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References

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  1. C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, “Laser Doppler Velocimetry in the Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow,” in The Biomedical Laser. Technology and Clinical Applications, L. Goldman, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1981), Chap. 13.
  2. C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, K. O'Keefe, “Fundus Camera Based Retinal LDV,” Appl. Opt. 20, 117 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. M. Anderson, P. Sekelj, “Light-Absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-Haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Med. Biol. 12, 173 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. C. Johnson, “Optical Diffusion in Blood,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-17, 129 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  6. R. Bonner, R. Nossal, “Model for Laser Doppler Measurements of Blood Flow in Tissue,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2097 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vol. 2 (Academic, New York, 1978).
  8. W. G. Tam, “Aerosol Backscattering of a Laser Beam,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2965 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1981

1970

C. C. Johnson, “Optical Diffusion in Blood,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-17, 129 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967

N. M. Anderson, P. Sekelj, “Light-Absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-Haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Med. Biol. 12, 173 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, N. M.

N. M. Anderson, P. Sekelj, “Light-Absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-Haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Med. Biol. 12, 173 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R.

Feke, G. T.

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, “Laser Doppler Velocimetry in the Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow,” in The Biomedical Laser. Technology and Clinical Applications, L. Goldman, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1981), Chap. 13.

Grunwald, J. E.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vol. 2 (Academic, New York, 1978).

Johnson, C. C.

C. C. Johnson, “Optical Diffusion in Blood,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-17, 129 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nossal, R.

O'Keefe, K.

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, K. O'Keefe, “Fundus Camera Based Retinal LDV,” Appl. Opt. 20, 117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, “Laser Doppler Velocimetry in the Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow,” in The Biomedical Laser. Technology and Clinical Applications, L. Goldman, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1981), Chap. 13.

Sekelj, P.

N. M. Anderson, P. Sekelj, “Light-Absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-Haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Med. Biol. 12, 173 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, S. H.

Tam, W. G.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

C. C. Johnson, “Optical Diffusion in Blood,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-17, 129 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

N. M. Anderson, P. Sekelj, “Light-Absorbing and Scattering Properties of Non-Haemolysed Blood,” Phys. Med. Biol. 12, 173 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, “Laser Doppler Velocimetry in the Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow,” in The Biomedical Laser. Technology and Clinical Applications, L. Goldman, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1981), Chap. 13.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vol. 2 (Academic, New York, 1978).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Detection of light scattered from RBCs in two directions K1 and K2 defined by apertures A1 and A2. The beam through A2 is focused at P2 after deflection by prism Pr. Direction P1P2 is parallel to that of A1A2. A1A2 can be rotated in the plane of the cornea.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Single scattering geometry. For simplification V is assumed to be in the y-z plane and A1,A2 in the x-y plane. Ki is the wave vector of the incident light, K1 and K2 are those of the light scattered by a RBC at origin. K1 and K2 are coplanar. (B) By means of multiple scattering from either RBCs or static centers, light scattered along K1 and K2 can reach A1 and A2, although the plane (K1,K2) subtends an angle β′ different from β. β′ can take any value between 0 and 2π.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of Δf vs the angle β for (A) polystyrene spheres in water flowing through a 200-μm i.d. glass capillary tube placed in the retinal plane of a model eye and (B) RBCs moving through a 120-μm retinal vein of a normal volunteer. Continuous lines are the cosine fits. Vertical bars represent the standard error of the mean which were too small to be drawn in (A).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pair of Doppler shift power spectra recorded simultaneously from a 120-μm retinal vein of a human subject. Angle β was 0°. The cutoff frequencies (arrows) have been determined by visual inspection of the spectra.

Equations (1)

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V max = λ Δ f n Δ α cos β ,

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