Abstract

A large scale laser radar was constructed to measure aerosol distribution over a wide area. It is composed of a high-power YAG laser with an average output energy of 30 W (at 1.064 μm) and 10 W (at 532 nm) a 25-pps repetition rate, and a large (effective diameter 1.5 m) receiving telescope. Three problems which degrade the accuracy of the measurement are noted, and a discussion of how to improve the accuracy of the system is included. Noise analysis shows that this system works within theoretical limits.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of Scattering Layers in the Upper Atmosphere (60–140 km) by Optical Radar,” Nature London 199, 1275 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. W. Eloranta, F. L. Roesler, F. T. Stroga, “The High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” in Technical Digest, Workshop on Optical and Laser Remote Sensing (Monterey, Calif., 9–11Feb. 1982).
  3. R. L. Schwiesow, L. Lading, “Temperature Profiling by Rayleigh-Scattering Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1972 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Shimizu, S. A. Lee, C. Y. She, “High Spectral Resolution Lidar System with Atomic Blocking Filters for Measuring Atmospheric Parameters,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1373 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering from the Atmosphere using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Inaba, T. Kobayashi, “Laser Raman Radar,” Opto-Electronics 4, 101 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Schotland, “The Determination of Vertical Profile of Atmospheric Gases by a Ground Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964), p. 215.
  8. M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, “Atmospheric Sodium Measured by a Tuned Laser Radar,” Nature London 221, 456 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. A. Northend, R. C. Honey, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (lidar) for Meteorological Observations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 393 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. W. Grams, E. M. Patterson, C. M. Wyman, “Airborne Laser Radar for Mapping Two-Dimensional Contours of Aerosol Concentration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 187 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. “Final Report of Atmospheric Lidar Working Group,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).
  13. R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, “Atmospheric Temperature Measurement using Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2665 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Uchino, N. Maeda, T. Shibata, M. Hirono, M. Fujuwara, “Measurement of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution with a Xe–Cl Lidar: Estimated Influence of Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4175 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. T. Ku, J. O. Sample, E. D. Hinkley, “Long-Path Monitoring of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide with a Tunable Diode Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 14, 854 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. E. Uthe, W. B. Johnson, Final Report, SRI project 7929, AFC contract AT(04-3)-115 (1971).
  18. M. P. McCormick, “The Use of Lidar for Atmospheric Measurements,” in Remote Sensing Energy Related Studies, T. N. Vezeroglu, Ed. (Hemisphere Press, Washington, D.C., 1976), pp. 113–218.
  19. H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).
  20. N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.
  21. Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Convective Cell Structures Revealed by Mie Laser Radar Observations and Image Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3166 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.
  24. M. Z. Hansen, S. H. Melfi, J. D. Spinhirne, D. Clem, “Raman Water-Vapor Lidar,” in Abstracts, Eleventh International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 45.
  25. W. H. Hunt, “Measurement of Signal-Induced Noise in Photomultipliers in a Lidar System,” in Abstracts, Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Menlo Park, Calif. (1975).
  26. W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  27. U.S. Standard Atmosphere, by NOAA, NASA, and U.S. Air Force(NOAA-S/T76-1562) (1976).
  28. R. J. Allen, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (Lidar) for Mapping Aerosol Structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1422 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Shimizu, Y. Iikura, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, “Resolution Improvement in an Analog-to-Digital Converter by the Superposed Dither Signal,” Trans. IECE J64-A, 963 (1981).
  30. K.Ya. Kondratiev, Radiation in the Atmosphere (Academic, New York, 1969), p.163.
  31. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, Vol. 14 (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 76.
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Penndorf, “Tables of the Refractive Index for Standard Air and the Rayleigh Scattering Coefficient for the Spectral Region Between 0.2 and 20.0 μ and Their Application to Atmospheric Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 176 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. C. W. Sandford, “Laser Scatter Measurements in the Atmosphere and Above,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 1657 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Convective Cell Structures Revealed by Mie Laser Radar Observations and Image Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3166 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

H. Shimizu, Y. Iikura, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, “Resolution Improvement in an Analog-to-Digital Converter by the Superposed Dither Signal,” Trans. IECE J64-A, 963 (1981).

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

R. L. Schwiesow, L. Lading, “Temperature Profiling by Rayleigh-Scattering Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1972 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

O. Uchino, N. Maeda, T. Shibata, M. Hirono, M. Fujuwara, “Measurement of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution with a Xe–Cl Lidar: Estimated Influence of Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4175 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

“Final Report of Atmospheric Lidar Working Group,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

U.S. Standard Atmosphere, by NOAA, NASA, and U.S. Air Force(NOAA-S/T76-1562) (1976).

1975 (3)

R. T. Ku, J. O. Sample, E. D. Hinkley, “Long-Path Monitoring of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide with a Tunable Diode Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 14, 854 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Grams, E. M. Patterson, C. M. Wyman, “Airborne Laser Radar for Mapping Two-Dimensional Contours of Aerosol Concentration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 187 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

H. Inaba, T. Kobayashi, “Laser Raman Radar,” Opto-Electronics 4, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Allen, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (Lidar) for Mapping Aerosol Structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1422 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, “Atmospheric Sodium Measured by a Tuned Laser Radar,” Nature London 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering from the Atmosphere using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Sandford, “Laser Scatter Measurements in the Atmosphere and Above,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 1657 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

C. A. Northend, R. C. Honey, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (lidar) for Meteorological Observations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 393 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of Scattering Layers in the Upper Atmosphere (60–140 km) by Optical Radar,” Nature London 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

Allen, R. J.

R. J. Allen, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (Lidar) for Mapping Aerosol Structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1422 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Asai, K.

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, M. R.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, “Atmospheric Sodium Measured by a Tuned Laser Radar,” Nature London 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Clem, D.

M. Z. Hansen, S. H. Melfi, J. D. Spinhirne, D. Clem, “Raman Water-Vapor Lidar,” in Abstracts, Eleventh International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 45.

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, Vol. 14 (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 76.
[CrossRef]

Cupp, R. E.

Derr, V. E.

Eloranta, E. W.

E. W. Eloranta, F. L. Roesler, F. T. Stroga, “The High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” in Technical Digest, Workshop on Optical and Laser Remote Sensing (Monterey, Calif., 9–11Feb. 1982).

Evans, W. E.

R. J. Allen, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (Lidar) for Mapping Aerosol Structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1422 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Northend, R. C. Honey, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (lidar) for Meteorological Observations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 393 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of Scattering Layers in the Upper Atmosphere (60–140 km) by Optical Radar,” Nature London 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Fujuwara, M.

Gibson, A. J.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, “Atmospheric Sodium Measured by a Tuned Laser Radar,” Nature London 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G. W.

G. W. Grams, E. M. Patterson, C. M. Wyman, “Airborne Laser Radar for Mapping Two-Dimensional Contours of Aerosol Concentration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 187 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. Z.

M. Z. Hansen, S. H. Melfi, J. D. Spinhirne, D. Clem, “Raman Water-Vapor Lidar,” in Abstracts, Eleventh International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 45.

Hinkley, E. D.

Hirohara, H.

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hirono, M.

Honey, R. C.

C. A. Northend, R. C. Honey, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (lidar) for Meteorological Observations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 393 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, W. H.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Hunt, “Measurement of Signal-Induced Noise in Photomultipliers in a Lidar System,” in Abstracts, Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Menlo Park, Calif. (1975).

Igarashi, T.

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Iikura, Y.

H. Shimizu, Y. Iikura, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, “Resolution Improvement in an Analog-to-Digital Converter by the Superposed Dither Signal,” Trans. IECE J64-A, 963 (1981).

Inaba, H.

H. Inaba, T. Kobayashi, “Laser Raman Radar,” Opto-Electronics 4, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Itabe, T.

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. B.

E. E. Uthe, W. B. Johnson, Final Report, SRI project 7929, AFC contract AT(04-3)-115 (1971).

Kawamura, T.

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

H. Inaba, T. Kobayashi, “Laser Raman Radar,” Opto-Electronics 4, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kondratiev, K.Ya.

K.Ya. Kondratiev, Radiation in the Atmosphere (Academic, New York, 1969), p.163.

Ku, R. T.

Lading, L.

Lee, S. A.

Leonard, D. A.

D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering from the Atmosphere using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, N.

Matsudo, O.

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.

N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.

McCormick, M. P.

M. P. McCormick, “The Use of Lidar for Atmospheric Measurements,” in Remote Sensing Energy Related Studies, T. N. Vezeroglu, Ed. (Hemisphere Press, Washington, D.C., 1976), pp. 113–218.

Melfi, S. H.

M. Z. Hansen, S. H. Melfi, J. D. Spinhirne, D. Clem, “Raman Water-Vapor Lidar,” in Abstracts, Eleventh International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 45.

Nakane, H.

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.

N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.

Northend, C. A.

C. A. Northend, R. C. Honey, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (lidar) for Meteorological Observations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 393 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, M.

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, E. M.

G. W. Grams, E. M. Patterson, C. M. Wyman, “Airborne Laser Radar for Mapping Two-Dimensional Contours of Aerosol Concentration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 187 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Penndorf, R.

Poultney, S. K.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

E. W. Eloranta, F. L. Roesler, F. T. Stroga, “The High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” in Technical Digest, Workshop on Optical and Laser Remote Sensing (Monterey, Calif., 9–11Feb. 1982).

Russel, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, Vol. 14 (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 76.
[CrossRef]

Sample, J. O.

Sandford, M. C. W.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, “Atmospheric Sodium Measured by a Tuned Laser Radar,” Nature London 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Sandford, “Laser Scatter Measurements in the Atmosphere and Above,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 1657 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Convective Cell Structures Revealed by Mie Laser Radar Observations and Image Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3166 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

H. Shimizu, Y. Iikura, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, “Resolution Improvement in an Analog-to-Digital Converter by the Superposed Dither Signal,” Trans. IECE J64-A, 963 (1981).

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “The Determination of Vertical Profile of Atmospheric Gases by a Ground Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964), p. 215.

Schwiesow, R. L.

She, C. Y.

Shibata, T.

Shimizu, H.

H. Shimizu, S. A. Lee, C. Y. She, “High Spectral Resolution Lidar System with Atomic Blocking Filters for Measuring Atmospheric Parameters,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1373 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Convective Cell Structures Revealed by Mie Laser Radar Observations and Image Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3166 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

H. Shimizu, Y. Iikura, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, “Resolution Improvement in an Analog-to-Digital Converter by the Superposed Dither Signal,” Trans. IECE J64-A, 963 (1981).

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.

N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.

Smullin, L. D.

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of Scattering Layers in the Upper Atmosphere (60–140 km) by Optical Radar,” Nature London 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

M. Z. Hansen, S. H. Melfi, J. D. Spinhirne, D. Clem, “Raman Water-Vapor Lidar,” in Abstracts, Eleventh International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 45.

Strauch, R. G.

Stroga, F. T.

E. W. Eloranta, F. L. Roesler, F. T. Stroga, “The High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” in Technical Digest, Workshop on Optical and Laser Remote Sensing (Monterey, Calif., 9–11Feb. 1982).

Sugimoto, N.

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.

Takeuchi, N.

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Convective Cell Structures Revealed by Mie Laser Radar Observations and Image Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3166 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

H. Shimizu, Y. Iikura, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, “Resolution Improvement in an Analog-to-Digital Converter by the Superposed Dither Signal,” Trans. IECE J64-A, 963 (1981).

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.

N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.

Uchino, O.

Uthe, E. E.

E. E. Uthe, W. B. Johnson, Final Report, SRI project 7929, AFC contract AT(04-3)-115 (1971).

Wyman, C. M.

G. W. Grams, E. M. Patterson, C. M. Wyman, “Airborne Laser Radar for Mapping Two-Dimensional Contours of Aerosol Concentration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 187 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, “Range-Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Ozone using a Differential Absorption CO2 Laser Radar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meterorol. (1)

Y. Sasano, H. Hirohara, T. Yamasaki, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, T. Kawamura, “Horizontal Wind Vector Determination from the Displacement of Aerosol Distribution Patterns Observed by a Scanning Lidar,” J. Appl. Meterorol. 21, 1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

M. C. W. Sandford, “Laser Scatter Measurements in the Atmosphere and Above,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, 1657 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

NASA Spec. Publ. (1)

“Final Report of Atmospheric Lidar Working Group,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).

NASA, and U.S. Air Force(NOAA-S/T76-1562) (1)

U.S. Standard Atmosphere, by NOAA, NASA, and U.S. Air Force(NOAA-S/T76-1562) (1976).

Nature London (3)

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, “Detection of Scattering Layers in the Upper Atmosphere (60–140 km) by Optical Radar,” Nature London 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, “Observation of Raman Scattering from the Atmosphere using a Pulsed Nitrogen Ultraviolet Laser,” Nature London 216, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. W. Sandford, “Atmospheric Sodium Measured by a Tuned Laser Radar,” Nature London 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, O. Matsudo, M. Okuda, “A Mobile Computerized Laser Radar System for Observing Rapidly Varying Meteorological Phenomena,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Grams, E. M. Patterson, C. M. Wyman, “Airborne Laser Radar for Mapping Two-Dimensional Contours of Aerosol Concentration,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 187 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opto-Electronics (1)

H. Inaba, T. Kobayashi, “Laser Raman Radar,” Opto-Electronics 4, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Oyo Butsuri (1)

H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, M. Okuda, “The Design and Construction of a Large-Scale Laser Radar for Monitoring Air Pollution over a Wide Range,” Oyo Butsuri 50, 1154 (1981).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

C. A. Northend, R. C. Honey, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (lidar) for Meteorological Observations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 393 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Allen, W. E. Evans, “Laser Radar (Lidar) for Mapping Aerosol Structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1422 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Trans. IECE (1)

H. Shimizu, Y. Iikura, Y. Sasano, N. Takeuchi, “Resolution Improvement in an Analog-to-Digital Converter by the Superposed Dither Signal,” Trans. IECE J64-A, 963 (1981).

Other (10)

K.Ya. Kondratiev, Radiation in the Atmosphere (Academic, New York, 1969), p.163.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, Vol. 14 (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 76.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “The Determination of Vertical Profile of Atmospheric Gases by a Ground Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964), p. 215.

E. W. Eloranta, F. L. Roesler, F. T. Stroga, “The High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” in Technical Digest, Workshop on Optical and Laser Remote Sensing (Monterey, Calif., 9–11Feb. 1982).

E. E. Uthe, W. B. Johnson, Final Report, SRI project 7929, AFC contract AT(04-3)-115 (1971).

M. P. McCormick, “The Use of Lidar for Atmospheric Measurements,” in Remote Sensing Energy Related Studies, T. N. Vezeroglu, Ed. (Hemisphere Press, Washington, D.C., 1976), pp. 113–218.

N. Takeuchi, H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Nakane, “Wide-Area Air Pollution Measurement by the IIES Large Lidar,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, G. C. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 364–373.

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, “Obtaining High-Quality Image Data with the LAMP Lidar,” in Abstracts, International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 137.

M. Z. Hansen, S. H. Melfi, J. D. Spinhirne, D. Clem, “Raman Water-Vapor Lidar,” in Abstracts, Eleventh International Laser Radar Conference, Madison, Wisc. (1982), p. 45.

W. H. Hunt, “Measurement of Signal-Induced Noise in Photomultipliers in a Lidar System,” in Abstracts, Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Menlo Park, Calif. (1975).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the large scale laser radar system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Outside view of the building where the laser radar system is located.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inside view of the eighth floor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Inside view of the seventh floor (control room).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the laser head.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the semicoude system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of the receiving optics.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of the signal-processing unit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of the data processor.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of the control mechanism.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Tail (signal-induced noise) of the PMT and the effect of a switching circuit: (a) A-scope signal profile without a switching circuit; (b) range-corrected signal profile of (a); (c) A-scope signal profile with a switching circuit; (d) range-corrected signal profile of (c).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic diagram of the method using multiple ADCs to improve the dynamic range of the signal detection.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Relation between the standard deviation of the signal intensity and the smallest resolvable value where Gaussian distribution is assumed.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Effect of the iterative measurement: (a) A-scope profiles for various values of σd; (b) range-corrected profiles for various values of σd.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Calculated aiming error: (a) horizontal distance vs aiming error; (b) height vs aiming error.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Measured aiming error: (a) no correction for the aiming error; (b) correction is applied.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Systematic noise level which is induced in the electric circuits.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Random noise level which is induced in the electric circuits.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Measured and calculated SNR: (a) A-scope signal and its standard deviation for 200 laser shots; (b) measured and calculated SNRs.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Specification of the Whole System

Tables Icon

Table II Value of Parameters to be Used for Calculation of SNR

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H 0 = R sin θ ,
H c = ( R cos θ ) 2 + ( r 0 + R sin θ ) 2 r 0 ,
r 0 n 0 cos θ 0 = ( r 0 + z ) n cos θ ,
R = 0 H c d z sin θ .
R = 0 H c n ( r 0 + z ) d z n 2 ( r 0 + z ) 2 n 0 2 r 0 2 cos 2 θ .
Δ H = H c H 0 .
n ( R ) = n l L K β T 2 η A r Y r / R 2 ,
SNR = n ( R ) m μ [ n ( R ) + n B + n T ] ,
α ̅ ( H ) = 1 R ( csc θ 2 csc θ 1 ) ln n ( H , θ 1 ) csc 2 θ 1 n ( H , θ 2 ) csc 2 θ 2 ,
T = exp ( α ̅ R ) .

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