  11. D. G. Kiely, Dielectric Aerials (Methuen, London, 1953).
  12. P. S. Callahan, The Exoskeleton of the Corn Earworm Moth, Heliothis Zea Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to the Sensilla as Polytubular Dielectric Arrays, Univ.Ga. Agric. Res. Bull.54 (1969).
  13. N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).
  14. P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Corn Earworm to Differences in Surface Texture,” J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 30, 59 (1957).
  15. R. W. Matthews, J. R. Matthews, Insect Behavior (Wiley, New York, 1978).
  16. R. H. Painter, Insect Resistance in Crop Plants (Macmillan, New York, 1951).
  17. C. L. Mehta, E. Wolf, “Coherence Properties of Blackbody Radiation Part I—Correlation Tension of the Classical Field,” Phys. Rev. 134, 1143 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. V. Raman, Scattering of Light, the Scientific Papers of Sir C. V. Raman (Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore, 1978).
  19. N. C. Liang, T. T. Chen, H. Chang, Y. C. Chou, S. Wang, “Surface Effects on Raman Scattering from Sb Deposited on Ag-Island Films,” Opt. Lett. 8, 374 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. von Foerster, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Effects,” Phys. Today (Apr.1980).
  21. D. Schneider, “Electrophysiological Investigations on the Olfactory Specificity of Sexual Attracting Substances in Different Species of Moths,” J. Insect Physiol. 8, 15 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. S. Callahan, “Insect Antenna with Special Reference to the Mechanism of Scent Detection and the Evolution of the Sensilla,” Int. J. Insect Morphol. Physiol. 4, 381 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Reyneri, “Mysteries, the Nose Knows, but Science Doesn't,” Science 84 5, 26 (Apr.1984).
  24. Mention of a commercial or proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.

1985 (1)

P. S. Callahan, T. C. Carlysle, H. A. Denmark, “Mechanism of Attraction of the Lovebug, Plecia nearctica, to Southern Highways: Further Evidence for the IR-Dielectric Waveguide Theory of Insect Olfaction,” Appl. Opt. 24, 000 (15Apr.1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. Reyneri, “Mysteries, the Nose Knows, but Science Doesn't,” Science 84 5, 26 (Apr.1984).

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh Scattering,” Phys. Today (Jan.1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. von Foerster, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Effects,” Phys. Today (Apr.1980).

1977 (3)

1975 (1)

P. S. Callahan, “Insect Antenna with Special Reference to the Mechanism of Scent Detection and the Evolution of the Sensilla,” Int. J. Insect Morphol. Physiol. 4, 381 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).

1973 (1)

P. S. Callahan, H. A. Denmark, “Attraction of the ‘Lovebug’, Plecia nearctica (Diptera: Bibionidae), to Exhaust Fumes,” Fla. Entomol. 56, 113 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. S. Callahan, “Intermediate and Far Infrared Sensing of Nocturnal Insects. Part 1. Evidences for a Far Infrared (FIR) Electromagnetic Theory of Communication and Sensing in Moths and Its Relationship to the Limiting Biosphere of the Corn Earworm,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58, 727 (1965).

1964 (1)

C. L. Mehta, E. Wolf, “Coherence Properties of Blackbody Radiation Part I—Correlation Tension of the Classical Field,” Phys. Rev. 134, 1143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

D. Schneider, “Electrophysiological Investigations on the Olfactory Specificity of Sexual Attracting Substances in Different Species of Moths,” J. Insect Physiol. 8, 15 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Imago of the Corn Earworm Heliothis zea (Boddie), to Various Wavelengths of Light.” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50, 444 (1957).

P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Corn Earworm to Differences in Surface Texture,” J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 30, 59 (1957).

1928 (1)

A. Peterson, G. H. Haussler, “Response of the Oriental Peach Moth and Codling Moth to Colored Lights,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 21, 353 (1928).

Bennett, D. R.

N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).

Callahan, P. S.

P. S. Callahan, T. C. Carlysle, H. A. Denmark, “Mechanism of Attraction of the Lovebug, Plecia nearctica, to Southern Highways: Further Evidence for the IR-Dielectric Waveguide Theory of Insect Olfaction,” Appl. Opt. 24, 000 (15Apr.1985).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Callahan, “Moth and Candle: the Candle Flame as a Sexual Mimic of the Coded Infrared Wavelengths from a Moth Sex Scent (Pheromone),” Appl. Opt. 16, 3089 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Callahan, “Solid State (Pheromone-Beeswax) Far Infrared Maser,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1557 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Callahan, “Tapping Modulation of the Far Infrared (17-μm Region) Emission from the Cabbage Looper Moth Pheromone (Sex Scent),” Appl. Opt. 16, 3098 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Callahan, “Insect Antenna with Special Reference to the Mechanism of Scent Detection and the Evolution of the Sensilla,” Int. J. Insect Morphol. Physiol. 4, 381 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Callahan, H. A. Denmark, “Attraction of the ‘Lovebug’, Plecia nearctica (Diptera: Bibionidae), to Exhaust Fumes,” Fla. Entomol. 56, 113 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Callahan, “Intermediate and Far Infrared Sensing of Nocturnal Insects. Part 1. Evidences for a Far Infrared (FIR) Electromagnetic Theory of Communication and Sensing in Moths and Its Relationship to the Limiting Biosphere of the Corn Earworm,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58, 727 (1965).

P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Corn Earworm to Differences in Surface Texture,” J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 30, 59 (1957).

P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Imago of the Corn Earworm Heliothis zea (Boddie), to Various Wavelengths of Light.” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50, 444 (1957).

P. S. Callahan, The Exoskeleton of the Corn Earworm Moth, Heliothis Zea Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to the Sensilla as Polytubular Dielectric Arrays, Univ.Ga. Agric. Res. Bull.54 (1969).

Carlysle, T. C.

P. S. Callahan, T. C. Carlysle, H. A. Denmark, “Mechanism of Attraction of the Lovebug, Plecia nearctica, to Southern Highways: Further Evidence for the IR-Dielectric Waveguide Theory of Insect Olfaction,” Appl. Opt. 24, 000 (15Apr.1985).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

Chen, T. T.

Chou, Y. C.

Denmark, H. A.

P. S. Callahan, T. C. Carlysle, H. A. Denmark, “Mechanism of Attraction of the Lovebug, Plecia nearctica, to Southern Highways: Further Evidence for the IR-Dielectric Waveguide Theory of Insect Olfaction,” Appl. Opt. 24, 000 (15Apr.1985).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Callahan, H. A. Denmark, “Attraction of the ‘Lovebug’, Plecia nearctica (Diptera: Bibionidae), to Exhaust Fumes,” Fla. Entomol. 56, 113 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dethier, V. G.

V. G. Dethier, Chemical Insect Attractants and Repellents (The Blakiston Co., Philadelphia, 1947).

Hamilton, E. W.

N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).

Haussler, G. H.

A. Peterson, G. H. Haussler, “Response of the Oriental Peach Moth and Codling Moth to Colored Lights,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 21, 353 (1928).

Kiely, D. G.

D. G. Kiely, Dielectric Aerials (Methuen, London, 1953).

Leppla, N. C.

N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).

Liang, N. C.

Matthews, J. R.

R. W. Matthews, J. R. Matthews, Insect Behavior (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Matthews, R. W.

R. W. Matthews, J. R. Matthews, Insect Behavior (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Mehta, C. L.

C. L. Mehta, E. Wolf, “Coherence Properties of Blackbody Radiation Part I—Correlation Tension of the Classical Field,” Phys. Rev. 134, 1143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Painter, R. H.

R. H. Painter, Insect Resistance in Crop Plants (Macmillan, New York, 1951).

Peterson, A.

A. Peterson, G. H. Haussler, “Response of the Oriental Peach Moth and Codling Moth to Colored Lights,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 21, 353 (1928).

Raman, C. V.

C. V. Raman, Scattering of Light, the Scientific Papers of Sir C. V. Raman (Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore, 1978).

Reyneri, A.

A. Reyneri, “Mysteries, the Nose Knows, but Science Doesn't,” Science 84 5, 26 (Apr.1984).

Schneider, D.

D. Schneider, “Electrophysiological Investigations on the Olfactory Specificity of Sexual Attracting Substances in Different Species of Moths,” J. Insect Physiol. 8, 15 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, J. L.

N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).

Turner, W. K.

N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).

von Foerster, T.

T. von Foerster, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Effects,” Phys. Today (Apr.1980).

Wang, S.

Wolf, E.

C. L. Mehta, E. Wolf, “Coherence Properties of Blackbody Radiation Part I—Correlation Tension of the Classical Field,” Phys. Rev. 134, 1143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh Scattering,” Phys. Today (Jan.1982).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. (3)

P. S. Callahan, “Intermediate and Far Infrared Sensing of Nocturnal Insects. Part 1. Evidences for a Far Infrared (FIR) Electromagnetic Theory of Communication and Sensing in Moths and Its Relationship to the Limiting Biosphere of the Corn Earworm,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58, 727 (1965).

P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Imago of the Corn Earworm Heliothis zea (Boddie), to Various Wavelengths of Light.” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50, 444 (1957).

A. Peterson, G. H. Haussler, “Response of the Oriental Peach Moth and Codling Moth to Colored Lights,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 21, 353 (1928).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Environ. Entomol. (1)

N. C. Leppla, J. L. Sharp, W. K. Turner, E. W. Hamilton, D. R. Bennett, “Rhythmic Activity of Plecia nearctica,” Environ. Entomol. 3, 323 (1974).

Fla. Entomol. (1)

P. S. Callahan, H. A. Denmark, “Attraction of the ‘Lovebug’, Plecia nearctica (Diptera: Bibionidae), to Exhaust Fumes,” Fla. Entomol. 56, 113 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Insect Morphol. Physiol. (1)

P. S. Callahan, “Insect Antenna with Special Reference to the Mechanism of Scent Detection and the Evolution of the Sensilla,” Int. J. Insect Morphol. Physiol. 4, 381 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Insect Physiol. (1)

D. Schneider, “Electrophysiological Investigations on the Olfactory Specificity of Sexual Attracting Substances in Different Species of Moths,” J. Insect Physiol. 8, 15 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. (1)

P. S. Callahan, “Oviposition Response of the Corn Earworm to Differences in Surface Texture,” J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 30, 59 (1957).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. L. Mehta, E. Wolf, “Coherence Properties of Blackbody Radiation Part I—Correlation Tension of the Classical Field,” Phys. Rev. 134, 1143 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (2)

T. von Foerster, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Effects,” Phys. Today (Apr.1980).

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh Scattering,” Phys. Today (Jan.1982).
[CrossRef]

Science 84 (1)

A. Reyneri, “Mysteries, the Nose Knows, but Science Doesn't,” Science 84 5, 26 (Apr.1984).

Other (7)

Mention of a commercial or proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.

V. G. Dethier, Chemical Insect Attractants and Repellents (The Blakiston Co., Philadelphia, 1947).

C. V. Raman, Scattering of Light, the Scientific Papers of Sir C. V. Raman (Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore, 1978).

D. G. Kiely, Dielectric Aerials (Methuen, London, 1953).

P. S. Callahan, The Exoskeleton of the Corn Earworm Moth, Heliothis Zea Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to the Sensilla as Polytubular Dielectric Arrays, Univ.Ga. Agric. Res. Bull.54 (1969).

R. W. Matthews, J. R. Matthews, Insect Behavior (Wiley, New York, 1978).

R. H. Painter, Insect Resistance in Crop Plants (Macmillan, New York, 1951).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A 3-cm Gunn diode transmitter (left) and crystal detector (right) with the wax steeply bent model lovebug sensillum mounted over polar plot paper. Two other types of model corn earworm moth sensillum being tested are seen below.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polar plot of the long smooth tapered sensillum. Maximum amplification of 45 μA from a base line of 10 μA: A, decrease in beam energy from 45 μA to 40 μm due to increase in tapering from 2 to 4°; B, decrease in sidelobe energy due to increase in tapering from 2 to 4°. Main lobe 20° beamwidth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polar plot of the short blunt tapered sensillum showing how the lobe pattern is skewed to the right with the curve of sensilla. Maximum amplification of 40 μA from a base line of 10 μA; main lobe, 30° beamwidth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polar plot of the short steeply bent sensillum showing the almost circular polar plot. Maximum amplification: longest lobe, 34 μA; middle lobe, 32 μA; smallest lobe, 22 μA.

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