Abstract

The potential measurement accuracy of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) in N2 was studied. A test was conducted using BOXCARS and nonresonant background suppression in a stabilized tube furnace from room temperature up to 1700 K. A computer program was developed for quick data processing. The influence of referencing on temperature measurement accuracy was analyzed. Absence of referencing produced errors up to 100 K on the mean temperature and on the standard deviation. Referencing with a time-averaged reference gave accurate values for the mean temperature. Referencing on a shot-to-shot basis improved the mean slightly and produced marginal gains in the standard deviation of individual measurements. The latter stays in the 10–50 K range in the temperature domain. Simulations show that part of the standard deviation (20%) is attributable to shot noise alone. The rest probably results from dye laser spectral noise and beam wandering.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Regnier, J. P. E. Taran, “On the Possibility of Measuring Gas Concentrations by Stimulated Anti-Stokes Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “Gas Spectroscopy and Temperature Measurement by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 13, 169 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” AIAA Paper 76-29 (1976).
  5. W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. C Eckbreth, “BOXCARS, Crossed-Beam Phase-matched CARS Generation in Gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Song, G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, “Background Suppression in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Letters 29, 567 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. F. Bunkin, S. G. Ivanov, N. I. Koroteev, “Gas Analysis by Coherent Active Raman Spectroscopy with Polarization Discrimination,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 3, 450 (1977).
  9. L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Comun. 30, 249 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, “Comparison Between CARS and Corrected Thermocouple Temperature Measurements in a Diffusion Flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3119 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981).
  12. A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Concentration Sensitivity with and without Nonresonant Background Suppression,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS Temperature and Species Measurements in Augmented Jet Engine Exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.
  15. L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, P. W. Schreiber, “Flame Studies with the Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Technique,” J. Energy 7, 389 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, “Comparison of CARS Combustion Temperatures with Standard Techniques,” AIAA Paper 83-1482, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal, Canada.
  17. D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, “The Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Turbulent Combustion Thermometry,” Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Bedue, P. Gastebois, R. Bailly, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Measurements in a Simulated Turbomachine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 57, 141 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Fujii, M. Gomi, Y. Jin, “Instantaneous CARS Thermometry in Turbulent Flames,” Combust. Flame 48, 232 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Fuji, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, “A Remote Laser Probe System for Velocity and Temperature Measurement,” ASME J. Fluid Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, B. G. MacDonald, G. L. Switzer, “10 Hz Coherent Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 563 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Ferrario, C. Malvicini, “Real Time Temperature and Concentration Measurements in a Semi-Industrial Furnace with CARS Spectroscopy,” presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, Erice, Italy (1982).
  23. G. C. Alessandretti, P. Violino, “Thermometry by CARS in an Automobile Engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. J. Hall, L. R. Boedeker, “CARS Thermometry in Fuel-Rich Combustion Zones,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1340 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an Optical Stark Effect on Vibrational and Rotational Transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, “Effects of Laser Field Statistics on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Intensities,” Opt. Lett. 9, 223 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. B. Attal, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS Diagnostics of Combustion,” AIAA Paper 80-282, presented at the AIAA 1980 Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Pasadena, California, January 14–16, 1980.
  28. N. I. Koroteev, M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, “Resolved Structure within the Broad Band Vibrational Raman Line of Liquid Water from Polarization CARS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 398 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-Free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. A. Rahn, A. Owyoung, M. E. Coltrin, M. L. Koszykowsky, “The J Dependence of Nitrogen “Q” Branch Linewidth,” in Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, Ed. (North Holland, New York, 1976), p. 694.
  32. M. C. Drake, C. Asawaroengehai, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Temperature from Rotational and Vibrational Raman Scattering: Effect of Vibrational-Rotational Interactions and other Corrections,” in Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, Ed. (Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1980), p. 231.
    [CrossRef]
  33. F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” in “Experimental Diagnostics in Gas Phase Combustion Systems,” Progress in Astron. Aeron.53, B. T. Zinn, Ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Princeton, New Jersey, 1977) p. 549.

1984 (4)

1983 (5)

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, P. W. Schreiber, “Flame Studies with the Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Technique,” J. Energy 7, 389 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, “The Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Turbulent Combustion Thermometry,” Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Fuji, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, “A Remote Laser Probe System for Velocity and Temperature Measurement,” ASME J. Fluid Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, B. G. MacDonald, G. L. Switzer, “10 Hz Coherent Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 563 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Alessandretti, P. Violino, “Thermometry by CARS in an Automobile Engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1981 (2)

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Concentration Sensitivity with and without Nonresonant Background Suppression,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an Optical Stark Effect on Vibrational and Rotational Transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Comun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Koroteev, M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, “Resolved Structure within the Broad Band Vibrational Raman Line of Liquid Water from Polarization CARS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 398 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-Free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. C Eckbreth, “BOXCARS, Crossed-Beam Phase-matched CARS Generation in Gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. F. Bunkin, S. G. Ivanov, N. I. Koroteev, “Gas Analysis by Coherent Active Raman Spectroscopy with Polarization Discrimination,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 3, 450 (1977).

1976 (2)

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” AIAA Paper 76-29 (1976).

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “Gas Spectroscopy and Temperature Measurement by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 13, 169 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. R. Regnier, J. P. E. Taran, “On the Possibility of Measuring Gas Concentrations by Stimulated Anti-Stokes Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. J. Song, G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, “Background Suppression in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Letters 29, 567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Alessandretti, G. C.

G. C. Alessandretti, P. Violino, “Thermometry by CARS in an Automobile Engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Antcliff, R. R.

R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, “Comparison of CARS Combustion Temperatures with Standard Techniques,” AIAA Paper 83-1482, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal, Canada.

Asawaroengehai, C.

M. C. Drake, C. Asawaroengehai, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Temperature from Rotational and Vibrational Raman Scattering: Effect of Vibrational-Rotational Interactions and other Corrections,” in Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, Ed. (Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1980), p. 231.
[CrossRef]

Attal, B.

B. Attal, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS Diagnostics of Combustion,” AIAA Paper 80-282, presented at the AIAA 1980 Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Pasadena, California, January 14–16, 1980.

Bailly, R.

R. Bedue, P. Gastebois, R. Bailly, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Measurements in a Simulated Turbomachine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 57, 141 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, I. R.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bedue, R.

R. Bedue, P. Gastebois, R. Bailly, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Measurements in a Simulated Turbomachine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 57, 141 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Black, J.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boedeker, L. R.

Bradley, R. P.

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

Bunkin, A. F.

A. F. Bunkin, S. G. Ivanov, N. I. Koroteev, “Gas Analysis by Coherent Active Raman Spectroscopy with Polarization Discrimination,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 3, 450 (1977).

Byer, R. L.

N. I. Koroteev, M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, “Resolved Structure within the Broad Band Vibrational Raman Line of Liquid Water from Polarization CARS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 398 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Coltrin, M. E.

L. A. Rahn, A. Owyoung, M. E. Coltrin, M. L. Koszykowsky, “The J Dependence of Nitrogen “Q” Branch Linewidth,” in Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, Ed. (North Holland, New York, 1976), p. 694.

Dobbs, G. M.

Drake, M. C.

M. C. Drake, C. Asawaroengehai, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Temperature from Rotational and Vibrational Raman Scattering: Effect of Vibrational-Rotational Interactions and other Corrections,” in Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, Ed. (Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1980), p. 231.
[CrossRef]

Druet, S. A. J.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” AIAA Paper 76-29 (1976).

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “Gas Spectroscopy and Temperature Measurement by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 13, 169 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” in “Experimental Diagnostics in Gas Phase Combustion Systems,” Progress in Astron. Aeron.53, B. T. Zinn, Ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Princeton, New Jersey, 1977) p. 549.

Eckbreth, A. C

A. C Eckbreth, “BOXCARS, Crossed-Beam Phase-matched CARS Generation in Gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS Temperature and Species Measurements in Augmented Jet Engine Exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Concentration Sensitivity with and without Nonresonant Background Suppression,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981).

Eesley, G. L.

J. J. Song, G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, “Background Suppression in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Letters 29, 567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Eguchi, K.

S. Fuji, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, “A Remote Laser Probe System for Velocity and Temperature Measurement,” ASME J. Fluid Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

N. I. Koroteev, M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, “Resolved Structure within the Broad Band Vibrational Raman Line of Liquid Water from Polarization CARS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 398 (1979).
[CrossRef]

England, W. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, “The Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Turbulent Combustion Thermometry,” Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. L.

Ferrario, A.

A. Ferrario, C. Malvicini, “Real Time Temperature and Concentration Measurements in a Semi-Industrial Furnace with CARS Spectroscopy,” presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, Erice, Italy (1982).

Fuji, S.

S. Fuji, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, “A Remote Laser Probe System for Velocity and Temperature Measurement,” ASME J. Fluid Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, S.

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, Y. Jin, “Instantaneous CARS Thermometry in Turbulent Flames,” Combust. Flame 48, 232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gastebois, P.

R. Bedue, P. Gastebois, R. Bailly, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Measurements in a Simulated Turbomachine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 57, 141 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gilson, T. R.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gomi, M.

S. Fuji, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, “A Remote Laser Probe System for Velocity and Temperature Measurement,” ASME J. Fluid Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, Y. Jin, “Instantaneous CARS Thermometry in Turbulent Flames,” Combust. Flame 48, 232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Goss, L. P.

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, B. G. MacDonald, G. L. Switzer, “10 Hz Coherent Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 563 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, P. W. Schreiber, “Flame Studies with the Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Technique,” J. Energy 7, 389 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, “The Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Turbulent Combustion Thermometry,” Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. J.

R. J. Hall, L. R. Boedeker, “CARS Thermometry in Fuel-Rich Combustion Zones,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1340 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Concentration Sensitivity with and without Nonresonant Background Suppression,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981).

Ivanov, S. G.

A. F. Bunkin, S. G. Ivanov, N. I. Koroteev, “Gas Analysis by Coherent Active Raman Spectroscopy with Polarization Discrimination,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 3, 450 (1977).

Jarrett, O.

R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, “Comparison of CARS Combustion Temperatures with Standard Techniques,” AIAA Paper 83-1482, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal, Canada.

Jenny, S. N.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, Y. Jin, “Instantaneous CARS Thermometry in Turbulent Flames,” Combust. Flame 48, 232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Koroteev, N. I.

N. I. Koroteev, M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, “Resolved Structure within the Broad Band Vibrational Raman Line of Liquid Water from Polarization CARS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 398 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bunkin, S. G. Ivanov, N. I. Koroteev, “Gas Analysis by Coherent Active Raman Spectroscopy with Polarization Discrimination,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 3, 450 (1977).

Koszykowski, M. L.

L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an Optical Stark Effect on Vibrational and Rotational Transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Koszykowsky, M. L.

L. A. Rahn, A. Owyoung, M. E. Coltrin, M. L. Koszykowsky, “The J Dependence of Nitrogen “Q” Branch Linewidth,” in Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, Ed. (North Holland, New York, 1976), p. 694.

Levenson, M. D.

J. J. Song, G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, “Background Suppression in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Letters 29, 567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

MacDonald, B. G.

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, B. G. MacDonald, G. L. Switzer, “10 Hz Coherent Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 563 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Malvicini, C.

A. Ferrario, C. Malvicini, “Real Time Temperature and Concentration Measurements in a Semi-Industrial Furnace with CARS Spectroscopy,” presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, Erice, Italy (1982).

Mattern, P. L.

R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, “Comparison Between CARS and Corrected Thermocouple Temperature Measurements in a Diffusion Flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3119 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an Optical Stark Effect on Vibrational and Rotational Transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Comun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-Free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moya, F.

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” AIAA Paper 76-29 (1976).

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “Gas Spectroscopy and Temperature Measurement by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 13, 169 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” in “Experimental Diagnostics in Gas Phase Combustion Systems,” Progress in Astron. Aeron.53, B. T. Zinn, Ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Princeton, New Jersey, 1977) p. 549.

Owyoung, A.

L. A. Rahn, A. Owyoung, M. E. Coltrin, M. L. Koszykowsky, “The J Dependence of Nitrogen “Q” Branch Linewidth,” in Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, Ed. (North Holland, New York, 1976), p. 694.

Pealat, M.

R. Bedue, P. Gastebois, R. Bailly, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Measurements in a Simulated Turbomachine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 57, 141 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” AIAA Paper 76-29 (1976).

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” in “Experimental Diagnostics in Gas Phase Combustion Systems,” Progress in Astron. Aeron.53, B. T. Zinn, Ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Princeton, New Jersey, 1977) p. 549.

B. Attal, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS Diagnostics of Combustion,” AIAA Paper 80-282, presented at the AIAA 1980 Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Pasadena, California, January 14–16, 1980.

Porter, F. M.

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, “The Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Turbulent Combustion Thermometry,” Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, “Effects of Laser Field Statistics on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Intensities,” Opt. Lett. 9, 223 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, “Comparison Between CARS and Corrected Thermocouple Temperature Measurements in a Diffusion Flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3119 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an Optical Stark Effect on Vibrational and Rotational Transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Comun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-Free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, A. Owyoung, M. E. Coltrin, M. L. Koszykowsky, “The J Dependence of Nitrogen “Q” Branch Linewidth,” in Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, Ed. (North Holland, New York, 1976), p. 694.

Reeves, C. M.

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

Regnier, P. R.

P. R. Regnier, J. P. E. Taran, “On the Possibility of Measuring Gas Concentrations by Stimulated Anti-Stokes Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Roh, W. B.

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roquemore, W. M.

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

Rosenblatt, G. M.

M. C. Drake, C. Asawaroengehai, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Temperature from Rotational and Vibrational Raman Scattering: Effect of Vibrational-Rotational Interactions and other Corrections,” in Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, Ed. (Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1980), p. 231.
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, P. W.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, P. W. Schreiber, “Flame Studies with the Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Technique,” J. Energy 7, 389 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

J. J. Song, G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, “Background Suppression in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Letters 29, 567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Stufflebeam, J. H.

Stutrud, J. S.

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

Switzer, G. L.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, P. W. Schreiber, “Flame Studies with the Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Technique,” J. Energy 7, 389 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, B. G. MacDonald, G. L. Switzer, “10 Hz Coherent Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 563 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

Taran, J. P.

B. Attal, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS Diagnostics of Combustion,” AIAA Paper 80-282, presented at the AIAA 1980 Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Pasadena, California, January 14–16, 1980.

Taran, J. P. E.

R. Bedue, P. Gastebois, R. Bailly, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Measurements in a Simulated Turbomachine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 57, 141 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” AIAA Paper 76-29 (1976).

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “Gas Spectroscopy and Temperature Measurement by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 13, 169 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Regnier, J. P. E. Taran, “On the Possibility of Measuring Gas Concentrations by Stimulated Anti-Stokes Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240 (1973).
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” in “Experimental Diagnostics in Gas Phase Combustion Systems,” Progress in Astron. Aeron.53, B. T. Zinn, Ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Princeton, New Jersey, 1977) p. 549.

Tellex, P. A.

Trump, D. D.

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, B. G. MacDonald, G. L. Switzer, “10 Hz Coherent Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 563 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

Violino, P.

G. C. Alessandretti, P. Violino, “Thermometry by CARS in an Automobile Engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zych, L. J.

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Comun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-Free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

AIAA Paper 76-29 (1)

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” AIAA Paper 76-29 (1976).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. C Eckbreth, “BOXCARS, Crossed-Beam Phase-matched CARS Generation in Gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Regnier, J. P. E. Taran, “On the Possibility of Measuring Gas Concentrations by Stimulated Anti-Stokes Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Letters (1)

J. J. Song, G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, “Background Suppression in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Letters 29, 567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

ASME J. Fluid Eng. (1)

S. Fuji, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, “A Remote Laser Probe System for Velocity and Temperature Measurement,” ASME J. Fluid Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (3)

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, “The Application of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to Turbulent Combustion Thermometry,” Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Bedue, P. Gastebois, R. Bailly, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Measurements in a Simulated Turbomachine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 57, 141 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, Y. Jin, “Instantaneous CARS Thermometry in Turbulent Flames,” Combust. Flame 48, 232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, R. J. Hall, “CARS Concentration Sensitivity with and without Nonresonant Background Suppression,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Energy (1)

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, P. W. Schreiber, “Flame Studies with the Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy Technique,” J. Energy 7, 389 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

G. C. Alessandretti, P. Violino, “Thermometry by CARS in an Automobile Engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of Some of the Spectroscopic Constants of the Electronic Ground State of di-Nitrogen 14N2,14N15N and 15N2 Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-Free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “Gas Spectroscopy and Temperature Measurement by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 13, 169 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comun. (1)

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS Studies of Carbon Monoxide in a Flame,” Opt. Comun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an Optical Stark Effect on Vibrational and Rotational Transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Koroteev, M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, “Resolved Structure within the Broad Band Vibrational Raman Line of Liquid Water from Polarization CARS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 398 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (1)

A. F. Bunkin, S. G. Ivanov, N. I. Koroteev, “Gas Analysis by Coherent Active Raman Spectroscopy with Polarization Discrimination,” Pis'ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 3, 450 (1977).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS Spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. P. Goss, D. D. Trump, B. G. MacDonald, G. L. Switzer, “10 Hz Coherent Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus for Turbulent Combustion Studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 563 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. Ferrario, C. Malvicini, “Real Time Temperature and Concentration Measurements in a Semi-Industrial Furnace with CARS Spectroscopy,” presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, Erice, Italy (1982).

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, R. K. Erf, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981).

R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, “Comparison of CARS Combustion Temperatures with Standard Techniques,” AIAA Paper 83-1482, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal, Canada.

G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, J. S. Stutrud, C. M. Reeves, “Simultaneous CARS and Luminosity Measurements in a Bluff-Body Combustor,” AIAA Paper 83-1481, presented at the AIAA Eighteenth Thermophysics Conference, 1–3 June 1983, Montreal.

B. Attal, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS Diagnostics of Combustion,” AIAA Paper 80-282, presented at the AIAA 1980 Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Pasadena, California, January 14–16, 1980.

L. A. Rahn, A. Owyoung, M. E. Coltrin, M. L. Koszykowsky, “The J Dependence of Nitrogen “Q” Branch Linewidth,” in Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, Ed. (North Holland, New York, 1976), p. 694.

M. C. Drake, C. Asawaroengehai, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Temperature from Rotational and Vibrational Raman Scattering: Effect of Vibrational-Rotational Interactions and other Corrections,” in Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, Ed. (Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1980), p. 231.
[CrossRef]

F. Moya, S. A. J. Druet, M. Pealat, J. P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” in “Experimental Diagnostics in Gas Phase Combustion Systems,” Progress in Astron. Aeron.53, B. T. Zinn, Ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Princeton, New Jersey, 1977) p. 549.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of optical arrangement of the reference and furnace.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratioed single-shot argon spectrum (a) and corresponding reference spectrum (b) with associated averages taken over 100 consecutive runs (solid lines). About 2 or 3% of the 100 runs actually were rejected for various reasons such as laser misfire or breakdown in the reference cell before the averages were calculated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketch of tube furnace (not to scale).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Overlay of theoretical background-free spectra in the temperature range of interest to combustion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photoelectron count pdf of the ISIT channels used with ten consecutive signal read off scans subtracted from ten noise read off scans (●). Shown overlaid is the theoretical plot generated assuming Poisson noise on fifty-five photocounts for ten scans (solid curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature mismatch caused by processing a theoretical spectrum at 1300 K with a uniform level of four photoelectrons of stray light artificially added in each channel. The peak signal intensity is varied.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Standard deviations observed in generating noisy spectra from the theoretical spectrum at 1300 K and processing them with the computer routine. Noise is produced by generating Poisson noise subject to the constraints of Eq. (6) on each spectral element of the theoretical spectrum. A set of fifty noisy spectra is generated and processed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Standard deviation of noisy theoretical spectra with ISIT tube noise generated as in Fig. 7, as a function of peak signal intensity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Typical ratioed spectra at different temperatures.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effect of interference from the reference on ratioed average spectrum at 1300 K.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Deviation of mean CARS temperature from furnace temperature and standard deviation of repeated single-shot CARS results.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Rotational States Having Maximum Population (Jm) and States J 1 and J 2 Which Give the Most Precise Temperature Measurement in Conjunction with Jm for Three Relevant Values of the Temperature

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N υ = f ( J ) ( N / Q ) exp ( t ) ,
Δ T / T = ( Δ N υ / N υ + Δ N o / N o ) / t ,
N J = [ N ( υ ) / Q ] f ( J ) ,
f ( J ) = g ( J ) ( 2 J + 1 ) exp B J ( J + 1 ) / T ,
( log S i log T h i ) T h i ,
n ̅ = I ,
( n n ̅ ) ¯ 2 = I + 80 ,

Metrics